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For ten years after his discovery of the anesthetic powers of sulphuric ether, Doctor Long continued the practice of his profession in Jefferson. He then removed to Athens, in which city he became a most distinguished physician, and where he lived until his death, twentysix years later.

He was a splendid type of the Southern gentleman of ante-bellum days. At the bedside of the rich and the poor his ministrations soothed and comforted; through the blinding storm, often in the dead of night, he went without complaining to those who needed him; and to the last moment of his stay on earth his life was typical of the discovery with which his name will be forever associated, a life of blessing to those with whom he came in contact. He often remarked that his one great wish was to die in harness. On June 16, 1878, he was called to the bedside of a patient in whose case he was deeply interested. While performing the duties incident to the case, he suffered a stroke of apoplexy, from which death came in a few hours. The brain which had given to the world the blessings of anesthesia was at rest, but it left behind a gift to humanity the importance of which can never be estimated.

On April 21, 1910, there was unveiled at Jefferson, near the scene of Doctor Long's discovery, a monument of impressive dimensions. Thousands of visitors witnessed the dramatic spectacle, including a number of specially invited guests; and some of the most eminent surgeons and physicians of the land were present for the purpose of doing honor to the memory of the great philanthropist. Dr. Woods Hutchison, of New York, and Hon. Pleasant A. Stovall, of Savannah, were the orators of the occasion, but there were several other addresses made by distinguished speakers. It was a red-letter day in the history of Jefferson. The monument stands on one of the main thoroughfares of the town, a perpetual reminder of the great event with which the name of the little community is forever associated; and inscribed upon it are the following records :

(North)
Sulphuric Ether Anaesthesia was discovered by Dr.
Crawford W. Long, on March 30, 1842, at Jefferson, Ga.,
and administered to James M. Venable for the removal
of a tumor.

(EAST)
In memory of Dr. Crawford W. Long, the first dis-
coverer of anaesthesia, the great benefactor to the human

Born, Danielsville, Madison County, Ga., Nov. 1,
1813. Died, Athens, Ga., June 16, 1878.

(SOUTH)
Given by Dr. Lamartine Griffin Hardman, of Commerce,
Jackson Co., Ga., in the name of his father and mother,
Dr. W. B. J. Hardman and Mrs. E. S. Hardman, life-long
friends of Dr. Crawford W. Long-Dr. W. B. J. Hardman
being a physician in Jackson County.

race.

(WEST)
Erected by the Jackson County Medical Association, at
Jefferson, Ga. Committee: W. B. Hardman, M. D.; S. J.
Smith, M. D.; J. A. Bryan, M. D. City Committee: H. W.
Bell, J. C. Bennett, M. D., F. M. Bailey. Unveiled by the
Georgia Medical Association, April 21, 1910.

On March 30, 1912, a handsome bronze medallion in honor of Doctor Long was unveiled in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. The exercises occurred on the seventieth anniversary of the great achievement which this impressive ceremonial was intended to commemorate, and some of the most distinguished men of science in America were present. The following extract from “Old Penn," a weekly review published by the University, gives an account of the exercises :

“Dr. Crawford Williamson Long, who first made use of ether as an anaesthetic for surgical purposes on March 30, 1842, was memorialized on Saturday afternoon, March 30, 1912, when a handsome gilt bronze medallion was unveiled in his honor. The exercises were held in the Medical Building of the University of Pennsylvania. Addresses were made by Dr. J. William White, of the University, and Dr. J. Chalmers Da Costa, of Jefferson Medical College. The medallion was modeled by Dr. R. Tait McKenzie of the University, and represents Dr. Long as a young man administering ether for the first time to a patient about to be operated upon.

“Provost Edgar F. Smith presided and introduced the speakers. The tablet was unveiled by Mrs. Florence L. Bartow, a daughter of Dr. Long, after the address of Dr. J. William White, and the ceremonies closed with a brief reply by Hon. Samuel J. Tribble, who thanked the University on behalf of the family and the State of Georgia, for the honor the University had conferred upon an illustrious graduate. The presence of three distinguished Southern ladies, Mrs. Frances Long Taylor, Mrs. Alexander 0. Harper, and Mrs. Florence L. Bartow, the daughters of Dr. Long, added great interest and dignity to the occasion. They came from Athens, Georgia, for the express purpose of attending the ceremonies, and during their stay in Philadelphia were the guests of the University.”_"Old Penn," Weekly Review of the University of Pennsylvania.

Today there is not a physician of any recognized prominence in any part of the civilized world who is not familiar with the name of Crawford W. Long. The little office in which he performed his experiments has been torn away. Until two years ago, a gnarled and knotted old mulberry tree, on the north corner of the public square, marked the exact spot where his first operation was performed, an epoch-making event; but this, too, has now disappeared. Its sacrifice was demanded by a commercial age. Tell it not in Gath, but the tree was given by the town authorities to an old negro for fire-wood. Fate intervened, however; and it was bought from the old negro by Mr. W. H. Smith, of

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Jefferson, who had a part of it made into gavels, pen staffs, and other articles of use, for souvenirs. On a marble slab, in the brick wall of a building adjacent to Doctor Long's little office, the date of his wonderful discovery has been inscribed. This slab was erected by Prof. S. P. Orr, of Athens, an intimate friend of the Long family. There is also a magnificent monument to his memory on the town square. Dr. Woods Hutchison, of New York, and Hon. Pleasant A. Stovall, of Savannah, made the principal addresses, as above stated, when the monument was unveiled by the Georgia Medical Society, on April 21, 1910.

CHAPTER XXVIII

UNDER THE OLD REGIME-KIND TREATMENT OF SLAVES A RULE TO WHICH

THERE WERE FEW EXCEPTIONS—BISHOP JAMES 0. ANDREW STANDS AS THE REPRESENTATIVE OF A LARGE CLASS OF SLAVE-HOLDERS-BEFORE THE ABOLITION CRUSADE BEGAN, HOWEVER, THE BULK OF OUR PEOPLE CONSIDERED SLAVERY AN EVIL-How TO ERADICATE IT A PROBLEM-EFFECT OF SLAVERY IN UPLIFTING AFRICAN SAVAGESHISTORY CONTAINS No PARALLEL TO THIS RECORD—THE CONTROLLING FACTOR AND THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE OF SOUTHERN LIFE IN ANTE-BELLUM DAYS IS THE PLANTATION-PLANTERS VERSUS SMALL FARMERS-SOME OF THE PLANTATIONS MAGNIFICENT. IN ExTENT FORMED LITTLE EMPIRES—THE PLANTER DOMINATES BOTH SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE AT THE SOUTH-OPULENT STYLE OF LivING MAINTAINED BY THE WEALTHY PLANTERS—NOT A FEW FINE OLD MANSIONS REMINISCENT OF THIS PERIOD STILL TO BE FOUND—LIFE ON A TYPICAL GEORGIA PLANTATION—THE NEGRO QUARTERS—THE OLD BLACK MAMMY-TENDER RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASTER AND SLAVE-DELIGHTFUL GLIMPSES OF SOUTHERN LIFE FURNISHED BY LAWTON B. EVANS—ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SLAVERY DISCUSSED—ON THE WHOLE AN EXPENSIVE SYSTEM-BEAUTIFUL PHASES OF AN INSTITUTION WHICH WAS DESTINED TO REND A CONTINENT IN TWAINUNCLE TOM's CABIN.

NOTE: Who INVENTED THE SEWING MACHINE?

Bishop James 0. Andrew, in refusing to manumit his slaves, at the dictate of a majority faction in the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Baltimore, in 1844, was not governed by sinister or sordid motives. He represented a large class of humane and thoughtful slave-holders at the South. These, while considering slavery an evil, saw no way in which to abandon the system without complicating an already difficult problem. Free negroes had always been an element of discord and a menace to society; and to liberate all at once the entire body of negro slaves was not only to entail upon the South a train of disasters but incidentally to work a grievous hardship upon the negroes themselves. This reasoning was well grounded in the philosophy of Shakespeare, which constrains us rather to endure the ills we have than fly to others that we know not of.” As we have already seen, it was by a second marriage to a lady of wealth that Bishop Andrew became the owner of property in slaves; and because of his refusal, in a most emphatic manner, to relinquish this property, he was asked to resign his office as bishop. He did so; but when he left the conference he carried with him the whole of Southern Methodism.

do so.

In answering the charges brought against him by his Northern brethren, Bishop Andrew made this statement. Said he: * "Strange as it may seem to you, brethren, I am a slave-holder for conscience's sake. I have no doubt that my wife would without a moment's hesitation consent to the manumission of those slaves, if I thought proper to ask her to

But how am I to free them ? Some are too old to work, are actually an expense to me, and some are little children. Where shall I send them? But perhaps I shall be permitted to keep these helpless ones. I believe the providence of God has placed these creatures in my hand.'

Before the abolition crusade began, the bulk of our people considered slavery an evil; but how to eradicate this evil was a problem. It is needless to inquire by whom African slaves were first brought to America or from what ports the vessels sailed in which these unhappy savages were transported. Suffice it to say that for economic reasons, into which the cotton gin, a balmy climate, and a rich soil largely entered, the institution of slavery became riveted upon the South; that, in the last analysis, it wrought far greater injury to the South than it did to the negro' race; that, while it retarded the growth of manufactures in this section, committing the South almost exclusively to agriculture, under a most pernicious one-crop system, it was in many respects a blessing • and a boon to the negro himself.

Arguments to support this statement are numerous. The negro was brought to us a savage. When freed in 1863 by President Lincoln's edict of emancipation he was deemed sufficiently well advanced to be given the ballot at once. Without further tutelage, he was clothed with rights to secure which Anglo-Saxons had struggled for a thousand years. God's chosen people—redeemed from slavery to the Egyptians were given no such privilege, though as slaves in Egypt they had come in contact with the greatest civilization of antiquity. Forty years of wandering in the wilderness was the road by which they entered Palestine. But what the culture of Egypt could not do for the Israelites, the training of the South did for the negro. It so tutored him that when his fetters were removed no special preparation, no peculiar discipline, no further probation was required. The negro was brought to us a pagan. Through slavery, he became a follower of the Nazarene, nor was he impressed like Simon into bearing the cross. He became a willing, an humble disciple, though like Peter he often stumbled. The negro came to us with hands unskilled. But in servitude he acquired a knowledge of mechanics, formed habits.of industry and became, if not a mastercraftsman, at least a useful laborer. History contains no parallel to this record. Since time began no people on earth has ever emerged in so short a time and at so light a cost from a state of barbarism into a heritage of fortune, finding themselves all at once by a sudden change of circumstances possessed of all the civilization for which men have labored and all the freedom for which martyrs have died.

But the controlling factor and the characteristic feature of Southern life, under the old regime of slavery, was the plantation. To be included

* “Life of Bishop Andrew,”: George G. Smith.

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