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You shall have our will because our king (SHAKSP., III Henry VI. 4, 1.). Remember that both Church and State are properly the rulers of the people, only because their benefactors (Bulw., Rienzi 2, 28.). Glory . . is shame and guilt; The deeds that men admire as balf divine, Stark naught, because corrupt in their design (Cowp. p. 1.). He.. was yet more in power with the herd, because in honour with the nobles (Bulw., Rienzi

1, 4.). E. Kondionalsätze werden sehr häufig, in verschiedenartiger Weise verkürzt, mit dem Hauptsatze zusammengezogen.

Why knows not Montague, that of itself England is safe, if true within itself (SHAKSP., III Henry VI, 4, 1.). If rich, they go to enjoy; if poor, to retrench; if sick, to recover; if studious, to learn; if learned, to relax from their studies (ROGERS, It., For. Trav.). Surely, if needful, it is also frightful, this achine (CARLYLE, Fr. Revol. 3, 2, 8.). Much wealth is corpulence if not disease (YOUNG, N. Th. 6, 507.). One guest resided generally, if not constantly, at the Castle of Avenel (Scott, Abbot 1.). The learning and eloquence .. were regarded .. with suspicion, if not with aversion (MACAUL., Hist. of E. I. 80.). Die Verkürzuugen if so und if not weisen auch auf Sätze ausserhalb des Gefüges zurück: The volcanic lavaflood . . will explode and flow according to Girondin Formula and pre-established rule of Philosophy? If so, for our Girondin friends it will be well (CARLYLE, Fr. Revol. 3, 3, 1.). Are you gone mad? If not, pray speak to me (SHELLEY, Cenci 2, 1.). Mehr noch elliptischer Natur ist: As would have .. dash'd his brains (if any) out (BUTL., Hud. 1, 2, 862.). – Reason still, unless divinely taught, Whate'er she learns, learns nothing as she ought (Cowp. p. 105.). I will not fight against thee, Unless compelld (COLER., Wallenst. 2, 8.). Wherefore should we turn To what our fathers were, unless to mourn? (BYRON p. 322.). In die Reihe der hierher gehörigen Partikeln dürfen wir auch but und except stellen: She had no hope but in their errors and misfortunes (MACAUL., Hist. of E. I. 15.). We cannot but admit (I. 20.). No man of English extraction would have risen, except by becoming in speech and habits a Frenchman (I. 15.). s. d. Konditionalsatz.

Auch hier verlässt uns der ältere Sprachgebrauch, wenn wir but ausnehmen. Altengl. Crist' deede nothinge to us but effectuely in weye of mercy (WRIGAT A. HALLIW., Rel. Ant. II. 42.). Ags. Hvâ ârist elles of Syon tô þăm þät he sylle Israêlum hælo, butan þu? (Ps. 13, 11.). þät ic ne þorfte nâ mâre avendan þære

bêc, búton Isaac Abrahames suna (THORPE, Anal. p. 25.). F. Koncessivsätze verhalten sich wie Konditionalsätze.

Although the victor, we submit to Cæsar (SHAKSP., Cymb. 5, 5.). Homer .. who, though the early poet of a rude age, has purchased for the era he has celebrated, so much reverence (Scott, Minstrelsy I. 12.). Hear his sighs though mute (Milt., P. L. 11, 31.). Vipers kill though dead (ShellLEY IV. 3.). It is unfortunate though very natural (CARL., Fr. Revol. 3. 1. 1.). Mr. Effingstone, though such as I have described

him, gained no distinctions at Oxford (WARREN, Diary 1, 12.). You are your own mistress, though under the protection of Sir Anthony (SHERID., Riv. 1, 2.). But it is well to have known it, though but once (BYRON, Manfr. 3, 1.). I disdain'd to mingle with A herd, though to be leader (ib.). I'd joy to see thee break a lance, Albeit against my own perchance (Bride 1, 5.). Freedom has a thousand charms to show, That slaves, howe'er contented, never know (Cowp. p. 8.). Whether with reason or with instinct blest, Know all enjoy that pow'r which suits them best (Pope, Essay on M. 3, 79.). Whate'er the motive, pleasure is the mark (YOUNG,

N. Th. 8, 558.).
G. Auch Verkürzungen des Finalsatzes kommen vor.

Descending now (but cautious lest too fast) A sudden steep, upon a rustic bridge We pass a gulf (Cowp. p. 169.). H. Die Verkürzung der Modalsätze mit as und than gehört allen Perio

den der Sprache an, obgleich sie in neuerer Zeit gleichfalls freier gehandhabt wird. 1. He is, if they can find him, fair . . As summer's sky, or purged air

(Ben Jons. p. 691. II. Gifford). I am as a drop of dew that dies (SHELLEY, Prom. Unb. 4.). It touches you, mylord, as much as me (SHAKSP., Rich. III. 1, 3.). As night to stars, woe lustre gives to man (YOUNG, N. Th. 9, 407.). They loved him not as a king, but as a party leader (MACAUL., Hist. of E. IV. 11.). It does not appear that, as in Homer's time, they were honoured with high places (Scott, Minstrelsy I. 31.). Hudibras wore but one spur, As wisely knowing etc. (BUTL., Hud. 1, 1, 453.). Fernando de Talavera .. looked upon his plan as extravagant and impossible (Irving, Columb. 1, 2.). And next they thought upon the master's mate as fattest (BYRON, D. Juan 2, 81.). Die freiere Verwendung des verkürzten Nebensatzes geht bis zu entschiedener elliptischer Ausdrucksweise: Thou think'st me as far in the devil's book, as thou and Falstaff (SHAKSP., II Henry IV. 2, 2.). The adverse winds .. have given him time To land his legions as soon as I (JOHN 2, 1.). It ought to be as hard a struggle, Sir, as possible (DICKENS, Battle of Life 1.). Die Verknüpfung des verkürzten Satzes mit einem Possessivpronomen wie in: His maxims as a republican (Gibbon, Decl. 15.), führt zu der Anlehnung an ein Substantiv ohne Andeutung eines logischen Subjektes: In the prospect of success as a dramatist (Th. Hook, Gilb. Gurney 1.). 8. S. 344. Kühnere Rückbeziehungen, wie die Nöthigung zur Herübernahme einer passiven Form aus dem Aktiv sind selten: To change the property of selves, As sucking children are by elres (Butl., Hud. 3, 1, 953.).

Altengl. As an apple the urthe is round (Wright, Pop. Treat. p. 132.). That als nedder sal he sitt (ANTICR. 42.). Thei ben blake as the Mawres (Maundev. p. 46.). Hii gon wid swerd and bokeler as men that wolde finte (WRIGHT, Polit. S. p. 328.). Pandras, be stronge kyng, as pryson he nom (R. OF GL. p. 12). Yset in the ende of þe world, as al in the west (I. 1.). Thei lizn as

in a drem (Maundev. p. 288.). That the spere karf thorughout, Also thorugh a wollen clout (Alis. 4458.). Þis Reseamiraduk, als fole & vnwise, His letter gan rebuk (LANGT. p. 246.). Þu ært me leof al swa mi lif (Lazam. II. 269.). He dude al so wis mon (II. 520.). He þe leouede al so his sone (I. 215.). Ags. Ic græde svå gôs (Cop. Eson. 406, 18.). His reáf væron sva snav (Math. 17, 12.). Se selo snâv svâ svâ vulle (Ps. 147, 5.). Heold hig svâ his eagan seón (DeutFR. 32, 10.). Geveorte pîn villa on eorðan sva svä on heofenum (Math. 6, 10.). Deád svâ svâ bûtan orde (GREGOR., Pastor. 40.). Sig hit svå gecveden (Gen. 44, 10.). Þät väter stôd svylce tvegen hêge veallas (Exod. 14, 22.). Se

steorra scân svylce sunnebeam (Sax. CAR. 678.). 2. Wisdom less shudders at a fool than wit (Young, N. Th. 5, 273.).

Beauty's tears are lovelier than her smile (TH. CHAMPBELL, Pleas. of Hope 1.). 'Tis better playing with a lion's whelp, Than with an old one dying (SHAKSP., Ant. a. Cleop. 3, 11.). Now he will have power More to reward than ever (Ben. Jons., Sejan. 5, 10.). Mr. Hillary's temper had become ten times worse than before (WARREN, Diary 2, 5.). Conspiracies no sooner should be form’d Than executed (ADDIS., Cato 1, 2.). Auch die Verkürzung der Sätze mit than berührt sich mit der Ellipse: 1 .. will make thee a greater nation and mightier than they (Numb. 14, 12.). O thou son of Sol, But brighter than thy father (BEN. JOns., Fox 1, 1.). Go let thy less than woman's hand Assume the distaff (BYRON, Siege 4.).

Altengl. He cowþe wel bet than he gouerne such a londe (R. or Gl. p. 106.). More hy ben than olyfaunz (Alis. 5417.). God takith more venjaunce on us than a lord that sodaynly sleeth his servaunt (Wright A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. II. 43.). That peyseth no lasse thenne ten ponge (Halliw., Freemas. 210.). Wimmon weþed for mod ofter þanne fro eni god (Wright A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 182). Bettere it ys or lesse yvele that thei han theyre recreacoun by pleyinge of myraclis than bi pleyinge of other japis (II. 45 sq.). Betere is child unboren þenne unbeten (I. 177.). Bettre art tu þann ure preost (ORM 2827.). Itt iss mare þann inoh (10722.). þat he ne moste libben na lengere pene seouen zere (Lazam. I. 294.). Leofere heom weore to here Karic þene Gurmunde (III. 161.). Ags. Ic eom vræstre þonne he (Cod. Exon. 423, 23.). He väs ær þonne ic (Joh. 1, 15.). Být his setlær svylce þonne môna (Ps. 71, 17.). Seó väs Dryhtne gehâlgad on clænan mägthâde må ponne þritig vintra (Thorpe,

Anal. p. 53.). 3. Die Partikeln as und than stehen oft isolirt vor einem anderen Neben

satze, vor welchem aus dem absoluten Hauptsatze der mit as oder than eingeleitete relative Hauptsatz zu ergänzen bleibt.

And such appear'd, as when the force Of subterranean wind transports a hill Torn from Pelorus (MilT., P. L. I. 230. cf. 594. 612. 675.). You are just so gay as when you are in .good spirits (Bulw., Alice 1, 1.). I have as much forgot your poor, dear uncle, as if he had never existed (SHERID., Riv. 1, 2.). In the vine were three branches: and it was as though it budded (Gen. 40, 10.). I were a fool, not less than if a panther Were panicstricken by the antelope's eye, If she escape me (SHELLEY, Cenci 1, 2.). Nor was his ear less peal'd With noises

.. than when Bellona storms . or less than if this frame of Heav'n were falling (Milt., P. L. 2, 924.). Mine iniquity is greater than that it may be forgiven (Gen. 4, 13. Randglosse). We are contented rather to take the whole in their present, though imperfect state, than that the least doubt should be thrown upon them, by amendments or alterations (Scott, Minstrelsy I. 88.). Damit hängen weitere Verkürzungen des zweiten Nebensatzes zusammen, wie: Words . . spoke as if from Angels (Bulw., King Arth. 8, 20. cf. 8, 17.). Stooping as if to drink (Cowp. p. 169.).

Ueber andere hier gebräuchliche Satzformen s. II. 1. S. 138. und die bei verschiedenen Nebensätzen gemachten Bemerkungen. Aehnliche Zusammenziehungen von Nebensätzen sind im Altengl.: How mowen thei be more taken in idil than whunne thei ben mad japinge stikke, as when thei ben pleyid of japeris (Wright A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. II. 50 ). It scballe falle to the botme of the vesselle, as thoughe it were quyksylver (MAUNDEV. p. 52.). Away they gan flying fare Also theygh hit nought no ware (Alis. 4602.). He sæt stille alse peh he wolde of worlden iwiten (Lazam. II. 298. cf. I. 284. 285 sq.). þatt wollde

bettre Drihhtin Godd .. þann þatt te laffdig være shennd (Orm 1983.). I. Die Ergänzung von Hauptsätzen aus Nebensätzen ist seltener und ver

hält sich wie in beigeordneten Sätzen: But though true worth and virtue in the mild And genial soil of cultivated life . . Yet not in cities oft (Cowp. p. 180.).

Andere Einzelheiten sind bei einzelnen Nebensätzen erwähnt. Das weitere Umsichgreifen der Satzverkürzung und Zusammenziehung ist nur zum Theil durch die Einwirkung des Französischen und der klassischen Sprachen in neuerer Zeit zu erklären.

Satzellipse. Wie im einfachen Satze ein Satzglied, so kann im Satzgefüge ein ganzer Satz fehlen. Dies kann nur ein Hauptsatz sein, da ein fehlender Nebensatz durch kein sprachliches Mittel angedeutet werden könnte; das Wegfallen eines Nebensatzes ist eine Aposiopese.

Die Auslassung des Hauptsatzes beschränkt sich auf wenige Fälle. In der lebendigen Rede kann der Hauptsatz öfter aus dem Ton und der Geberde des Redenden errathen werden. Die Schriftsprache deutet ihn etwa durch die Anwendung von Interjektionen, oder auch nur durch Interpunktionszeichen an, welche den Affekt bezeichnen, der die Unterdrückung des Hauptsatzes motivirt. In ein anderes Gebiet gehören die Nebensätze, denen noch ein unverkennbarer Bestandtheil des Hauptsatzes beigegeben ist. A.Der von that eingeführte Nebensatz, der zumeist als Substantivsatz

anzusehen ist, wird in mehrfacher Beziehung ohne einen Hauptsatz verwendet. 1. Er kann den Inhalt eines Wunsches bezeichnen.

0, that I had her here, to tear her limb-meal! (SHAKSP., Cymb. 2, 4.). Oh, master, that I might have a hand in this! (MARLOWE, Jew

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of M. 2, 2.) Othat Ismael might live before thee! (Gen. 16, 18.) 0 that I was safe at Clod Hall! (SHERID., Riv. 5, 2.) Oh, God, that I were buried with my brothers! (SHELLEY, Cenci 1, 3.) Oh that a painter had been present! (WARREN, Diary 1, 3.).

Der älteren Sprache sind Sätze dieser Art, worin that dem lat utinam entspricht und die einen Hauptsatz mit dem Begriffe des Wunsches voraussetzen, fremd. 8. II. 1. S. 121. Mhd. Daz iuch got bewar! (Parziv. 389, 14.) Aehnlich ist etwa: Mercy, and that ye not discover me (Chauc., C. T. 9861.). Dagegen findet man öfter Sätze, welche auf einen Willensakt oder Befehl zurückgehen: Brynge alwey of the beste .. Anon that it be done (Cov. Myst. p. 184.). In payn of zour godys and zour lyvys, That ze lete hem nowth shape you fro (p. 339.). Peas, of payn that no man pas (Town. M. p. 55.). Ags. And þät пап тап

ne underfô ne länge [var I. nå leng) ponne þreo niht (LEGG. Csut. I. B. 25.). 2. Oder der Nebensatz lässt auf einen Hauptsatz schliessen, welcher Verwunderung, Unwillen, Bedauern ausdrücken würde.

That a king's children should be 80 convey'd! So slacky guarded! (SHAKSP., Cymb. 1, 1.). My brother . . that a brother should be so perfidious! (Temp. 1, 2.). O foul descent! that I who erst contended With gods to sit the highest, am now constrain'd Into a beast (Mill., P. L. 9, 163.). Great God! that such a father should be mine! (SHELLEY, Cenci 1, 2.). O that such eyes should e'er meet other object! (SHERID. KNOWLES, Virgin. 3, 3.).

In der älteren Sprache sind solche Sätze meist von alas oder wa la wa und ähnlichen Ausrufen eingeleitet: Altengl. Alas! that y wes bore! (WRIGHT A. Halliw., Rel. Ant. I. 124.). Allas! that richesse shal reve And robbe mannes soule (P. PLOUGHM. 9182.). Alas! alas! that ever I live! (Wright, Anecd. p. 10.). Allas! that ever knewe 1 Perothous ! (Chauc., C. T. 1229.). Allas, sche seyd, that Y was born! (LAY Le Freine 95.). A, Lord, that I shuld abide this day! (Town. M. p. 39.). Etwas anders gefärbt scheinen Stellen wie: Lord, that Alisaunder was wo! (Alis. 4650.). Alas! alas! that me is wo! (Town. M. 7863.). Wa la wa, þat hit sculde iwurthen swa! (Lazam. II 400.). Wale, þat ich þe uedde! (III. 26.). Wale, þat ich wes iboren! (ib.). Ags. Es là pät nân vuht nis fäste stondendes veorces å vuniende on vorulde! (Boeta. 9.). Ac và là vây bắt hrase bagon and flugon! (SAx. CHR. 999.). Vũ là và bắt ænig man sceolde môdigan svä hine sylf upp-âhebban, and ofer calle men tellan! (1087.). Vgl. Mhd. Daz mir daz solde geschehn! (Iwein 151.) Ouwê daz ich

ie wart geborn (1469.). 3. Auch in Verbindung mit not und only, welche dem unvollständigen

Hauptsatze angehören, ist der Satz mit that als ein Substantivsatz anzusehen. Mit not wird gewöhnlich eine Behauptung im Gegensatze zu einer anderen abgewehrt, mit only als Ausnahme oder Beschränkung gesetzt.

Take me with thee . . Not that I fear to stay, but love to go Whither the queen intends (SHAKSP., III Henry VI. 2, 5.) Men in their loose unguarded hours they take, Not that themselves are wise, but others weak (POPE, Essay on M. 4, 227.). A book's a book, although there's

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