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wastes. This information is useful in alleviating the effects of waste on the Nation's water resources. The USGS evaluates the existing and potential effects on water resources in hazardous-waste disposal and provides baseline data on the chemical contamination of surface and ground water to assist the Department of Energy in developing procedures and guidelines for identifying suitable wastedisposal sites. Radioactive-waste studies are conducted in the Nuclear Waste Hydrology Program, the principal emphasis of which is a better understanding of radionuclide transport in groundwater systems. Nonradioactive wastes are the focus of the Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, which provides data to mitigate existing and potential contamination problems. Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis.-The Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program is a systematic study of a number of regional ground-water systems that represent a significant part of the Nation's water supply. The program includes assessment of dischargerecharge dynamics, hydrogeologic and chemical controls governing response of aquifer systems to stress, and development of computer simulation models. Acid Rain.—The USGS provides information needed to improve the scientific understanding of the occurrence and effects of acid rain, so that judgments can be made about effective measures for controlling or alleviating the problem. Components of the acid rain research and monitoring program include determination of the effects of acid deposition on lakes, streams, and aquifers; operation of the National Trends Network; and research into more precise methods of measurement. The program is coordinated through the Interagency Task Force on Acid Precipitation. Hydrologic Data Collection.—The Hydrologic Data Collection Program provides information on the quantity, quality, location, and use of the Nation's surface and ground water to support the needs of Federal, State, and local governments. Data collection stations are maintained at selected locations to provide records on streamflow, reservoir and lake storage, ground-water levels, and the quality of surface and ground water. These data form an information base that supports national and regional assessments of water resources. Federal-State Cooperatives.—The Federal-State Cooperative Program, which constitutes more than 40 percent of overall Division activity, is a partnership for waterresources investigations involving 50–50 cost sharing between the USGS and more than 1,000 State or local government agencies. One of the program's unique characteristics is that

the USGS performs most of the work on behalf of the cooperators. Hydrologic data collection activities and water-resources investigations are included in the program. National Research Program.—Basic research in the Water Resources Division focuses on increasing understanding of the fundamental hydrologic processes of the Nation's ground- and surface-water systems. Knowledge and techniques derived from these efforts are directed at solving current problems and anticipating future problems. Research studies are concentrated in surfacewater hydrology, geochemistry, ground-water hydrology, sediment transport and geomorphology, water chemistry, and ecology. State Research Institutes.—The State Water Resources Research Institutes Program, the costs for which are shared by Federal and State governments, supports 54 Water Research Institutes at land-grant colleges or universities in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam. Research projects at the institutes are carried out in all water-related fields including engineering and the physical, biological, and social sciences. Research Grants. –The Water Resources Research Grants program supports research as defined in the Water Resources Research Act of 1964. Competitive grants are awarded on a dollar-for-dollar matching basis to qualified educational institutions, foundations, private firms, individuals, or agencies of local or State governments. Research is supported on water-resources-related problems of national interest. Water Data Activities Coordination.—The Office of Water Data Coordination is responsible for providing leadership to coordinate the water-data acquisition and information sharing activities of all agencies of the Federal Government. The office was created as part of the U.S. Department of the Interior's implementation of Office of Management and Budget Circular A–67. The scope of the activities includes the quality, quantity, and use of streams, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and ground water. Much of the program is accomplished through two committees that advise the Secretary of the Interior on programs and plans related to the implementation of Circular A–67. Thirty Federal organizations are represented on the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, and more than 100 representatives of those organizations conduct the activities of the committee. The second group is the Advisory Committee on Water Data for Public Use, which is composed of 16 national organizations involved in water-related issues. This committee operates under the Federal Advisory Committee Act.

National Mapping Division

he headquarters office of the National

Mapping Division is located in Reston, Va., and is composed of five primary organizational units: Program, Budget, and Administration; Coordination and Requirements; Production Management; Research; and Information and Data Services. Four mapping centers (Reston, Va.; Rolla, Mo.; Denver, Colo.; and Menlo Park, Calif.) and the EROS (Earth Resources Observation Systems) Data Center (Sioux Falls, S. Dak.) perform operational mapping, remote sensing, printing, product distribution, and data dissemination activities.

Mapping Coordination.—The USGS annually coordinates requirements for maps and digital cartographic data of Federal agencies under authority of Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16. The bureau also coordinates requirements of State and local agencies for maps and map-related products. In the area of digital cartography, the USGS chairs both the Interior Digital Cartography Coordinating Committee (a departmental committee) and the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography (Federal Geographic Data Committee per revised OMB Circular A–16, October 1990) and provides leadership in the use of digital spatial data and in the development of digital data exchange standards. The USGS also provides staff support to the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, an interdepartmental board that determines the choice, form, spelling, and application of official geographic place names for Federal use.

Map and Digital Data Production.—The USGS prepares base maps, image map products, digital cartographic data, and selected thematic maps of the Nation that are used extensively for land planning, land and resource management, and recreation purposes. These maps and data are available in printed and digital form. Reproductions of aerial photographs and satellite images also are available. Digital data are available from the National Digital Cartographic Data Base as digital line graphs or digital elevation models.

Primary topographic maps, including 7.5-minute maps mostly at 1:24,000 scale for almost all areas of the lower 49 States and 15minute maps of Alaska at 1:63,360 scale, are especially useful where detailed information is needed for all types of land and resource management. These detailed maps are periodically inspected and revised to maintain data currentness.

Also available are smaller scale topographic maps, such as the intermediate-scale maps prepared at 1: 100,000 scale and the 1:250,000-scale map series. These map series

are widely used by Federal and State agencies and the private sector for preparing their own special-purpose maps and depicting their unique data. Other maps available include 1:500,000-scale State base maps and smaller scale U.S. base maps. The land use and land cover maps, primarily at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 for selected areas, provide the only systematic nationwide inventory of land use and land cover data. The USGS also prepares special-purpose map products, such as orthophotoquads, small-scale image maps, U.S. National Park maps, and thematic maps. Research and Technology.—The USGS has pioneered investigations that have led to significant developments and changes in surveying and mapping. Mapping research activities, which are centered primarily on the geographic and cartographic disciplines, currently emphasize spatial data analysis, applications of remote sensing and geographic information systems, and advanced techniques for producing digital cartographic data. The Division has embarked on a major research and development plan (known as Mark II) to move from manual to digital production and revision of map products. The goals of Mark II are to implement the advanced cartographic systems and procedures required to automate map production and to provide digital cartographic data required by Federal and State agencies for computer-based analysis of spatial data. Information Services.—The USGS disseminates much of the Nation's earth science information through its Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC), 61 ESIC-State affiliated offices, and the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center. The information is provided in many forms, from maps and books to computer-readable magnetic tapes and compact discs. About 125,000 different maps, books, and reports and about 9.5 million aerial and space images are available for purchase. USGS maps are also available from more than 3,500 authorized commercial map dealers nationwide.

International Activities

he USGS has conducted earth science

studies in foreign countries for nearly 50 years. Authorization is provided under the Organic Act, as revised, and the Foreign Assistance Act and related legislation when such studies are deemed by the U.S. Departments of the Interior and State to be in the interest of the U.S. Government.

Current international program efforts focus on technical assistance programs in developing countries and scientific cooperation and research through agreements with

Other countries as an extension and enhancement of USGS domestic programs. Cooperative research activities range from informal communications among scientists, through formal, jointly staffed projects, to multinationally staffed coordinated programs focused on particular problems or topics. Related activities that are integral to the international programs include institutional development, exchange of scientists, training of foreign nationals, and representation of the USGS or the U.S. Government in international organizations and at international conferences and meetings.

Information Systems Division

he Information Systems Division head

quarters office is in Reston, Va. The Division is composed of five offices: Assistant Director, Computer and Communications Services, Customer Services, Field Services, and Management Services. Service centers in Reston, Va.; Menlo Park, Calif.; Denver, Colo.; and Flagstaff, Ariz., provide a complete range of services to users.

The Assistant Director for Information Systems is the Division Chief. He chairs the USGS Information Systems Council, which is composed of the top automated data processing manager in each Division and in the Central and Western Regions. The council recommends technology-related policies to the Director, coordinates computer science research and technology, and provides guidelines for the sharing, acquisition, and use of major computer systems and information management programs for the USGS.

Administrative Division

he headquarters office of the Adminis

trative Division is located in Reston, Va. The Division is composed of five headquarters offices. Financial Management and Systems Management are centralized headquarters functions; Facilities and Management Services, Personnel, and Procurement and Contracts provide operational support at headquarters and at USGS field units through Regional Management Offices in Denver, Colo., and Menlo Park, Calif. The Division also manages the development, maintenance, and operation of the financial management system for the entire U.S. Department of the Interior through a sixth component, the Washington Administrative Service Center.

The Assistant Director for Administration is the Division Chief. Under his leadership, the Division provides administrative direction and coordination to support the scientific and technical programs of the USGS.

Budget

Ooperative agreements with more than

1,000 Federal, State, and local agencies and the academic community support a large share of research and investigations. In fiscal year 1990, the USGS had obligational authority for $723.1 million, $501.5 million of which came from direct appropriations, $7.8 million from estimated receipts from map sales, and $213.8 million from reimbursements. The USGS was reimbursed for work performed for other Federal, State, and local agencies whose needs for earth science expertise complement USGS program objectives. Work for State, county, and municipal agencies is most often conducted on a cost-sharing basis (see p. 96).

People

t the end of fiscal year 1990, the

USGS had 8,595 permanent full-time

employees. The diversified earth science research programs and services of the bureau are reflected in the workforce, about half of which possess a bachelor's or higher level degree.

Permanent employees are supported by

the 1,899 other-than-full-time permanent employees, including many university students and faculty members. This relation with the academic community has made the expertise of many eminent scientists available to the USGS. Students have proved valuable during times of increased workload, especially during the field season. Academic institutions have provided a means of recruiting qualified young professionals for permanent full-time positions upon completion of their studies. The USGS has several innovative programs that provide opportunities for graduate students. Other programs promote interest in the earth sciences at historically black colleges and universities and at Hispanic-serving institutions. (See “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities," p. 39.)

Outreach and Information Dissemination

n its continuing commitment to meet the

earth science needs of the Nation, the

USGS collects, analyzes, interprets, publishes, and disseminates earth science

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41 Water Resources

Investigations

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information. The results of USGS investigations are published in scientific reports and in topographic, geologic, and hydrologic maps. About 125,000 different maps, books, and reports are available for purchase. A series of general-interest publications is available to inform the public about USGS activities. Research results and investigations are also published in journals of technical and scientific organizations and in publications of cooperating Federal and State agencies. News releases, real-time information on earthquakes in the United States and around the world, and news conferences on reports and events of current interest are other important means by which the USGS provides earth science information to the public.

During fiscal year 1990, the USGS produced 2,259 new or revised topographic, geologic, and hydrologic maps, bringing the total number of maps available to 84,000. Of these, more than 9.5 million copies were distributed. The number of reports approved for publication in fiscal year 1990 was 4,544, 71 percent of which were designated for publication in outside professional journals and monographs and the remainder for publication by the USGS,

More than 122,756 copies of technical reports were distributed. Also, 889 new reports were released as open files, making the total more than 28,000 open-file reports available. More than 914,000 copies of general-interest publications were distributed in response to inquiries from the public. Of the approximately 9.5 million aerial and space images available for sale, about 185,000 copies are sold annually.

Awards and Honors

ach year USGS employees receive E awards and honors that range from

certificates of excellence and monetary awards to recognition of their achievements by election to membership or office in professional societies. Abbreviations used throughout are GD, Geologic Division; WRD, Water Resources Division; and NMD, National Mapping Division.

Presidential Rank Awards

Presidential Rank Awards are presented annually by the Office of Personnel Management to career members of the Senior Executive Service for exceptional service. Presidential Rank Awards, the highest civilian honor awarded to Federal executives, are given at two levels: Distinguished ($20,000 award) and Meritorious ($10,000 award).

John N. Fischer, Jr., Associate Chief Hydrologist, WRD, received the Meritorious Rank award for his managerial and executive leadership during the past 10 years. He has directly and significantly influenced the philosophy, policies, and accomplishments of USGS programs through his leadership abilities and his effective communication skills, particularly with other Federal agency managers and science practitioners and with congressional leaders and their staffs.

Distinguished Service Awards

The highest honor given by the Department of the Interior to its employees is the Distinguished Service Award. Symbolized by a gold medal, this award for Outstanding achievement was presented to nine USGS employees: James F. Blakey, Regional Hydrologist, Central Region, WRD, for exceptional contributions to the management of water-resources programs that have significantly increased the impact of hydrologic research on national environmental issues. Robert D. Brown, Jr., GD, for outstanding contributions to the integration of earth science data with planning and decisionmaking processes related to facilities siting and seismic hazards. Bruce B. Hanshaw, GD, for outstanding contributions to radioactive waste management, shale membrane theory, and paleoclimatology and for his leadership as Secretary General for the 1989 28th International Geological Congress. L. J. Patrick Muffler, GD, for outstanding contributions including establishing a method for classifying and assessing geothermal reSOut CeS. Gary W. North, Assistant Division Chief for Information and Data Services, NMD, for outstanding efforts in promoting earth science information technology, developing a national network of information centers, and for cooperative education efforts with the Historically Black College and University program. Stanley P. Sauer, Regional Hydrologist, Northeastern Region, WRD, for exceptional achievements in addressing water-resources problems, including ground-water contamination research, and for management of waterresources programs. Kiyoshi J. Takasaki, Assistant Chief, Hawaii District Office, WRD, for notable accomplishments in geohydrology and the island hydrology of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. Donald E. Vaupel, Chief, New Jersey District Office, WRD, for exceptional contributions to the development and management of waterresources programs, particularly in advanced computer technology, and for cooperation with State organizations and associations.

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James N. Brooks Teresa A. Dean George F. Delinski, Jr. Burley C. Edwards Janet C. Flanagan Robert L. Gwynn Bradish F. Johnson Mike Karich

Michael A. Kelley
Rodney L. Krone
Carol A. Lee
Benjamin S. Ramey
Charlene R. Hall Raphael
Margaret A. Rawson
Ocie V. Sigley
Judy J. Stella

2234 Geologic Division

Information —L Pi— Systems Division Administrative Division

National Mapping Division

Connie R. Sanders 1681

Information Systems Division

Linda E. Deiter Patrick C. Doherty

Pedro Cadenas-Planas Sharon L. Crown

Awards and Honors Received by USGS Employees During 1990

Charles E. Barker, GD, elected President of the Society for Luminescent Microscopy and 3989 Spectroscopy. Christopher C. Barton, GD, selected as Distinguished Lecturer by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists and elected Secretary of the Rocky Mountain Section of the American Geophysical Union. Franklin S. Baxter, NMD, received presidential citations from the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping for serving on and as secretary of the Board of Directors. Charles W. Bennett, Manager, Federal Map Depository Library Program, NMD, received a special award from the American Library Association for his guidance to map librarians through the depository program. M. Clarke Blake, Jr., GD, received the McKay Hammer Award from the Geological Society of New Zealand for his outstanding contributions to the geology of New Zealand. Arthur F. Buddington (deceased), GD, a mountain range in the Coast Mountains of Alaska has been named the “Buddington Range” in his honor by the Alaska State Geographic Names Board in recognition of his outstanding research on the geology and mineral deposits of southeastern Alaska. William A. Cobban, GD, awarded the Raymond C. Moore Paleontology Medal of the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. J. Thomas Dutro, Jr., GD, is Trustee and VP of the Paleontological Research Institution; Geological Society of America Representative to the AAAS Section on Geology & Geography; Association of Earth Science Editors Representative to the AAAS Section on

Water Resources Division

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