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PROCEEDINGS AND ADDRESSES

OF THE

JOINT SESSION

OF THE

DEPARTMENTS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

AND OF

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION AND MANUAL TRAINING.

DEPARTMENTS OF

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION

AND MANUAL TRAINING,

SECRETARY'S MINUTES.

MARKET HALL, St. Paul, MINNESOTA, July 9, 1890. The joint session of the Departments of Elementary Schools and of Industrial Education and Manual Training was called to order at 3 P. M.; Andrew J. Rickoff, of New York, in the chair.

The meeting opened with repeating the Lord's Prayer; after which Mr. Rickoff made a few opening remarks.

A piano solo was then given.

N. A. Calkins, of New York City, read a paper on “A Course of Manual Training for Primary Classes."

John E. Bradley, of Minnesota, read a paper on “Manual Training in Grammar Grades."

“Manual Training in the Elementary School” was the subject of a paper by W. N. Hailmann, of La Porte, Indiana.

Mr. Hailmann was followed by H. M. James, of Omaha, Nebraska, on “The Influence of Manual Training in Elementary Schools.”

The last paper on the program was “Drawing: A New Method," by Frank Aborn, of Cleveland, Ohio. This paper was illustrated with blackboard drawings. The Department then adjourned.

WILLIAM RICHARDSON, Secretary. (827)

PAPERS.

COURSE OF MANUAL TRAINING IN PRIMARY CLASSES.

N. A. (ALKINS, NEW YORK CITY.

According to the announcement by the program, it appears that I am to speak about primary classes; and from the association of this announcement with others for this meeting, and from the remarks just made by your presiding officer, I conclude that I am expected to say something about the beginning-work in primary classes that leads to manual training. With the hope of aiding you to understand what I may say in relation to this subject, I will endeavor, first, to give you a brief account of steps taken by the Board of Education of New York City for introducing manual training into the public schools there; and perhaps an outline of what was done by one board to overcome difficulties may suggest hints to others as to what may be done elsewhere.

When you remember that the public schools of New York contain about 200,000 pupils, and employ nearly 4,000 teachers-who had received no special instruction in manual training when the Board began to discuss the propriety of introducing this feature of education --and then further consider the cost of the materials and appliances necessary to success in this work, you may be able to realize some of the difficulties to be overcome in beginning a new form of instruction.

The system of public instruction in New York embraces three classes or grades of schools, viz.: Primary, grammar, and college. In the college for boys, mechanical drawing, wood-work and iron-work had been a part of the course of instruction for two or more years, when the City Superintendent was requested to ascertain and report what had been done in manual training, or work leading to it, in schools of other cities. Facts relating to this matter were collected from several cities in the East, in the West, and from other parts of the country, and embodied in a report to the Board of Education.

It was found that the "work-shop” was a prominent feature in the plans for manual training; and that provision for shop-work was generally limited to the pupils of the high schools, and to those of the most advanced class in the grammar schools.

After careful consideration of this subject, the Board of Education decided that if this feature of education was valuable, it should be adapted to and provided for all grades of pupils in each of the three classes of schools — pri

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