Page images
PDF
EPUB

ORGANIZATION OF THE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

July 29, 1926

W. M. JARDINE. R. W. DUNLAP.

WALTER G. CAMPBELL.
C. W. WARBURTON.
NELSON ANTRIM CRAWFORD.

Secretary of Agriculture----
Assistant Secretary-----
Director of Scientific Work..
Director of Regulatory Work--
Director of Extension Work----
Director of Information----
Director of Personnel and Business Adminis-

tration.
Solicitor
IT eather Bureau--
Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Bureau of Animal Industry--
Bureau of Plant Industry-
Forest Service----
Bureau of Chemistry-
Bureau of Soils----
Bureau of Entomology-----
Bureau of Biological Survey-
Bureau of Public Roads--
Bureau of Home Economics--
Bureau of Dairying----
Fired Nitrogen Research Laboratory-
Office of Experiment Stations----
Office of Cooperative Extension Work---
Library-
Federal Horticultural Board--
Insecticide and Fungicide Board.
Packers and Stockyards Administration--
Grain Futures Administration----

W. W. STOCKBERGER.
R. W. WILLIAMS.
CHARLES F. Marvin, Chief.
THOMAS P. COOPER, Chief.
John R. MOHLER, Chief.
WILLIAM A. TAYLOR, Chief.
W. B. GREELEY, Chief.
C. A. BROWNE, Chief.
Milton WHITNEY, Chief.
L. 0. HOWARD, Chief.
E. W. NELSON, Chief.
Thomas H. MacDONALD, Chief.
LOUISE STANLEY, Chief.
C. W. LARSON, Chief.
F. G. COTTRELL, Director.
E. W. ALLEN, Chief.
C. B. SMITH, Chief.
CLARIBEL R. BARNETT, Librarian.
C. L. MARLATT, Chairman.
J. K. HAYWOOD, Chairman.
John T. CAINE, III, in Charge.
J. W. T. DUVEL, in Charge.

This bulletin is a contribution from Forest Service-

W. B. GREELEY, Chief.
District -

E. W. KELLEY, District Forester.
Office of Lands--

C. G. SMITH, Assistant District
Forester.

35

[ocr errors]

ADDITIONAL COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.

AT
15 CENTS PER COPY

[graphic]
[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

demy

CIRCULAR No. 19 JANUARY, 1928
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

WASHINGTON, D. C.

FORESTS AND FLOODS
By WARD SHEPARD, Forest Inspector, Branch of Publio Relations, Forest Service

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

Now that the Mississippi floods have awakened us to the need for the most complete insurance possible against the recurrence of such catastrophes, it is essential that the true rôle of forests in flood control be recognized. Nothing will be gained by exaggerating the importance of that rôle. On the other hand, unless forests are permitted to play their part much will be lost.

Floods have been a common scourge of the world since legendary times. The Mississippi Valley experienced great overflows of water before its forests had been touched by an ax. Forests can not prevent floods in the face of heavy, long-continued rains or the rapid melting of masses of snow. To control the immense volumes of water suddenly flung upon the earth under such circumstances, in their rush to the sea, we must rely mainly upon the levee or reservoir or diversion channel.

But forests, well-sodded pastures, and terraced fields hold back more of the falling water and more of the soil than denuded woodlands, overgrazed hillsides, or eroded farms. This helpful influence can seldom be separated from the other factors affecting the flow of a stream so that it can be measured by itself in exact terms. It may be greater or less on a particular watershed, by reason of the soil, topography, or climate, but when exerted on all the watersheds of a great river basin it is enormous. Forests are better binders of the soil and better surface reservoirs of water than any other form of vegetation on the face of the earth; and the 160.000.000 acres of actual or potential forest land draining into the Mississippi have a real

676770-28_1

« PreviousContinue »