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in different rooms, several portraits, chiefly of the family, the best of which are the work of Cornelius Janson. Among them there is one of King Charles II., painted by Sir Peter Lely, one of the Earl of Stafford, one of Lord Herbert of Chirbury, and others of various celebrated cha

racters.

The gardens are laid out in parallel terraces, ranged one below the other, connected by flights of steps, and protected by balustrades.

The prospects from the terrace are very extensive, this situation commanding a beautiful view of the town and the Breiddin hills, with much of the cultivated and well-wooded county of Salop.

History of Powis Castle.-Leland informs us that there were formerly at this place two castles included in the same walls. "Welsch Pole had (he says) two lord's marcher's castles within one waulle, the Lord Powys, named Greye, and the Lord Dudley caullid Sutton; but now the Lord Powys hath bothe in his hand. The Welsch Pole castle is in compass almost as much as a little town. The Lord Dudley's part is almost fallen down; the Lord Powys part is meatly good."*

Whether these castles were erected at the same or at different times, and what were their distinct names, it is difficult to learn. None of the writers, except Leland and Camden, mention more than one castle. This was anciently called Pool Castle, from its vicinity to Pool; and Castel Coch, the Red Castle, from the hue of its stone. The name of Powis Castle, which is more modern, it seems to have obtained from its having been the principal place in that division of Wales called Powisland.

Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynvyn, a Welshman who had rendered himself eminent in the reign of Henry the First * Leland's Itinerary.

by his services and bravery, began about the year 1110 to erect a castle here, with an intention of making this the place of his residence; but before the work was finished he was murdered by one of his relations. The castle appears to have been completed before the end of the same century: for in 1191, on various depredations having been committed by the Welsh in the Marches, Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the absence of Richard I. on the Crusades, hastened here, and with a powerful army besieged the castle, at that time in the hands of the Welsh. As soon as the archbishop had obtained possession he fortified it afresh, and he left it with a very strong garrison. The Welsh, however, soon again attacked and re-took it. It changed owners again not long afterwards, for in 1233 it was attacked and seized by Prince Llewelyn ap Iorwerth. It descended to Llewelyn's grandson, Owen ap Griffith, and on his daughter Hawys Gadarn, who was afterwards married to John de Charlton. It continued in their posterity for several generations. In the reign of Henry the Eighth it was purchased by Sir Edward Herbert, the second son of William, Earl of Pembroke, who died in the year 1594.

In October, 1644, Powis Castle was attacked and taken for the parliament by Sir Thomas Middleton. The owner, Percy Lord Powys, was taken prisoner, all his estates were sequestered, and he was obliged to compound for them. During the siege the castle is said to have received much damage in its outer walls from cannon shot.

About six miles from Welsh Pool is a group of three lofty mountains, called the

BREIDDIN HILLS.

The highest and most conical of these has the name of Moel y Golfa; the second Craig Breiddin; and the third Cefyn y Castell. On Craig Breiddin an obelisk was

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199

erected some years ago, by a subscription from several of the neighbouring families, in commemoration of Lord Rodney's defeat of the French fleet, under the command of the Count de Grasse.

BREIDDIN HILLS-LLANYMYNECH.

Just before Llanymynech is a bridge crossing the furious little river VYRNWY, which abounds with fish of various descriptions.

LLANYMYNECH,

The Village of the Miners, is a small white-washed village,
93 miles from Welsh Pool, standing on the northern bank
of the Vyrnwy, and on the borders of Shropshire and
Wales. Its name was evidently derived from the mines in
which the neighbourhood formerly abounded, and which
were worked in the adjoining hill, called Llanymynech Hill,
even so early as the time of the Romans. Of this there
are undeniable proofs. One vestige of their work is a large
artificial cave of immense length, called OGo, from whence
they obtained considerable quantities of copper. The wind-
Some
ings of this cavern are very numerous and intricate.
years ago two men of the parish endeavouring to explore it,
were so bewildered in its mazes that, when they were dis-
covered by some miners who were sent in search of them,
they were found to have thrown themselves on the ground in
despair of ever again seeing the light. Previously to this
period, some miners who were searching for copper, found in
the recesses of the cavern several skeletons, and near them
some culinary utensils, a fire place, and a small hatchet.
These too plainly indicated that the unfortunate wretches
had for some time dragged on a life of misery in this
gloomy mansion. One of the skeletons had a battle-axe by
his side, and round his left wrist there was a bracelet of
glass beads. About fifteen years after this discovery, other
miners found human bones; and in one instance the bone

of an arm clasped by a golden bracelet. Several Roman coins of Antoninus, Faustina and others have also been discovered in this cavern.

From the summit of this hill there is an extensive view towards Shrewsbury on the east; and on the other side, of the more rough and uncultivated country of Montgomeryshire.

A description of Oswestry is given in the First Chapter.

CHAPTER XXII.

OSWESTRY TO BALA.
(30 Miles.)

Llangedwen Hall—Road leading to Llanrhuiadr—Llanrhaiadr—Pistyll Rhaiadr—Vale of Llangynog― Village of Llangynog-Plan for Pedestrians to adopt in visiting Pistyll Rhaiadr—Slate Quarries— Lead Mines — Berwyn Mountains-Rhiwedog-Vale of Edeirnion— Bala— Bala lake-Account of Fish called Gwyniadds found there.

EXCURSION ROUND BALA LAKE.

The Vale of Twrch—Phenomenon called Daear-Dor-Castell Corndochan -Caer Gai-The river Dee.

THE road from Oswestry to Bala leads through the vale of Llangedwen to Llangynog, and the scenery thus far, with the exception of the first three miles and a half, is rich and beautiful. Ten miles from Oswestry is Llangedwen Hall, a handsome stone edifice, the property of Sir W. W. Wynne. The direct road to Bala does not pass through the village of Llanrhaiadr; and as from this village only there is a carriage road to Pistyll Rhaiadr, those persons who are anxious to visit the falls in a carriage must, after leaving Llangedwen, proceed along the direct Bala road for three miles, and then turning to the right, they will find the village of Llanrhaiadr about a mile distant.

LLANRHAIADR,

The Village of the Cataract, is situated in a deep hollow,

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