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FIRST SESSION. FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, ST. PAUL, Minx., July 9, 1890. The Department of Higher Education met at 3 P. M., and was called to order by the acting President, George R. Cutting, of Lake Forest, Illinois.

Prayer was offered by Rev. Robert Carnaham, of St. Paul.

Three more sessions of the Department were decided upon: one each on the afternoons of July 10 and 11, at half-past two o'clock, and one social session to be held on the evening of July 10 at “The Portland," when a dinner should be served.

Charles A. Blanchard, of Wheaton, Illinois, read the first paper, his subject being, “What Have the People a Right to Ask from the Colleges ?”

M. D. Hornbeck, of Quincy, Illinois, discussed Mr. Blanchard's paper.

H. L. Stetson, of Des Moines, Iowa, read a paper on “Shorter College Courses to meet a Popular Demand.”

H. A. Fischer, of Wheaton, Illinois, opened the discussion of this paper, which was continued by Chas. Scott, of Holland, Michigan; H. W. Everest, of Wachita, Michigan; R. G. Boone, of Bloomington, Indiana ; Mr. Blanchard, of Illinois; W. G. Williams, of Delaware, Ohio; and W. F. King, of Mt. Vernon, Iowa.

After a paper by R. G. Boone, of Indiana, on “A Chair of Pedagogy,” the Department adjourned.

SECOND SESSION.— JULY 10. The second session of the Department was called to order at 2:30 P. M., by the acting President.

Rev. Arthur J. Benedict, of St. Paul, opened the meeting with prayer.

Levi Seeley, of Lake Forest, Illinois, read a paper on “ Pedagogical Training in Colleges where there is no Chair of Pedagogy."

Mr. Seeley's paper was discussed by C. M. Grumbling, of Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, and J. J. Mills, of Indiana. The symposium on “College Administration” was next entered upon.

The first paper was presented by Rufus C. Burleson, of Waco, Texas, a the subject, “Defects in College Discipline.”

The discussion on this paper was carried on by J. M. Ellis, of Ohio; M. D). Hornbeck, of Quincy, Illinois; and Mr. Blanchard, of Illinois.

The President appointed the following Committee on Nomination of Officers: R. G. Boone, Bloomington, Indiana; W. F. King, Mt. Vernon, Iowa; S.C. Mitchell, Clinton, Mississippi ; Levi Seeley, Lake Forest, Illinois; J. A. Weller. Lecompton, Kansas.

The Department then adjourned.

THIRD SESSION-JULY 10. The third session of the Department was a symposium at dinner at "The Portland,” Thursday evening, July 10, at 7 o'clock; President G. R. Cutting in the chair. Over fifty delegates were present.

The divine blessing was invoked by Rev. John Wright, of St. Paul's church, St. Paul.

The theme of after-dinner discussion was: "The Fraternity of Collegt Interests.” Responses were made from the following States:

Georgia - Professor Henry A. Scomp, Emory College.
Illinois - President Charles A. Blanchard, Wheaton College.
Indiana - Professor R. G. Boone, Indiana University.
Iowa President J. T. McFarland, Iowa Wesleyan University.
Kansus — J. A. Weller, Lane University.
Michigan ---Prof. B. A. Hinsdale, Ann Arbor.
Minnesota-H. Goodhue, jr., Carlton College.
Mississippi -S. C. Mitchell, Mississippi College.
North Dakota --S. Estes, University of North Dakota.
Ohio-President Chas. W. Super, Ohio University.
South Dakota --Professor L. A. Stout, Dakota University.
Texas-President Rufus C. Burleson, Baylor University.
Wisconsin --President G. W. Gallagher, Lawrence University.

The Rev. John Wright responded for St. Paul, expressing the deep interest of its citizens in the meeting of college-men.

President R. C. Burleson, of Texas, introduced the usual resolution of thanks to the President, which was adopted.

After some informal remarks by the members, commending the social features of the Department meetings, the section adjourned, to meet Friday, at 2:30,

FOURTH SESSION.—JULY 11. On Friday, July 11, the final session of the Higher Department was held. Prayer was offered by the Rev. Professor J. M. Ellis, of Oberlin College. The symposium upon College Administration was continued. The first

paper was by President M. C. Fernald, of the Maine State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. Theme: “Coöperative Government.”

The second paper under the same subject was by President M. D. Hornbeck, of Chaddock College, Illinois. Theme: “The Relation of the College to the Morals of the Students."

At the close of the paper a committee was appointed to prepare for presentation at the meeting next year a tabulated report upon the requirements for admission of all the colleges of the country. This committee consists of Prof. H. A. Fischer, of Wheaton College, Illinois; Prof. Henry Garst, of Otterbein College, Ohio; and President H. L. Stetson, of Des Moines College, Iowa.

During the afternoon, a deferred paper in the symposium upon College Instruction was heard. The theme was, “The Spiritual Element in Education," by Professor E. F. Bartholomew, of Augustana College, Illinois.

The Committee on Nominations made its report, which was adopted, and the following persons were elected by ballot as officers of the Department:

President- President J. J. Mills, of Earlham College, Richmond, Ind.
Vice-President - - President E. B. Andrews, of Brown University, Providence, R. I.
Secretary --- President C. A. Blanchard, of Wheaton College, Wheaton, Ill.

Executive Committee The three officers named, and in addition Prof. Julius H. Drayer, Roanoke College, Virginia; Prof. Duncan Brown, Highland College, Highland, Kansas.

The President-elect was introduced to the Department by the retiring President.

A resolution was adopted asking the Executive Committee to take steps toward promoting the social feature of the meeting next year. Adjourned.


Secretary, and acting President. - -42





I omit from this discussion the self-evident, and seek to bring to the surface certain considerations which, perhaps, tacitly admitted, are also tacitly omitted, until they are in certain quarters denied.

It requires no argument to show that the people, having devoted large sume of money to the purpose of higher education, and having put these funds under the control of boards of trustees, have a right to ask that these boards shall furnish the instruction for which provision is thus made. All that patience. energy, foresight, and zeal can do to convey to our young people a thorough knowledge of books, the colleges are bound in common honesty to perform.

But if the college stop here, it becomes a sort of a phonograph, slavishly repeating voices of once living, but now dead men. Each age has its own problems; and while knowledge of the past will aid in their solution, the great need of each generation is a set of leaders who know how to lead, and dare to do it.

In business, the love of gain stirs men to the depths of their being; so that there is little need for anxiety as to the efficiency of methods. The great problem of reducing the profits by increasing the output and multiplying sales, is grinding the minds of American merchants to a razor-edge. The colleges have no call to interfere in this field. Laboratories of scientists will be equipped by capitalists interested in inventions; and no man who has an idea which can be turned into dollars will long want for dollars with which to give that idea a local habitation and a name.

It is natural that in such a nation and in such an age as ours there should be, for a time, a chaotic state of public opinion on the subject of education; and one of the first duties of the college is to teach the nation what a liberal education is, what it is for, and how it can be obtained. We are in an age of short courses, electives, manual training, technical schools, and normal universities. The high-school room has imitated the college commencement, diploma, thesis, and course of study, in part. The “practical” men on the boards which handle school taxes have largely omitted Greek and Latin, occasionally inserted German, and have furnished on the whole an illy-balanced course of study.

It is easy for the college to drop into line with this crude and undigested

mass of educational notions, fads, and follies. Men who do know how to make money, but who have never enjoyed a thorough education, can see the value of obviously practical studies, the saving of time involved in short courses, and the increased skill secured by early specialization. These men are frequently generous. They desire to do a good thing for the young people of their own age, and if the college-men wish enlargement without reference to the real interests of society it will not be difficult to secure sums of money for various lines of work that may be helpful to commercial life, but which at the same time will injure the educational interests of the nation.

This leads me to say that the first thing which the people have a right to ask from the colleges is a clear, consistent educational theory. If men who spend their entire time and thought on education do not know what it is, what it requires, and how it is to be attained, it is asking a great deal of business men to expect that they should know; and if college men do understand what education is, the men who furnish the money to carry it forward have a right to ask that these college-men tell the public what they know on this subject so many times and in such forceful fashion as may be needful in order that taxes and gifts for education may not be uselessly expended.

We are not yet out of the experimental stage of our civilization, and it will be many years before we arrive at settled views on many subjects. Nevertheless, progress is being made. There will be few to write hereafter on “Sex in Education.” It will not be long before men will cease to debate the propriety of expending public money to prevent national assimilation in speech. The line between the education which should rest upon taxation and that which should be at the expense of those who desire it, is certain to be drawn. And by-and-by all intelligent men will understand that the purpose of education is not to help men to get a living so much as to make men fit to live.

In bringing order out of the present chaos the people have a right to expect college-men to bear a leading part. Mere specialists are not expected to see the whole field, but those who have laid a broad foundation for the particular department in which they are engaged and who teach in schools devoted, not to the particular notion of some well-meaning, narrow-minded person, but in a school which recognizes the complete nature of man and seeks to develop it harmoniously, these men are expected to teach the people what they have a right to demand in return for the taxes and gifts which are lavished in ever-increasing millions upon education.

Men ignorant of the history of constitutional government may imagine that they can render children patriotic by giving a flag to the school which they attend. College-men know that the springs of patriotism lie altogether too deep to be struck by such surface digging. We banish the word of God from our schools, we cut down devotions, we enlarge athletics, we improve on buildings, we develop a college yell, we dilate on the "Socratic Element" in "Modern Methods,and then seem to hope to make sterling men by contact with a bit of bunting.

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