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M. Chuzzlew. 1, 2.). If this which he avouches doth appear (PLANCHÉ, Fortunio 2, 3.). And catches away that which was sown in his heart (Matth. 13, 19.). I admire .. the painter's magic skill, Who shows me that which I shall never see (CowP. p. 174.). He had done that which could never be forgiven (MACAUL., Hist. of E. II. 186.). They call that Ideal which no Reality can reach (LEWES, G. I. 64.). Yet what thou canst attain which best may serve To glorify thy Maker .. shall not be withheld Thy hearing (Milt., P. L. 7, 115.). I only mean to say, that in all which has occurred, I have been a passive, rather than an active, personage (MARRYAT, P. Simple 1, 1.). But much yet remains To which they show no title (SHELLEY, Cenci 2, 1.). Bei Fürwörtern, welche, auf unpersönliche Substantive zurückbezogen, einen Relativsatz bei sich haben, versteht sich dies von selbst. Im früheren Neuenglischen ist die Konstruktion von substantivischen Fürwörtern, welche Personen bezeichnen, mit which nicht ungewöhnlich: Had I been there which am a silly woman (SHAKSP., III Henry VI. 1, 1.). Shall I of surety bear a child, which am old? (Gen. 18, 13.) If thou which lov’st all canst love any best (Donne, Sat. 1, 14.). This is he which received seed by the way-side (Matth. 13, 19.). As soon as they which pursued after them were gone out, they shut the gate (Josh. 4, 7. cf. I Cor. 9, 13.).

Auf anderweite Satzglieder und ganze Sätze kann als Relativ nur which zurückdeuten.

For those that fly may fight again, which he can never do that's slain (BUTL., Hud. 3, 3, 243.). Martin Chuzzlewit signed to his young companion to withdraw, which she immediately did (DICKENS, M. Chuzzlew. 1, 3.). I am what your theologians call Hardened; which they must be in impudence (SHELLEY, Cenci 1, 1.). Lord Piercy of the North, being highly mov'd, Brav'd Mowbery in presence of the king; For which, had not his highness lov'd him well, He should have lost his head (MARLOWE, Edw. II. 1. 1.). When the Doctor took liberties, which was not seldom the case, his patron became more than usually cold and sullen (MACAUL., Hist. of E. III. 17.). Captain Wharton has aecounted for my error.

For which I thank Captain Wharton,“ said the surgeon (COOPER, Spy 8.). In every circle you engross the whole conversation, where you say a thousand silly things and laugh at them all; by both which the world is always convinced that you

fine teeth and


bad sense (Goldsm., Temple Beau 1, 1.).

Ueber die Verbindung von which mit Substantiven, worin es zugleich adnominal ist, s. S. 253 ff. und weiterbin über die bier in Betracht kommende Attraktion überhaupt.

Das relative which tritt lange nach that im Englischen auf und verbreitet sich namentlich unter dem Einflusse des Altfranzösischen in der Verbindung the which. Eine Unterscheidung des Unpersönlichen vom Persönlichen findet dabei nicht statt; im Gegentheil vertritt das Fürwort ungemein häufig Personennamen. Die oft binzugefügte Partikel that verhält sich, wie in anderen Reiatiy.

sätzen und Fragesätzen. S. S. 418. Am gewöhnlichsten wird which, the which (that) auf Substantive oder auf Satzglieder und Sätze, nicht so häufig auf substantivische Fürwörter, bezogen, woneben es sich adnominal zu Substantiven gesellt.

Beispiele der Konstruktion mit un persönlichen Substantiven sind im Altengl.: His sweord he bar in hond ydrawe, With whiche he hadde mony yslawe (Alis. 4390.). Withouten horses, withouten steden, of whiche no mon ne couthe areden The nombre (5114.). Hy habbeth in hem hondes two, With which hy don mychel woo (5794.). His hous, of which the dores were fast ischitte (Chauc., C. T. p. 152. II.). Out of miserie in which thou art falle (15492.). No drynke which that dronke might hem make (7481.). Of al this thing, which that 1 of have sayd (7827.). The new fest of whiche iij in thi zere we exercyse (Cov. Myst. p. 71.). In a boke, pe whilk made he (THE PRICKE OF Consc. 3950.). Suche fruyt, thorghe the whiche every man is saved (Maundev. p. 3.). Fro thens toward the Est, a 3 bow schote, is Bethfagee; to the whiche oure Lord sente seynt Peter (p. 97.). I have (fon a tre . . On the whiche he shalle suffre payn (Town. M. p. 209 sq.). Beispiele der Beziehung von which auf Personennamen sind gleichen Alters: In Jhesu Crist, the sone of hym only oure lord, the wuche is consceyved of the holy gost (WRIGHT A. Halliw. Rel. Ant. I. 38.). Many gode Cristene men, the whiche that laften hire godes (Maurdev. p. 260.). This Pompeus .. which that flowe (Chauc, C. T. 16174.). Roger, which that bisschop was of Pise (15902.). Lo, Sampson, whiche that was annunciate By thangel (15492.). I go fulle securly to my Fader, hevyns kyng, The whiche .. is mekille more then I (Town. M. p. 297.). Almyghty God loke thou honoure, Whiche that made bothe drye and wete (Cov. Myst. p. 50.). Natürlich steht which auch bei Kollektivnamen von Personen: His meyné which that herd of this affray (Chauc., C. T. 7738.).

Indessen findet sich auch die Bezugnahme auf persönliche Fürwörter: He which hath no wif I hold him schent (Chauc., C. T. 9194.). Only hym lore whiche bodyly ffood Doth zeve alle day, and gostly helthe (Cov. Myst. p. 60.). Fro dethe he xal ryse, this is a trewe talle, Fyguryd in me, the whiche longe beforn Lay iij days beryed within the qwalle (p. 67.).

Die Rückbeziehung auf Satzglieder und Sätze ist nicht selten: Unethe scholde ony contree have so moche peple with in him, as lay slayn in that vale, as us thoughte; the whiche was an hidouse sight to seen (MaundeV. p. 283.). Thou hast thy felaw slayn, For which I deme the to deth (CHAUC., C. T. 7605. cf. 15995. 16171.).

Der spätere Uebergang von which (hvilc), qualis, in die Bedeutung von qui ist dem des deutschen welcher analog, den das Mittelhochdeutsche noch

nicht kennt. c. Ein zweites fragendes Fürwort, welches neben dem demonstrativen

that in relative Bedeutung übergetreten ist, ist who, ags. hva. Die jüngere Sprache hat es in den Kasus formen who, whom auf die Vertretung des Personalbegriffes beschränkt, gebraucht dagegen whose (ags. hvớs gen, masc. u. neutr.) von Personen und Sachen. Jene Einschränkung ist nicht ohne Willkür, namentlich in Beziehung auf whom, welches wenigstens dem ags. Dative des Neutrum wie des Masculinum (hvam, hväm) entspricht. Auch weicht hier die ältere von der neueren Zeit ab. So frühe nämlich die Kasus von who relativ gebraucht werden,

was lange zuvor geschah, ehe which relativ verwendet wurde, so blieb gerade der Nominativ who von der rein relativen, rückdeutenden Beziehung ausgenommen, und whom ward eben so auf Sachen wie auf Personen bezogen.

Auf dem gegenwärtigen Standpunkt der Sprache ist das ältere that durch who, whom erheblich beschränkt worden. Die letzteren haben sich im Wesentlichen die relative Bezugnahme auf Personen und personificirte Wesen angeeignet, wobei die Grenze der Personificirung nicht überall zu bestimmen ist.

Wir betrachten zunächst who und whom in ihrer Beziehung auf Substantive. Sie weisen auf die Einzahl und Mehrzahl beider Geschlechter von Personennamen zurück: That such a slave as this should wear a sword, who wears no honesty (SHAKSP., Lear 2, 2.). I know this from Cordelia; Who has .. been inform'd Of my obscured course (ib.). A poor woman who was my nurse (Bulw., Money 1, 2.). His noble mother and his wife, Who .. mean to solicit him For mercy to his country (SHAKSP., Coriol. 5, 1.). The righteous gods, whom I have sought to please (ADDIS., Cato 5, 2.). Some few friends she had whom she really loved (TROLLOPE, Framl. Parson. 1, 17.). I was settled . . some time ago by persons to whom you referred it (1, 19.). Sie werden bei Sammelnamen von Personen verwendet, besonders wenn dem Relativ als Subjekt die erkennbare Mehrzahl des Prädikatsverb folgt und überhaupt wo nicht sowohl die Vorstellung einer oder mehrerer Gesammteinheiten als vielmehr die ihrer persönlichen Elemente dem Redenden vorschwebt: The Directory, who are not very fond of princes (Bulw., Lady of L, 2, 1.). Of that half the population who think differently from yourself (Money 2, 5.). Why scourge thy kind Who bow'd so low the knee? (BYRON, Ode to N. B. p. 346.). Mountains interpos’d Make enemies of nations, who had else Like kindred drops been mingled into one (CowP. p. 185.). The Saxon families who fled from the exterminating sword of the Conqueror (Scott, Minstrelsy I. 98.). A people whom I have not known shall serve me (Ps. 18, 43.). By trampling on the people among whom they had setiled (MACAUL., Hist. of E. I. 66.). The house of Stewart, whom they regarded, with justice, as their oppressors (Scott, Bl. Dwarf 2.). Bei personificirten Substantivbegriffen ist die Anwendung des Fürwortes natürlich: The envious moon Who is already sick (SHAKSP., Rom. a. Jul. 2, 2.). Ye avalanches, Whom a breath draws down In mountainous o'erwhelming (Byron, Manfr. 1, 2.). Auf die Thierwelt wird es namentlich in der älteren Sprache bezogen: Adders who, with cloven tongues, Do hiss me into madness (SHAKSP., Temp. 2, 2.). The wolf, who from the mighty fold Fierce drags the bleating prey, ne'er drunk her milk (THOMSON, Spring). How unkind then to torture this faithful creature, who has left the forest to claim the protection of man (GOLDSM., The Dog). The serpent, whom they callid Ophion (Milt., P. L. 10, 580.). The beasts whom God. . Created mule (9, 556.). The brace of

large greyhounds, who were the companions of his sports (Scott, Bl. Dwarf 2.).

Aber auch leblose Gegenstände, deren Personificirung nicht ersichtlich in der Absicht des Redenden liegt, werden früher noch durch who, whom rückdeutend bezeichnet: The world who of itself is peised well (SHAKSP., John 2, 2.). Usurping ivy, briar, or idle moss , Who, all for want of pruning, with intrusion Infect thy sap (Com. of Err. 2, 2.).

Substantivische auf Personen bezogene Fürwörter auch in ihren Possessivformen haben ebenso in einem weiteren Umfange jene Relative im Gefolge erhalten: I cannot blame thee, Who am myself attach'd with weariness (SHAKSP., Temp. 3, 3.). I, who pity not (BYRON, Manfr. 2, 4.). He is most innocent! 'Twas 1 who did it (ROGERS, It., Foscari.). To thee who hast thy dwelling here on Earth (MilT., P. L. 4, 444.). He who is content to walk, instead of to run (MARRYAT, P. Simple 1, 1.). It is time to decide between her whom you love and her whom you do not (Bulw., Money 2, 3.). How happy they who wake no more (YOUNG, N. Th. 1, 7.). And what are they who do avouch these things? (BYRON, Manfr. 3, 1.) Praise is not thine, But his who gave thee (Cowp, p. 103.). How hard is our fate, who serve in the state (Addis., Rosam. 1, 3.). Fickle their state whom God Most favors (Milt., P. L. 948.). Nor better was their lot who fled (SCOTT, Lord of the Isl. 5, 29.). Those who have but half an eye (Ben Jons., New Inn 1, 1.). Those who run from th' enemy, Engage them equally to fly (BUTL., Hud. 3, 3, 289.). I'm one of those who think feelings a kind of property (Bulw., Money 1, 2.). To one whom they had punish'd (SHAKSP., J. Cæs. 5, 1.). There was one in that house whom I had loved at the first sight (Bulw., Money 2, 3.). Not all who break his bread are true (BYRON, Bride 2, 16.).

Der alte Genitiv whose lässt die Rückbeziehung auf Personen und Sachen ohne Unterschied zu: The wits of whose names we shall treat (THACKERAY, Engl. Humourists 2.). A nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand (DEUTER. 28, 49.). Ye crags, upon whose extreme edge I stand (BYRON, Manfr. 1, 2.). Thou whose mind was moral (YOUNG, N. Th. 2, 447.). That was he

That was he Without whose life I had not been (TENNYSON p. 172.). Betwixt those into whose hands she had fallen (SCOTT, Heart of Mid. Loth. 2, 6.). The wolf Whose howl's his watch (SHAKSP., Macb. 2, 1.). The winds whose pity . . Did us but loving wrong (Temp. 1, 2.). To the rural seat, Whose lofty elms, and venerable oaks, Invite the rook (THOMSON, Spring.). There yet remains a deed to act Whose horror might make sharp an appetite Duller than mine (SHELLEY, Cenci 1, 1.). A calm, placid, impenetrable lake, whose surface is reflexion (BOURCICAULT, Lond. Assur. 1.).

In der älteren Sprache treffen wir who nicht schlechthin relativ rückdeutend

gebraucht, wie noch jetzt die neutrale Form desselben Fürwortes, what. Dagegen kommt frühe der Kasus whom, (wham, whan) für die Einzabl und Mehrzahl und zwar meist in Verbindung mit Präpositionen, später wohl erst der Genitiv whos (whoos), in rein relativer Rückbeziehung vor, und jener insbesondere wird ebenso auf Sachsubstantive als auf Personen bezogen, wogegen gerade die Genitivform besonders der Person angehört. In Bezug auf Personennamen steht whom im Altengl.: The clark of wam 1 telle (WRIGHT, Anecd. p. 11.). Uter, þe gode kynge of wan we speke by vore (R. of Gl. p. 165. cf. I. 166.). Bitwene man and womman of wham we beoth bezite (Wright, Pop. Treat. p. 137.). The threo knyghtis of whom y saide (Alis. 4136.). Rychard hyghte the fyrste, iwis, Of whom this romance imakyd is (Rich. C. de L. 201.). Thei hadden an abbot, to whom thei weren obedient (Maundev. p. 83.). To that man, to whom alle the world is insuffisant (p. 293.). A kyng of Fraunce boughte theise relikes somtyme of the Jewes ; to whom the emperour had leyde hem to wedde (p. 13.). Many gode holy men and holy heremytes, of whom the book of fadres lyfes spekethe (p. 79.). A man of gret honour To whom that he was alway confessour (Chauc., C. T. 7745.). Henri . . Whom all the londe loved (Depos. OF Rica. II. p. 1.); in Bezug auf Thiernamen und Sach namen: Heo noriceth delfyns and cockadrill, Of whom after telle y wol (Alis. 6576.). There is gret plentee of neddres, of whom men maken grete festes (Maundev. p. 208.).

The ovemeste is the rižte hevene in whan the sterren beoth (Wright, Pop. Treat. p. 132.). The four elementă, of wham we beoth iwrozt (p. 134.). And zit was al þe folnesse on þat to himself bilay, Wipoute whom he ne mai His kindom wip pees wysen (Castel off Love 294. ed. Weymouth 1864.). And nom of hire his monhede porw whom he wrey his Godhede (917.). He sal enherite þan Wormes and nedders . . Til wham falles mans flessh (Pricke of Consc. 870.). Selbst in Rückbeziehung auf einen Satz kommt es vor: Algate he haþ mis-don Þorw whom he is in my prison (1085.). Das älteste Englische geht in beiden Beziehungen voran; von Personen steht wham: He ma}} wel bitacnenn himin Whamm he stod inn to follzhenn (OR6520.). Allmahhtiz Godd þurrh whamın zho wass wipp childe (1975). þatt Jesu Crist wass witerrliz patt illke, off whamm prophetess Haffdenn forrlannge cwiddedd ær (6994. cf. 12578. 16340.). Min eldre of wan we beoþ ispronge (LajAm. II. 632. j. T.). Belyn and Brenne of wam we beop ofspronge (III. 50. j. T.); selten jedoch von Sachen: He makede þane kalender bi wan geop Þe zer (I. 308. j. T.). Lede hit [sc. þat sweorde) bi his broþer þorh wan his bane he hadde (I. 326. j. T.). Auffallender Weise wird what als relatives Neutrum bei Orm gefunden: Forr fand mann nan þing upponn hemm þatt mihht ohht anngrenn opre; Þurrh whatt tu mihht nu sen þatt tezë Rihhtwise annd gode wærenn (ORM 431.). Ure preost þatt nohht ne mihhte trowenn þatt word tatt himm þurrh Gabriel Wass sezzd o Godess hallfe, Forr whatt himm wass hiss spæche anan .. all biræfedd (2827.); und selbst in Bezug auf ein Korrelat wie all: þatt tezi muzhenn shæwenn zuw All whatt itt 8e33Þ and meneþ (5502.). Dieser Gebrauch steht in ältester Zeit vereinzelt, wie später hier und da Vertauschungen des relativen that mit what begegnen. Altengl. It is l, drede you noght, What was wont with you to gone, and dere with ded you boght (Town. M. p. 283.).

Den Genitiv whose vermag ich in älterer Zeit als Relativ nur in Beziehung auf Personen nachzuweisen. Altengl. Sahaladyn, in whoos tyme the kyng of

Englonde, Richarde the firste, with manye othere, kepten the passage (Maundev, Mätzner, engl. Gr. III.


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