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Auffallendes hat und Verba des Affektes, welche ursprünglich den Genitiv bei sich haben, dafür auch den Substantivsatz zu sich nehmen können: I’gin to fear that thou art past all aid (BYRON, Mapfr. 3, 1.). Let none admire That riches grow in Hell (Milt., P. L. I. 690.). The people boasted that they lived in a land flowing with milk and honey (MACAUL., Hist. of E. II. 152.).

Uebrigens s. d. Kausals atz.

Dieselbe Behandlungsweise wird dem Nebensatze mit that zu allen Zeiten zu Theil, obwohl die Auslassung des Satz-Relativ allmälig in Rede und Schrift daneben grössere Fortschritte gemacht hat 8. S. 422. Altengl. Whan he felte, that he scholde dye (Maundev. p. 89.). Mani man wenit .. frend þat he habbe (Wright A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 179.). Alle po þe leveð þat swilch þing hem muge furfrie oðer letten (I. 131.). Þo he wuste þat þet mayde aslawe was (R. OF GL. p. 206.). Heo understode, þat pis lond ymad was al clene Of god folc þoru Maximian and Conan (p. 96.). That I am dronke, I knowe wel (CHAUC., C. T. 3140.). Yond in the yerd I trowe that sche be (7380.). Lif seith that he lieth (P. PLoughm. 12134.). Wif wolde bat hire loverd dead ware (WRIGAT A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 130.). There the aungelle commaunded Adam, that he scholde duelle (MAUNDEV. p. 67.). I pray you alle, that noon of you him greeve (Chauc., C. T. 3908.). He suffrethe wel, that Cristene men duelle in his lordschipe (Maundev. p. 246.).

God schilde, that he deyde sodeinly (Chauc., C. T. 3427.). God forbede that we stynten heere 4337.). For yet I scha) not mysse That atte leste wey I schal hir kisse (3679.). þurrh þatt tez; herrdenn þatt he was Sop Godess Sune (ОRM 10968.). Witt tu wel to sobe patt all follc wass forrgillt (ORM, Intr. 24.). Uss birrý lefenn þatt he was8 Sop mann (ORM 6716.). Nollde he nohht tatt lez3 Ohht herrdenn (6927.). We pe wullet bidden . . þatt þu heom bilæuen (Lazam. II. 185.), etc. Ags. Ge gehýrdon pät ic eóv sæde, Ic gâ (Joh. 14, 28.). Heó on hyre gefrêdde pät heó of þam vîte gehæled väs (Marc. 5, 29.). Ge gecnávað pät ic eom on minum Fäder (Joh. 14, 20.). Visse he gearve pät him holt-vudu helpan ne meahte (Beov. 4668.). Bearne ne trûvode pät he við älfylcum êdel-stôlas healdan cûte (4730.). Hvâ volde gelyfan. . pät þe heo Abarahame on hys ylde acende? (Gen. 21, 7.) Cvædon pät heó rîce rêge môde âgan voldan (CÆDM. 47.). Josue bebeád pät hi vudedon (Jos. 9, 27.). Biddað hine pät he me selle leafe [Genitivsatz] (Gen. 50, 5.). Ic gedô þät þu vyzt (17, 6.). þu þe self hafast dædum gefremed pät þîn [dôm] lyfað âva aldre (Beov. 953. Grein.). Þesh þu .. onsôce tô sviðe, pät þu sô8 godu lufian volde (JULIANA 192. Grein.).

In Beziehung auf den Begriff des Affektes vgl. Verst he was sore adrad þat Þe geant were pere ney (R. oe Gl. p. 204.). I merveylled moche, that there weren 80 manye (MAUNDEV. p. 283.). Sære we adredeð þat heo him mis-ræden (Lazam. II. 124. cf. II. 290. II. 107.). Ags. Ic me onegan mäg þät me vraðra sum. .feore

beneote (Cædm. 1823.). b. Der Kasussatz steht bei Adjektiven, bei welchen meist ursprünglich der Genitiv gefordert ward, den die Umschreibung durch of ersetzte.

But are you sure that Benedick loves Beatrice so entirely? (SHAKSP., Much Ado 3, 1.) I am not so certain that these much decried children have been dunces (LEWES, G. I. 6.). She was from that moment aware that I fully saw and appreciated her situation (WARREN, Diary 2, 5.). Mr. Pounce was desirous that Fanny should continue her journey with him

(FIELD., J. Andr. 3, 12.). Adjektive, welche einen Affekt bezeichnen, könnten hier ebenfalls in Betracht gezogen werden; wir erörtern sie beim Kausalsatze.

Altengl. Art thou sekyr that we shall spede (Cov. Myst. p. 80.). Þa wes Aurilie wær þat Hengest wolde cumen þær (Lazam. II. 261.). Ags. þonne heó geornast

bið þåt heo âfære fleogan on nette (Ps. 89, 10.). c. Der Nebensatz erscheint auch adnominal in der unmittelbaren Beziehung auf ein Hauptwort.

I have no hope That he's undrown'd (SAAKSP., Temp. 2, 1.). For more assurance that a living prince Does now speak to thee, I embrace thy body (Temp. 5, 1.). Persuasion in me grew That I was heard with favor (Milt., P. L. 11, 152.). A feeling that propels me into a belief that you're in roseate health (DOUGL. JERROLD, Bubbles 1.). I was ever of opinion that the honest man who married . . did more service than he who continued single (GOLDSM., Vic. 1.). That he really was a wonderful child we have undeniable evidence (Lewes, G. I. 18.). My husband has no idea that I have been here (WARREN, Diary 2, 5.). They made a bargain that they would never forsake each other (Goldsm., Vic. 13.). The principle that the king of England was bound to conduct the administration according to law .. was established at a very early period (MACAUL., Hist. of E. I. 31.). The fact that Monmouth was in arms etc. (II. 149.). The circumstance that they were some centuries behind their neighbours in knowledge (I. 66.). Der Nebensatz verhält sich wie ein vom Substantiv abhängiger objektiver Genitiv, oder epexegetisch, gleich einem appositiven Kasus.

Altengl. He leet setten 12 grete stones on here, in tokene that sche had born 12 children (Maundev. p. 72.). In sygne to bere record That kyng Richard was her ovyr-lord (Rich. C. de L. 4591.). This is the cawse . . That 1 with man wylle nevyr melle (Cov. Myst. p. 92.). Thanne gan 1 meten A merveillous swevene That I was in a wildernesse (P. Plougam. 21.). In toke of the miracle, that the watre withdrowghe him 80 (Maundev. p. 104.). He biheihte bire biheste .. pat to hire he wolde teman (LAZAM. I. 54.). Ags. Häfdon gielp micel pät hie við drihtne dælan meahton vuldorfästan vic (CÆDM. 25.). Him väs lust micel, þrät he leód spellode (Boeta., Praef.). Alvalde nele pâ earfetu sylfa habban, pät he on þysne siç fare . . ac gingran sent (Cædm. 510.). Ve vyllað þät ælc man ofer XII vintre sylle þonne âd, pät he nelle þeóf beón nê þeófes gevîta (Legg. Cnut.

I. B. 19.). 2. An die Stelle des Nebensatzes mit that tritt bei den Begriffen der Furcht,

der Besorgniss und des Verhütens der Nebensatz mit lest, welcher sich nicht blos an transitive, sondern auch an intransitive Verba, so wie an Adjektive und Substantive anschliesst, gleich dem lat. Nebensatze mit ne und zum Theil quominus in ähnlichen Fällen die prohibitive Tendenz, dass etwas nicht geschehen solle, ausdrückt, und in der That mit dem negativen Finalsatze einigermassen übereinkommt. Lest wechselt zum Theil mit that und dient bisweilen dazu einem Begriffe im Hauptsatze erst die bestimmtere Beziehung auf Furcht oder Verhütung zu geben,

wie bei sicken, enrage oder look etc.: I fear'd Lest it might anger thee (SIAKSP., Temp. 4, 1. cf. Milt., P. L. 10, 1024. LEWES, G. II. 93.). But do you not fear lest he discover that Clara wrote the letter? (BULW., Money 3, 1.) I dread lest an expedition begun in fear should end in repentance (GOLDSM., G. Nat. M. 5.). I dread every minute lest I should meet some cursed person or other (OXENFORD, Twice Killed 2.). The careful plowman doubting stands, Lest .. his hopeful sheaves Prove chaff (MILT., P. L. 4, 983.). He wisely doubting lest the shot .. Might at a distance gall, press'd close (BUTL., Hud. 1, 3, 503.). Other doubt possesses me, lest harm Befal thee sever'd from me (Milt., P. L. 9, 251. cf. 10, 783.). I trembled lest the thunders of their wrath might dissolve in showers like that of Xanthippe (Scott, R. Roy 24.). I tremble lest he be discovered (Bulw., Lady of L. 2, 1.). I sicken lest I never see thee more (SHERID. KNOWLES, Hunchb. 4, 2.). He was afraid lest the poetical spirit should be swept away along with the prophetical (LEWES, G. I. 73.). He was most enraged lest Such an accident should chance to touch upon his future pedigree (BYRON, Mazeppa). 'Tis a just fear, lest you should prove False (BUTL., Hud. 2, 1, 549). Goethe's greatest anxiety .. was lest his scientific manuscripts should be destroyed (LEWES, G. II. 313.). Could it be, that Fate .. should . . give The skies alarm, lest angels too might die (YOUNG, N. Th. 7, 214.). Beware lest blundering Brougham destroy the sale (BYRON p. 321.). Take heed lest passion sway Thy judgment (Milt., P. L. 8, 635.). Look but somewhat In yonder corner, lest perhaps she lie Conceal’d behind that screen (COLER., Picc. 2, 3.). Diese Satzfügungen sind unter sich ungleichartig, kommen jedoch darin überein, dass die im affirmativen Hauptsatze oder im negativen Fragesatze mit der Voraussetzung seiner Bejahung angenommene negative Tendenz im Nebensatze reflektirt wird, weshalb wir diese Beispiele zusammenstellen.

Im Altengl. ist es vorzugsweise der Begriff der Furcht, bei welchem lest den Nebensatz einführen kann: Marie dredde lest it hadde ben Takmia (Maundev. p. 132.). I drede lest God on us will take venjance (Town. M. p. 21.). He was somdel adrad Leste he hadde for vuel ycome (R. Of Gl. p. 91.). Drede is at the laste Lest Crist in consistorie Acorse ful manye (P. Ploughm. 196.). I am ever in drede, wandreth, and wo Lest Pylate for mede let Jesus go (Town. M. p. 202.). For doute lest he sterve (P. Ploughm. 7416.). Hii habbep of oure londe al pane norþ ende, and we beoþ adrad sore leste he habbe nou more (LAŽAm. II. 107 jüng. T. (neben dem gewöhnlich in solcher Verbindung gebräuchlichen þat im ält. T.]). Schon im Ags. steht þé läs þe: For þam þeic hine ondræde þê läs þe he cume and ofslea þás môdra mid hiora cildum (Gen. 32, 11.), obwohl gewöhnlich pät, ohne Reflexion des aus dem Hauptsatze zu entnehmenden negativen Verhaltens des Subjektes zur Sache, gebraucht wird, wie dies auch die jüngere Sprache zulässt. Bei dem Begriffe der Furcht bietet das Goth. für das dem lat. ne entsprechende

gr. per die Fragepartikel übai, auch ibai aufto (urrws). 3. Nach negativen Sätzen wird sehr gewöhnlich statt eines Substantivsatzes

der von but that oder but eingeführte Nebensatz verwendet. Diese Partikel entspricht mehrfach dem lat. quin, mit welchem sie zwar nicht in

cf.

ihrer exceptiven und der daraus hervorgehenden adversativen Bedeutung zusammentrifft, wiewohl sie eine ähnliche Wirkung übt.

But that und but wird bei negativen Sätzen mit einem Verb der sinnlichen oder geistigen Wahrnehmung, Vorstellung und Aussage angetroffen: I see not then, but we should enjoy the same license (Ben Jons., Every Man out of his Hum., Prol.). I never saw but Humphrey, duke of Gloster, Did bear him like a noble gentleman (SHAKSP., II Henry VI, 1, 1.). I had two friends with me; and as we did not know but that the crowd might be very great, we were on the spot by half past seven (DICKENS, Pict. of It., Rome. cf. SHAKSP., Rom. a. Jul. 5, 3.). Think not but we will share in all thy woes (Rowe, Fair. Penit. 4, l. SHAKSP., Rich. III. 1, 3.). Believe not but I joy to see thee safe (Rowe, Fair Penit. 4, 1.). All the world should not persuade me but I were a cuckold (Ben Jons., Every Man in his Hum. 2, I.). You shall nerer persuade me, but you knew of Mr. Oakly's going out to-day (COLMAN, Jeal. Wife 5, 2.). I cannot be persuaded but that marriage is one of the means of happiness (JOHNS., Rassel. 28.). I can hardly persuade myself but you're alive (DICKENS, M. Chuzzlew. 1, 2.). Father, never dream . . But ill must come of ill (SHELLEY, Cenci 1, 3.). This does not convince me but that marriage is one of the means of happiness (GOLDSM., G. Nat. M. 3.). Yet I'll not pledge myself, but that those letters may furnish you, perchance, with proofs against him (COLER., Picc. 3, 3.). Hier würde die Auslassung des but den entgegengesetzten Sinn hervorbringen.

Ebenso wird an ein elliptisches not der Nebensatz mit but (that) geknüpft: Not but they thought me- worth a ransom . . But for their own sakes, and for fear They were not safe when I was there (BUTL., Hud. 2, 2, 549.). Pray don't desire it of me: not but that you may persuade me to any thing, sooner than any person in the world (SOUTHERN, Oroon. 1, 1.). Not but your father had good qualities etc. (BICKERSTAFF, Lion a. Clarissa 1, 1.).

Derselbe Nebensatz findet statt, wo die Begriffe des Zweifelns oder Abläugnens im verneinten Hauptsatze stehen: I doubt not but I shall find them (SHAKSP., Pericl. 4, 6. cf. All's Well 4, 4. Henry V. 2, 2.). You doubt not but in valley and in plain God is as here (Milt., P. L. 11, 349.). I won't doubt but you'll maintain your word (SOUTHERN, Oroon. 3, 2.). Doubt not but I will use my utmost skill (SHELLEY, Cenci 1, 2.). There is no doubt But that they are murderers of Count Cenci (4, 3.). Neither, o king, I can or will denie But that this hand from Ferrex life hath reft (FERREX A. PORR. 4, 2.). It must not be denied but that I am a plain dealing villain (SHAKSP., Much Ado 1, 3.). It cannot be denied but peace is a great maker of cuckolds (Coriol. 4, 5.). Man findet dies but auch bei der Verwandlung des Nebensatzes in den Infinitiv erhalten: I doubt not but to ride as fast as York (SHAKSP., Rich. II. 5, 2.). I doubt not but to die a fair death for all this (I Henry IV, 2, 2.). I doubt not shortly but to reign sole king (MARLOWE, I. Tamburl. 1, 1. cf. Jew of

M. 1, 2. D. Faust 1, 2.). In diesem Falle kann jedoch der Substantivsatz als Nebensatz eintreten: Being perfectly well acquainted with his father's disposition, he did not doubt that he was glad of this pretence to get rid of him (SMOLLET, R. Rand. 1.). The soldier could not doubt that it was his mistress (COOPER, Spy 6.). I could not doubt that the billet was most probably designed for him (Scott, R. Roy 23.). I made no doubt that the pack was my uncle's (5.). His sentiments remained unchanged; and he could not doubt that they were correct (MACAUL., Hist. of E. II. 192.).

Insofern die Frage mit einem Prädikatsverb der genannten Arten eine negative Antwort voraussetzt, oder zum Ausdrucke einer unsicheren Vermuthung wird, findet but (that) ebenfalls im Nebensatze seine Stelle: 0, who shall believe, But you misuse the reverence of your place (SHAKRP., II Henry IV. 4, 2.). Who knows but I shall die a living death? (Mult., P. L. 10, 786. cf. Butl., Hud. 1, 3, 381.). Who knows, thought I, but it is Hunt himself (IRVING, Br. H., The Stout Gentlem.). Who knows but we may make an agreeable and permanent acquaintance with this interesting family (TH. Hook, Gilb. Gurney 3.). How do I know but you have juggled together in my absence? (SOUTHERN, Oroon. 1, 2.) Can it be doubted but that the finest woman in the world would lose all benefit of her charms etc. (FielD., T. Jon. 5, 1.). Auffallend ist die Mischung der Konstruktion von that und but that in der Wiederaufnahme der Konjunktion nach who knows in: Who knows, thought I, that in some of the strange countries which I am doomed to visit, but that I may fall in with, and shoot one of these terrific monsters? (MARRYAT, P. Simple 1, 1.).

Nach den Begriffen verbieten, verhindern, wo diese an sich negativen Begriffe ohne Verneinung im Hauptsatze vorkommen, wird gleichwohl but im Nebensatze angetroffen: God defend, but still I should stand so (SHAKSP., I Henry IV. 4, 3.). What hinders then but that thou find her out? (ADDIS., Cato 3, 7.).

In Beispielen der hier aufgeführten Kategorien, wie in anderen später aufzuführenden, wird but what statt but that bisweilen angetroffen. s. S. 420.

Ueber den mit but (that) eingeführten Nebensatz und dessen verschiedene Verwendungen wird beim Konditionalsatze das Nähere zu erörtern sein. In wie weit aber but an dieser Stelle mit quin verglichen werden kann, mögen die folgenden lat. Stellen darthun: Dici non potest quin ii qui nihil metuant .. beati sint (Cic., Tusc. 5, 7.).

Nach der elliptischen Negation ist quin durch but ersetzt: Consilium tuum reprehendere non audeo, non quin ab eo ipse dissentiam, sed quod ea te sapientia esse judicem, ut meum consilium non anteponam tuo (Cic., Fam. 4, 7, 1.).

Bei dem verneinten Begriffe des Zweifels und Läugnens: Agamemnon non dubitat, quin brevi sit Troja peritura (Cic., Leg. Agr. 2, 27.). Nemini dubium esse debet, quin reliquo tempore eadem mente sim futurus (Nep. 23, 2.). Itaque (se) negare non posse, quin rectius sit cæt. (Liv. 40, 36.).

Bei Fragesätzen: Quis unquam dubitavit quin in republica nostra primas eloquentia tenuerit semper? (Cic., Or. 41.) Quis ignorat, quin tria Graecorum genera sint vere, Athenienses, Aeoles, Dores? (Flacc. 27.)

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