Page images
PDF
EPUB

followers forward went the cavalry headed by Gianni Colonna (Bulw., Rienzi 5, 3.). Away went Claudio (SHAKSP., Much Ado 3, 3.). Away went the four long-tailed . . horses (DICKENS, Pickw. 2, 20.). Heavily swung back the massive gates at his approach (Bulw., Rienzi 1, 4.). O swiftly can speed my dapplegray sleed (Scott, L. Minstr. 1, 24.). Long and deeply did I cogitate upon the future (MELVILLE, Digby Grand 15.). Welle have ye judged, well ended long debate (Milt., P. L. 2, 390.). etc.

Auch adverbiale Kasus von Substantiven kommen in Betracht: The same day went Jesus out of the house (Matth. 13, 1.). Three times was the sally led from the gate; three times were the Romans beaten back (Bulw., Rienzi 5, 3.).

Präpositionale Glieder aller Art wirken eben so: In the window .. lay Spencer's Fairy Queen (JOHNSON, Lives I. 1.). In the church was I (COLER., Picc. 2, 3.). In purple was she robed (BYRON, Ch. Har. 4, 2.). Near that village stood an ancient and stately hall (MACAUL., Hist. of E. II. 196.). At the same time came the disciples unto Jesus (Matth. 18, 1.). In those days came John the Baptist (3, 1.). Upon their ruins was founded the formidable house of Douglas (Scott, Minstr. I. 99.). Into your hand are they delivered (Gen. 9, 2.). Towards that heaven will we (CARL., Past a. Pres. 1, 6.). With her vanishes Duke d’Aiguillon and Company (Fr. Revol. 1, 1, 3.). To such straits is a Kaiser driven (Fred. the Gr. 5, 6.). With still less judgment did he choose blank verse as the vehicle of rural sports (Jonsson, Lives II. 80.). With these bad terms was I obliged to comply (WARREN, Diary 1, 1.). With eyes averted prayed he (Scott, L. Minstr. 2, 20.). Between them lay, during a considerable time, a middle party (MACAUL., Hist. of E. I. 48.). etc.

Die Inversion des Subjektes wird in allen Fällen durch anderweitige reichere Bestimmungen desselben, namentlich auch durch folgende Relativsätze unterstützt; die Verba, bei denen sie sich am meisten erhält, sind Intransitive und Hülfs- und Modalverba, welche zur Bildung und Umschreibung von Zeitformen verwendet werden. Beispiele von Partikeln sind zahlreich in älterer Zeit. Altengl. Her is the blisse of paradiis (Wrigat a. Halliw., Rel. Ant. II. 375.). Her is mete, her is drinke (ib.). Her enndenn twa goddspelles8 (Orm 241.). Zent ryd Maximon (I. 123.). Ther com a wolf (II. 274.). Ther is joye (I. 49.). Per was po strif at Rome (R. or Gl. p. 90.). Pere passe men the ryvere of Danubee (Maundev. p. 7.). Per wes moni dunt izeuen (Lazam. III. 74.). Þar com Eneas (I. 7.). Therfore hathe white thorn many vertues (Maundev. p. 13.). Fro thens was he translated in to Paradys (p. 67.). Ther above is Godes riche (Wright, Pop. Treat. p. 132.). Ther thurf urneth the wateres (p. 137.). Þerto had he no right (LANGT. p. 86.). Þar inne weren his lade feoond (Lazam. I. 27.). Pæraffterr wurrþ itt efft to nohht (Orx 10960.). Þider com Edgar (Lazam. I. 91.). Tho was Darie sore agast (Alis. 4586.). þa cleopede he eorles tweie (Lazam. III. 42.). Pa com þat word to him (I. 8.). fanne get he to a ston (WRIGHT A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 210.). Thanne is thother half durk (Wrigat, Pop. Treat. p. 134.). Þenne seide he to Wendoleine (Lažan. I. 101.). Now sit Darye on a hulle (Alis. 4144.). Nu wuniey þar inne fueles (WRIGAT A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 129.). Now skulkes Dauid aboute (Langt. p. 243.). Now

wol 1 speke of the remedies (Chauc., C. T. p. 196. I.). Afterward cam his brother (GameLyn 89.). And yit say I more (Chauc., C. T. p. 159. II.). Seppe haþ Engelond ybe ywerred (R. or Gl. p. 3.). Sibþenn warrý Elyzabæth .. wiþþ childe (Oem 231.). Euer habbe y (add. Þe] loued as my fader (R. OF Gl. p. 30.). Ever stood Gamelyn even upright (Gamelyn 335.). Euere wes Artur ærhỏe bideled (Lazam. III. 33.). And anon begonnen othere Lordes to do the same (Maundev. p. 41.). Selden deyeth he out of dette (P. Ploughs, 9187.). Þus er many pat trowes na þing (Pricke or ConsC. 303.). Dus er þai bunden (3214.). pus fel Adam (WRIGAT A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 224.). Þus seide Brutus (Lazam. I. 30.). So priketh hem nature (Chauc., C. T. 11.). So fare we alle (Morris, Allit. P. p. 15.). Forthi seide the aungel (P. Ploughm. 262.). Of goth the skyn (Chauc., C. T. 3309.). Up styrt bir Alisoun (3822.). Up roos thanne an advocate (p. 151. II.). In goth the speres (2604.). Out goon the swerdes (2010.). Forth goth Alisaundre (Alis. 1083.). Forth will i go (Wright, Anecd. p. 12.). Doun than cam his brother (GAMELYN 151.). Agein answered the champioun (254.). Wel havest thou said (WRIGHT, Anecd. p. 9.) etc. Welle wide sprong Þas eorles word (Lazam. III. 43.) etc. Ags. Hér fôr se here tô Lundenbyrig (Sax. Chr. 872.). Her ærest gesceâp ece drihten .. heofon and eorðan (Cædm. 112.). Pær väs Vulfrun genumen (Sax, Chr. 943.). þær väs cirm micel (ANDR. 41.). Þå väs Matheus comen (40.). cvædon englas (Gen. 19, 12.). stôd he nacod on þam strande (APOLLON. OF T. p. 11.). Pänne fort gevât .. Laurentius (Merol. 143.). Nû sceal liffreá þone vêrgan heáp vrâðum áhreddan (Cynev., Crist 15. Grein). Hvilum uppåstod .. egesa ofer ĝolið (ANDR. 443.). Oft gesamnodon side herigeas (652.). Svâ hî âløsde lifes ealdon .. Đặt para fre ne com âm spelboda (Ps. 105, 10.). Spa on Syne beorg somod up cymeð mägenfolc micel (Cynev., Crist 876. Grein). Þus sindon hâten hâmsittende fäder and môdur (ANDR. 686.) etc.

Adverbiale Bestimmungen durch Kasus und präpositionale Glieder sind eben so in früherer Zeit im weitesten Umfange mit der Inversion des Subjektes verbunden, obgleich, wie die meisten Partikeln, nicht mit Nothwendigkeit. Altengl. Four & tuenti wynter lasted pis sorow (Langt. p. 40.). Seuen zere was he kyng (p. 23.). At Siforde setin kinhis monie (WRIGHT A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 170.). Euere azeyn Fraunce stonde pe contre of Chichestre (R. of Gl. p. 6.). In that desert duellyn manye of Arrabyenes (Maundev. P. 63.). Before that chirche is the ymage of Justynyan (p. 8.). Under oske shal men weder adide (Wright A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I, 113.). Of hym com þe gode Bruyt (R. of Gl. p. 10.). peo while com pe eotene faren (Lazam. III. 31.). Inne Griclonde was a zung mon (I. 17.). Mid him com moni Aufrican (II. 6.). To wrotherhele was he wroght (P. PLOUGAM. 9154.). To wroper heore hele habbey heo such werc idon (Lazam. I. 21. sq.). Ags. py ilcan geâre slôgon East-Engle Beornvulf (Sax. Cbr. 823.). Be sûðan him syndon Svæfas (Oros. 1, 1.). On ôðre healfe Dinua þære is pät land Carendre (ib.). On pisse abbudissan mynstre väs sum brôtor (Beda 4, 24.).

On anginne gesceộp se älmihtiga fäder þysne middaneard (BASIL., Hexam. 2.). Fram þam Vôdne âvóc eall ûre cynecynn (Sax. CHR. 449.). Mid him fêrde þes cynges stivard

(1124.). Vid pone here gefuhton Osrîc .. and Ädelvulf (860.) etc. 6. Negative Partikeln wie never, neither, nor an der Spitze bewirken oft für

sich die Invertirung des Subjektes; negative Partikeln, welche in solchem Falle mit anderweitigen adverbialen oder präpositionalen Bestimmungen in Verbindung stehen, haben ebenfalls häufig ein invertirtes Subjekt im Gefolge.

me

Ne was

er

now.

Never met we .. on hill, in dale (SHAKSP., Mids. N. Dr. 2, 2.). Never was there a mind keener or more critical than that of Middleton (MACAUL., Essays III. 4.). Never were such thrice-magnificent Carnival amusements (Carl., Fred. the Gr. 6, 3.). Neither do the spirits damn'd Lose all their virtue (Milt., P. L. 2, 482.). Neither was I offended (Scott, R. Roy 3.). The tale is long, nor have I heard it out (ADDIS., Cato 4, 3.). Nor is this much to be regretted (MACAUL., Hist. of E. I. 44.). No 800ner was he aware of this, than he repented (LEWES, G. I. 57.). Not only does he master it .. he seems so bent on reaching the gaol that he scarcely thinks on anything else (I. 66.).

Seit ältester Zeit zeigt der negative Satz die Neigung zur Inversion des Subjektes, wenn eine negative Partikel den Satz anhebt. Altengl. Nis nower non treure (WRIGHT A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 130.). Ne may he newir for-farin (I. 176.). Ne sal þu þi wif bi hire wlite chesen (I. 178.). Ne gladieth no gest (I. 124.).

I never

Somound unto your court (Chauc., C. T. 7201 ). Thou ne has no champioun Ne fightecanstow nat (5050.). Ne con ich saien non falsdom (Wright, Anecd. p. 4.). Ne shal ich never have reste ne ro (p. 9.). Nought was forgete the porter Ydelnes (Chauc., C T. 1942. cf. 2023. 2313.). No more did Gospatrik (Langt. p. 79.). No dorste no mon him bystryde (Alis. 706.). Never ne hadde he mo in al his lif (CAADC., C. T. 13421.). Never bifor in Wales was don 80 grete greue (Langt. p. 91.). Noiper bi Norp no bi Soup com him never help (p. 41.). Næs ich nauere of Ardure afæred (Lazam. III. 36.). Nis he in nare kudde pe hit pe maze icudoe (III. 41.). Ne scalt þu næuer halden dale of mine lande (1. 131.). Næs næuere king nan (II. 563.). Ne mazz nan man her wurrþi ben (ORM 17158.). Ags. Ne lôi ic, ac nu loge (GEN. 18, 15 ). Ne dear ic hâm faran (44, 34.). Ne beót eóvre dæda dyrne (Cop. Exon. 130, 12.). Ne väs pät ongin svylc (123, 22.). þät nære forlæteo lifigende god eorl on eorđan (ANDR. 459.). Auf næfre pflegt

im Hauptsatze das Subjekt zu folgen. 7. Auch wenn der Hauptsatz als Nachsatz mit oder ohne Konjunktion

oder Adverb auftritt, steht öfter das invertirte Subjekt nach dem Prädikatsverb.

But when the day-blush bursts from high, Expires that magic melody (BYRON, Bride 2, 28.). Wherever flagged his own, or failed the opposing, force, glittered his white robe, and rose his bloody battle-aze (Bulw., Rienzi 5, 3.). While the government of the Tudors was in its highest vigour, took place an event which etc. (MACAUL., Hist. of E. I. 44.). If love can sigh For one alone, Well pleased am I To be that one (TH. MOORE, Nat. Airs). If the town was heedless, not so were the stars (LÈWES, G. I. 15.). Not as the world giveth give 1 unto you (John 14, 27.). The smaller compass that the realme doth holde, The easier is the swey therof to welde (FERREX A. PORR. 1, 2.). The greater the new power they create, the greater seems their revenge against the old (Bulw., Rienzi 2, 8.).

Dass im Nachsatze dieselben Einflüsse, wie bei jedem anderen Hauptsatze maassgebend werden können, versteht sich von selber. Doch ist die Hinneigung zur Inversion des Subjektes namentlich in früher Zeit sichtbar. Altengl. Wher so me edy mete deles, Gest thou nout withoute (WRIGHT A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 111.).

[ocr errors]

Panne he lieth to slepen, sal he nevre luken te lides of hise egen (I. 209.). Seðen hie henen wenden, atlai þat lond unwend (I. 129.). Right als Hardeknout had left alle þat folie, Com Edward, Eilred sonne (Langt. p. 56.). By so that thow be sobre . . Darstow nevere care for corn (P. Plougam. 9016.). If men lyvede as mesure wolde, Sholde nevere more be defaute (9053.). If he naked man se, ne wile he him nogt neggen (Wright a. Halliw., Rel. Ant I. 212.). Þa wile þe heo tweoneden þus, clepede Membricius (Lazam. I. 39.). Þohh þatt he se pe lape gast, Niss he ribht nobht forfæredd (ORM 679.). Häufig ist die Inversion, wenn dem Nachsatze ein Korrelat zum Nebensatze beigegeben ist: Ther parfit truthe and poore herte is .. Ther is Charité the chief chambrere (P. Plougam. 9112.). When mon is in treye and tene, Thenne herith God ys bene (Wright a. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 113.). Whan nothing ne halth hit up.. Thanne fallith hit softe adoun (Wright, Pop. Treat. p. 137.). Whan he wend haf passed po þat gon him dryue, pan were aryued in Humber þritty schippes & fyue (Lasot. p. 16.). As the male is plentinouse .. among trees of wodes, 80 is my derling among sones (Wright a. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 40.). þa þis child was feir muche, þa luuede he a maide (Lazam. I. 12). Penne ich wæs on bedde iswaued .. þen com biuoren þa fæirest þing (II. 234.). Annd tohh þatt tiss Elyzabæþ.. Wass þuss off Aaroness kinn, þohh sez3Þ Þe Goddspellwrihhte etc. (ORM 303.). Dasselbe findet im Hauptsatze nach dem Relativsatze statt: Wose lat is wif his maister wurþen, sal he never ben his wordes loverd (I. 180.). Ags. Syftan he com ofer Vätlinga-stræte, vorhton hi þät mæste yfel (Sax. Chr. 1013.). Gif þu þät angin fremest .. forhele ic incrum herran, þät me hearmes svâ fela Adam gespräc (Cædm. 575.). Þâ þät gebed gefylled heafdon, þâ com þær sum vif (GUTHLAC 1.). Mid și þe he pâs þinge väs sprecende . . Þâ færinga geseah he sumne fiscere gân (APOLLON. OF T. p. 11.). Ær þær være ænig spere gescoten, ær fleáh pät Englisce folc (Sax. Chr. 1055.). Svâ hvilc man svâ pe lifigende tô him bringo, onfô se fîftig punda goldes (Apollon, or T. p. 8.). Dies ist bei korrelaten Partikeln im Ags. die gewöhnliche Wortstellung, woraus dem Nebensatze gegenüber die invertirte Stellung des Sub

jektes im Nachsatze als entschiedene Gewohnheit erhellt. B. Im fragenden Hauptsatze, dessen Subjekt nicht ein fragendes Für

wort ist oder von einem adjektivischen Interrogativ begleitet wird, ist die invertirte Stellung des Subjektes die Regel.

What need we fear who knows it? (SHAKSP., Macb. 5, 1.). Thoughts, whither have ye led me? (Milt., P. L. 9, 473.) How do you guard your property? (Scott, Qu. Durw. 16.). Are you a Christian? (ib.) Why should not the generosity of our poet be equally interesting to us? (LEWES, G. I. 8.) What is this Fingal? (MARRYAT, P. Simple 1, 12.) Will nothing move you? (BYRON, Fosc. 1., 1.). Dagegen: Who is your leader and commands you? (Scort, Qu. Durw. 16.). etc. Auch kann die Frage die Form einer Behauptung annehmen, deren wirkliche oder ironische Fraglichkeit nicht durch die Inversion, sondern durch den Satzton bezeichnet wird: They will not banish me again? No no, Let them wring on (Byron, Fosc. 1, 1.). Auch kann die Frage im Sinne einer anderen Person als indirekte Frage auftreten: How it is to be cured? (CARL., Past a. Pres. ), 4.)

Nimmt die Frage den Charakter der Verwunderung und des Ausrufes an, so begegnen wir theils der Inversion des Subjektes, theils der

Wortstellung des behauptenden Satzes: What visions have I seen! (SHAKSP., Mids. N. Dr. 4, 1.) How modestly has he spoken of himself! (BEN JONS., Catil. 5, 6.) How foolish was 1! (WARREN, Diary 1, 1.). On what small and insignificant things do our fates depend! (ib.) neben: What taste some people have! (SHERID., Riv. 2, 2.). Oh, how pleasant it must be! (COOPER, Spy 2.) Alas! how pale thou art! (BYRON, Manfr. 3, 4.)

Die Inversion in der Frage ist althergebracht. Altengl. Hast þou forzete pe gret wo? (R. OF Gl. p. 24.) Wat þenkestow for to do? (ib.) Lovest thou wel dame Margeri? (Wright, Anecd. p. 8.) Whopene beo ze? (LAZAM. I. 61.). Whær ært þu? (II. 327.) Ags. Slæpst þu? (Marc. 14, 37.) Lufast þu me? (Jov. 21, 15.) Hû mäg he? (Gen. 29, 6.) Hvät sceal ic vinnan? (Cædm. 278.) Hvät scal þe svá láglic strid vîr þînes hearran bodan? (659.) For hvî ne fixast þu on sæ (Toorpe, Anal. 106.). Als Frage erscheint auch der Satz in Form der Behauptung. Altengl. And þou hast now forsake My dozter, þat schulde be þi wif, & to a kemelyng take? (R. op Gl. p. 25.) Das Ags. geht darin weiter: Ve ôðres sceolon âbîdan? (Math. 11, 3.) Hû ve singað? (Ps. 136, 5.) [quo modo nos contabimus ?] Svâ lange ic eóv þolige? (Marc. 9, 19.) [How long shall I suffer you?] Forhvan þu þät sele gescot .. unsýfre bismite? (Cop. Exon. 90, 28.) [Why didst thou .. defile?)

Das Interrogativpronomen als Subjekt tritt, wie jetzt, vor das Verbum : Hvá meahte me svilc gevit gifan? (CÆDM. 668.).

Dass der Ausdruck der Verwunderung mit einer fragenden Partikel oder einem Fürworte seit frühester Zeit in doppelter Wortstellung vorkommt, ist natürlich. Ags. Eálâ! hù leás and bû unvrêst is pisses middan-eardes vela! (Sas. Car. 1097.) Hû þu glearlîce mid noman ryhte nemnad være Emmanuhel! (Cod. Eson. 9, 6.) Eállâ hû egeslîc peós stov ys! (Gen. 28, 17.) Hû vundorlîc pîn

nama ys! (Ps. 8, 1.) C. Imperativsätze lassen das prominale Subject der Personalform des

Verb nachtreten; ihnen schliessen sich in Betreff des Subjektes überhaupt meist Wunschsätze oder umschriebene Imperativsätze an.

Do thou stand for me! (SHAKSP., I. Henry IV. 2, 4.) Vex not thou the poet's mind (TENNYSON p. 41.). Pour ye wine! (Mrs. HEMANS p. 12.) Do you begin! (SHAKSP., Rich. II, 1, 1.) Be we bold! (COLER., Picc. 2, 1.) Perish the baubles! (GOLDSM., She Stoops 2.) May I be poor and free! (COWPER p. 5.) O’er roses may your footsteps move (BYRON p. 308.). Beim Konjunktiv und in Umschreibungen desselben kommt auch die umgekehrte Stellung vor: God forbid! Heaven defend!

The Lord judge between me and thee! (Gen. 16, 5.)

Altengl. Help thu me! (WRIGHT A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 101.) Nail we him opon a tre (l. 101.). Ille might thou spede! (Town. M. p. 11.) Hail seo pu Luces! (LajAm. III. 2.) Lete we hit pus stonden (II. 217.). Lite him beo Drihten! (I. 3.) Ga we nu till þatt ilke tun (Orm 3390.). Ne be ze nohht tærzæness! (14025.) Ags. Hâl väs þu! (Mata. 27, 29.) Hâle vese-ge! (28, 9.) Up-ahebben ve his naman (Ps. 33, 3.). Vurde gôd se ende (Sax. Chr. 1066.). Vaxan hi hira reaf (Jos. 19, 10.). Daneben: Altengl. Of noping ge ne drede! (R. or Gl. p. 140.) God almiztten be her-inne! (Wright, Anecd. p. 3.) God the iblessi (p. 6.).

Mahowne the shelde (Town. M. p. 127.). Ags. Hi vädlian! (Ps. 108, 9.) D. Nebensätze sind im Allgemeinen hinsichtlich der Stellung des Sub

« PreviousContinue »