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1. Die relativen Fürwörter, welche den Adjektivsatz einführen, sind that,

which und who. a. Seit dem Aufgeben des unveränderlichen relativen pe, hat im Englischen

das ursprünglich neutrale, relativ wie demonstrativ verwendete that (pät), welches eben wie jenes zu einem indeklinablen Fürworte ward, unter den relativ gebrauchten Pronominalformen am weitesten um sich gegriffen. Es wird auf Personennamen wie auf Sachnamen, auf Fürwörter wie auf Substantive bezogen, und unterliegt wenigen Beschränkungen in seinem Gebrauche. Dahin gehört, dass that nicht von einer vorangehenden (wohl aber von einer am Ende des Satzes stehenden) Präposition begleitet werden kann, und dass es überhaupt an der Spitze des Adjektivsatzes stehen muss; auch wird es nicht in relativer Bedeutung auf ein Satzglied oder einen Satz bezogen. In einzelnen Fällen verbietet die Rücksicht auf die Deutlichkeit und den Wohllaut.

The man that made Sansfoy to fall (Spens., F. Qu. 1, 5, 26.). A very melancholy knight in a ruff, that demanded my subject for somebody (Ben Jons., Silent Wom. 3, 1.). The enemy that sowed them (Matth. 13,39.). Are you the gentleman that is named here? (WARREN, Diary 1, 1.). Thou shinest in every tear that I do weep (SAAKSP., Love's L. L. 4, 3.). The only favour that I can ask you (TROLLOPE, Framl. Parson. 1, 16.). The ship that somebody was sailing in (Scott, Heart of Mid. Loth. 2, 6.). Of mine own brood, that on my bowels feed (Milt., P. L. 2, 863.). All things that offend (Matth. 13, 41.). The rights of Liege, that are in more danger than ever (Scott, Qu. Durw. 21.). Her, whom of all earthly things That lived, the only thing he seemed to love (BYRON, Manfr. 3, 3.).

Persönliche Fürwörter und deren Possessivformen, so wie demonstrative, fragende und unbestimmte Fürwörter, lassen die Rückbeziehung durch that auch mit Bezug auf Personen zu, wenngleich hier who im weiteren Umfange um sich gegriffen hat. Nach dem fragenden who insbesondere verbietet der Wohlklang die gleiche Relativform und fordert that: I that know the obstinacy of it (MONTAGUE, Lett.). Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer Before all temples th'upright heart and pure (Milt., P. L. 1, 17. cf. 2, 681.). He tires betimes, that spurs too fast betimes (SHAKSP., Rich. II. 2, 1.). He also that received seed among the thorns is he that heareth the word (Matth. 13, 22.). He that is void of wisdom, despiseth his neighbour (Prov. 11, 12.). He has no hope who never had a fear; And he tha

never doubted of his state, He may perhaps (Cowp. p. 47.). Warn them that are unruly (THESSALON. 1, 15, 14. cf. Ps. 70, 2.). It will break my heart .. that have been toiling more like a dog than a man (Scott, R. Roy 2.). Let grief and sorrow still embrace his heart, That doth not wish you joy (SHAKSP., Temp. 5, 1.). Why then their loss deplore that are mot lost? (YOUNG, N. Th. 1, 107.). Who's this that dares usurp The

guards and habit of Numidia's prince? (ADDIS., Cato 4, 2.). Those win the day that win the race (Butl., Hud. 3, 3, 292.). Thine only gift bas been the grave To those that worshipp'd thee (BYRON, Ode to N. B. p. 346.). Who that have felt that passion's power, Or paus’d, or fear'd in such an hour? (Parisina 3.). The wretch, that works and weeps without relief, Has one that notices his silent grief (Cowp. p. 101.). I am as one that's dead (Sherid. KNOWLES, Virgin. 5, 3.). Strange ruin shall destroy both her and thee, And all that yet remain (BYRON, Manfr. 4, 1.). Up to the sky like rockets go All that mingled there below (Siege 33.). Vgl. c.

Bei der Bezugnahme auf neutrale Fürwörter, wohin insbesondere die unbestimmten und die ihnen substituirten Formen gehören, hat that, wohl nicht ohne Einfluss seiner ursprünglichen neutralen Bedeutung, sich mit einer gewissen Zähigkeit erhalten, wiewohl die jüngere Sprache an der Verwendung von that nach dem demonstrativen that Anstoss nimmt: What is it that thou dost see? (Byron, Manfr. 2, 1.) Least thou yield to this that I entreat (Marlow, Jew of M. 3, 4.). That thou hadst seen that that this knight and I have seen! (SHAKSP., II Henry IV. 3, 2. cf. 4, 4. I Henry VI. 3, 1. 4, 1. etc.) All that I live by is, with the awl (J. Cæs. 1, 1.). He may



for all that hath happened (FIELD., J. Andr. 4, 1.). See the sage hermit, by mankind admir’d, With all that bigotry adopts inspir'd (CowP. p. 41.). A conflict against all that was most illustrious in the Established Church (MACAUL., Hist. of E. III. 35.). Much that is great and excellent will we Perform together yet (COLER., Picc. 5, 2.). For ought that ever I could read (BUTL., Hud. 1, 3, 1025.). Shall I have nought that is fair? (LONGFELLOW I. 7.). When you would say something that is sad (SHAKSP., Henry VIII. 2, 1.). There was something that reminded me of Dante's Hell in the look of all this (CARLYLE, Past a. Pres. 1, 1.). He never does anything that is silly (Bulw., Money 1, 2.). She has nothing that I want (SOUTHERN, Oroon. 1, 2.). There's nothing in Widdrington's notes that we need be afraid of (WARREN, Ten Thous. a.-year 2, 1.). Wie jedoch auch which hier eingedrungen ist, s. b.

Frühe wird that als Relativpronomen auf Personen- und Sachnamen von jedem Geschlechte in der Einzahl wie in der Mehrzahl übertragen. Altengl. Ure fadir þat hart in hevene (Wright A. HALLIW., Rel. Ant. I. 22.). He was þe wisiste mon þat was in Engelonde on (I. 170.). Oure Lord, that ikend is of the holi gost (I. 42.). Oure Loverd, that all makede (Wright, Pop. Treat. p. 132.). Mercurius . . That selde is ous iseze (ib.). Þo emperour þat was þO (R. or Gl. p. 90.). Þer nas prince non þat hym dorste arere strif (p. 89.). Maidin and moder þat bar þe hevene king (Wright A. Halliw. I. 22.). Nis no wurt woxen .. þet evvre muge pe lif up helde (I. 175.). Cecily het þat on þe eldeste, þat was at Came nonne & abbesse (R. OF Gl. p. 370.). Þo Romaynes, þat he fond, to gronde faste he slow (I. 88.). Men that beath ibore under here mizte (WRIGHT, Pop. Treat. p. 133.). For alle þo men that are in sinne bunden (WRIGHT A, HALLIW., Rel. Ant. I. 22.), The wymmen that wepten upon hym

(II. 48.). Blisced be pe pappys þat Godis sone sauk (ib.). Alle the masonus that ben there (Halliw., Freemas. 137.). Alle the sooth sawes That Salomon seide evere (P. Plougum, 5626.). He bybet hem þe best lawes, þat euere were yfounde (R. or Gu p. 386.). Rushes of the see that prykken (Maundev. p. 13.) Dieser Gebrauch kommt schon in der ältesten Sprachperiode vor: He wes þe bezste latimer þat ær com her (Lazam. II. 174 sq.). Colgrim wes þe hæhst mon þat ut of Saxlonde com (II. 417.). Þiss gode prest þatt we nu mælenn offe (ORM 461.). Alle þa prestess þatt off þa twezzenn prestess comenn (495.). Alle þa ilke men .. þat luuied pene cristindom (Lažam. II. 29.).

Die Rückbeziehung auf Fürwörter aller Art, wenn sie Personen bezeichnen, wie auch auf Possessivformen, kommt der Form that 'gleich frühe zu. Altengl. Ac y am hoten Antygon, That mony a message have ydon (Alis. 4166.). I that am calde kynge Abias (Cov. Myst. p. 67.). A tale of me that am a pover man (Chauc., C. T. 4339.). We that mynistere here in Goddys presens, In us xuld be fownd no maner of ffoly (p. 71.). He that suiche craftes can To counseil is cleped (P. Plougam. 5636.). He that can his time abyde, Al his wille him schal bytyde (Alis. 462.). Theves he schal herberon never won, Ny hym that hath yquellude a mon (Halliw., Freemas. 181.). They slew him that holp hem oft at nede (Skelton I. 8.). Wolues dede hii nymeþ vorý, þat er dude as lombe (R. OF GL. p. 369.). Wo to hem that seien gode, yvel (Wright A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. II. 51.). The wyse man damned hem that gladen whan thei don yvel (ib.). Thou seyst thou art with hem that in tribulacion be (Cov. Myst. p. 75.). For hys love that deyd on rood (Rich. C. DE L. 4468.). For hys sake that sytte above (Halliw., Freemas. 405.). Our redempcyon for to make That slayn were thrugh syn (Town. M. p. 155.). Vor her soules, þat þer aslawe were (R. OF Gl. p. 369.). Thilke that God gyveth moost, Leest good thei deleth (P. PLOUGHm. 5655.). Tho that hit loste weore wrothe (Alis. 1126.). Tho that be cursyd

And tho that be blyssyd (Cov. Myst. p. 71.). Myche more thei ben reprovable that wepen for the pley of Cristis passioun (Wright A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. II. 48.). Als we forgyve pam þat misdon hus (I. 22.). For alle þat on her be us fedin and fostre (ib.). On that was clept Guytoga (Maundev. p. 37.). Ther n'uste non that hym was nygh, What tyme out of londe he fleygh (Alis. 119.). Þe ilke þat halt þene nap, he hine drinkeď up (Lažam. II. 175.). Wha is þat me fihter wid? (III. 35.). Mid mude heo hit seiden, þeo þat hit isezen (I. 274.). He lufeþþ alle pa patt sop clænesse follzhenn (ORM 3512.).

Bei neutralen Fürwörtern, wie bei allen Neutren in der Einzahl, gehört natürlich that auch der ältesten Zeit an. Altengl. This that shewyth as bred to zour apparens, is mad the very flesche and blod of me (Cov. Myst. p. 271.). Eyther of hem helpeth other Of that that hem nedeth (P. Ploughm. 5330.). An erthely servaunt dar not taken in pley and in bourde that that her erthely lord takith in ernest (WRIGAT A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. II. 43.). Zif we don to hym that that is in oure power (II. 44.). Ernestful levyng of that that God biddith is despising of God (II. 45.). For hem that knowe not, ne beleve not, but that that thei seen (MAUNDEV. p. 222. cf. 182. 183. 226. 265. 306.). Fforgyf me that, That I to the now don have (Cov. Myst. p. 335.). Forgive ous alle þat we havip don (Wright A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 57.). Y loue more și leue lyf þan al þat in pe world ys (R. or Gl. p. 30.). Ny tel thou not al that thou heres (Halliw., Freemas. 770.). Al that ther was yong and old (Amis A. AMIL. 1300.). Bi oght that I can witt, He semys fulle welle theron to sytt (Town. M. p. 4.). For nought that may bifalle (Chauc., C. T. 3418.). For nothing that

ever is min, Thau thou hit zirne (WRIGHT, Anecd. p. 3.). Þa com hit al togadere þat hæhst wes on londe (Lazam. II. 408.). Al pat Artur isæh, al hit him to bæh (II. 531.). Al þat heo bigunnen al heo hit biwunnen (II. 108.). To forrbuzhenn .. All patt tatt Godd fortwerrpeþþ (ORM 8803.). Ags. Rî voldon mæst ealle þät þät he volde (Sax. Chr. 1052.). Þät þu vilt þät þu lufast; þåt þät þu nelt, þät þu ne lufast (Thorpe, Anal p. 62.). Hû mäg ic þät findan, pät svâ fyrn gevearf vintra gangum? (Elene 631.). Eall pät grövende väs veart âdilegod (Gen. 19, 25.). Genâmon eall pät þær binnan väs (Sax. Cur. 894.). Bim väs þâ unbold eall þät his ær gyrnde (1040.). [In dem letzten Beispiele steht das Neutrum kollektiv von Personen, wie auch in einzelnen der aufgeführten neuengl. und altengl. Beispiele.)

Im Ags. werden se, seó, þät als relative wie als demonstrative Fürwörter gebraucht; ihnen schliesst sich auch das indeklinable Relativpronomen an, in welchem Falle sie als demonstrative Korrelate von þe anzusehen sind, welches für sich allein relativ wirkt. Dies Relativum zieht sich noch bis ins dreizehnte Jahrhundert und erscheint neben anderen relativen Fürwörtern. Altengl. On of þe holio writes pe ben red herinne (Wright A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 128.). Of an edie meiden, þe was iferen bispused þe hevenliche kinge (ib.). Þis woreld is cleped sæ, þe flower and ebbet (ib.). þat soðe liht, þe lihted alle brihte þinges on eorge (ib.). Ancre pe haveț achte (II. 2.). Þeos ancres pe tiliet oder habbed rentes isette (ib.). So bietet Lazamon oft þe als Relativ, doch mischen sich hier verschiedene Formen, wie die Pluralform þa (ags. Þá), welche mit pe vermischt ist; der jüngere Text hat oft þat für þe. þa wes wa Coel Þe king was on Bruttene (II. 29.). Hæfuede enne dohter, þe wes him swite deore (II. 30.). Wreke we Beduer min æm þa bezst wes of ure cunne, þa Buccus hafd of-slungen (III. 101.) [= qui . . quem). Þa hefenliche quene þa drihten akende (II. 468.). Ueberbaupt wechseln þe (auch peo), þa and þat in

gleicher Bedeutung. b. Das ursprünglich interrogative Fürwort which, welches auch als solches

erhalten und auf alle Substantivbegriffe bezogen ist, und dessen ags. Form hvile, hvylc, hvelc aus der fragenden Bedeutung nur in die unbestimmte (vgl. lat. quis = aliquis), nicht aber in die relative überging, ist im Englischen, gleich anderen fragenden Wörtern, auch relativ geworden. In eigenthümlicher Weise ist dies Relativ allmälich, im Gegensatze zu dem relativen who, auf das sächliche oder vielmehr nicht persönliche Gebiet beschränkt worden, wobei man den Begriff des geschlechtlich unentwickelten Kindes etwa dem Gebiete persönlicher Wesen auszunehmen gestattet. An sich sind freilich diese Bestimmungen willkürlich, und die lebendige Sprache geht noch immer im Einzelnen darüber hinaus, namentlich bei kollektiven Begriffen.

Which und früher auch the which (s. S. 253.) beziehen sich nunmehr vorzugsweise auf Substantive, welche unpersönliche Wesen bezeichnen, mit oder ohne adnominale Bestimmung. Dahin gehören abstrakte wie konkrete Sachnamen und Thiernamen.

To love no soul or body, but for ends, Which are her sports (BEN Jons., New Inn 1, 1.). Let your song augment our grief Which i


so great as not to wish relief (WALLER, P. W. I. 107. Edinb. 1777.). The cities in the which Lot dwelt (Gen. 19, 29.). Upon the soil the which Our Monarch conquer'd (COLER., Picc. 4, 5.). I would hear yet once before I perish The voice which was my music (Byron, Manfr. 2, 4.). His dark abode, which even imagination fears to tread (THOMSON, Summer). All the floods In which the full-form'd maids of Afric lave Their jetty limbs (ib.). Long wool is that in which the fibres are rendered parallel by the process of combing (CHAMBERS, Informat. I. 345. II.). Mountain-ranges, which leave a narrow tract of low land lying along the sea-coasts (II. 289. I.). Another of the Cavidæ is the agouti, which is an inhabitant of the Antilles (I. 138. II.). The wild boar, which abounds in some parts of the continent of Europe (I. 140. I.).

Nicht selten werden Sammelnamen, welche Personen befassen, mit which konstruirt, was am Natürlichsten da geschieht, wo der Sammelname, als Ausdruck eines einheitlichen Ganzen, im Relativsatze durch das Subjekt which mit dem Prädikatsverb im Singular angedeutet wird, aber auch sonst, wo Gesammtheiten als solche gefasst werden: I perish by this people which I made (TENNYSON p. 192.). The misdeeming crowd which judges by what seems (Byron, Manfr. 5, 1.). The Jews cannot be numbered among the nations which contributed to improve navigation (ROBERTSON, Hist. of America). Begriffe wie Geist, Seele, wenngleich auf persönliche Individuen zu beziehen, lassen which zu: An erring soul which might repent and live (SHELLEY, Cenci 1, 1.). The many evil and unheavenly spirits, which walk the valley of the shade of death (Byron, Manfr. 3, 1.). Endlich schliessen selbst Personennamen, wenn auch seit zwei Jahrhunderten in erheblich verringertem Maasse, which nicht völlig aus: The old shepherd, which stands by (SHAKSP., Wint. T. 5, 2.). Mulmutius, which Ordain'd our laws (Cymb. 3, 1.). That very duke Which was thrust forth of Milan (Temp. 5, 1.). A man which sowed good seed (Matth. 13, 24.). When for the night some lately titled ass Appears the beggar which his grandsire was (Byron, Engl. Bards p. 323.). She liked the greatest fool which she had presented to my father, better than all the rest (MarryAT, J. Faithf. 1, 1.). About ten thousand picked and veteran soldiers were thus obtained, of which the Duke of Alva was appointed general-in-chief (MOTLEY, Rise of the Dutch Rep. 3, 1.).

Substantivirte Fürwörter lassen analog in neuerer Zeit ein relatives which zu, wenn sie ursprünglichen Neutren entsprechen. Das hier seit ältester Zeit eingebürgerte that weicht jenem nach einem demonstrativen that: doch wird which auch anderen neutralen Pronominalformen beigegeben: That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet (Matth. 4, 14.). And know'st thou what it is which we must do? (COLER., Picc. 3, 1.) What is this which thou hast done? (Milt., P. L. 10, 158.) You must consider this, which nobody knows better than 1; that I was born for much plainer and poorer things (DICKENS,

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