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estimated at betwixt 501. and 601. a year. The site remained in the crown till the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who, about the year 1578, granted it to Robert Earl of Leicester.

On a bank not far distant there was formerly a British fortress called Castell Cymmer, the Castle of the Conflux. This was demolished about the year 1113, not long after its erection, by the sons of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn, on the occasion of some disagreement with the founder, and it is supposed never to have been rebuilt.

Returning from the abbey to the road crossing the bridge at Llanelltyd, and proceeding along the vale leading towards Tanybwlch, the first waterfall the traveller arrives at is

RHAIADR DU,

The Black Cataract, on the river Gamlan. This is in the grounds which formerly belonged to the late W. A. Madocks, Esq. at Dolmelynllyn, whence it is often called the Dolmelynllyn Fall. The water foams with thundering noise down two rocks about sixty feet high. The scene has a singular appearance from the black adjacent and uncouth rocks being in many places covered with a pure white lichen. The torrent rolls into a small deep basin, from whence it dashes along the rugged channel to the river Mawddach, which flows at no great distance. Mr. Madocks was at the expense of making a good footpath both to the bottom and to the upper part of this cataract, by which the traveller is enabled with comfort to see it to the greatest advantage.

Proceeding about a mile further on the road, and thence walking nearly two miles, a footpath to the right leads to the remaining waterfalls, which are within a few hundred yards of each other. From the side of an eminence, about half a mile from these, the river Mawddach may be seen rolling down a steep in a woody vale above, its hoarse murmuring just reaching the ear. Beyond it, at some distance, there is a rude arch, which crosses the glen, giving a pleasing and romantic cast to the scene.

Descending now (but cautious lest too fast),
A sudden steep upon a rustic bridge,
We pass a gulph in which the hazels dip
Their pendant boughs.

This is a perfectly alpine bridge over the river Cain, formed by the rude trunk of an oak, which hangs frightfully over the black torrent that roars among the rocks many feet beneath.

At a little distance from this bridge is

RHAIADR Y MAWDDACH.

The river here forces itself down a rock fifty or sixty feet in height, whose strata, lying in parallel lines at an inclination of several degrees from the horizon, give to the scene a singularly crooked appearance.

The stream is thrice broken in its descent, and the basin into which it is precipitated is very large. The rocks and trees form an amphitheatre around, and the foreground is finely broken by the large pieces of rock that have been loosened from above. The stream must be crossed before the upper part of the fall, which is hidden by intervening rocks, can be

seen.

PYSTYLL Y CAIN,

The Spout of the Cain, is by far the highest and most magnificent cataract of the three. A narrow stream rushes down a vast rock at least 150 feet high, whose horizontal strata run in irregular steps through its whole breadth, and form a mural front. These indeed are so regular, as in a great measure to destroy the picturesque effect of the scene, unless they are nearly hidden by a much greater volume of

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water than usual. Immense fragments of broken rocks at the foot of the cataract, scattered in every direction, communicate a pleasing effect; and in autumn the agreeable mixture of tints of the dark oak and birch, with the yellower and fading elm, form altogether a highly pleasing

scene.

CHAPTER XVI.

CADER IDRIS.

Origin of the Name of the MountainPlaces from whence it is usually

ascended— Ascent from Dolgelley - Ascent from the Blue Lion-Ascent from BarmouthView from the Summit of Cader Iris.

This mountain had its name from a person called Idris, supposed to have been an enormous giant. The old bardic writings, however, represent him as great in mind rather than in stature: in these he bears the character of a poet, an astronomer, and philosopher. He is supposed also to have been a prince of these parts ; but the period at which he lived is so remote, that little more than his name and talents are now to be ascertained. From the circumstance of the mountain being called Cader Idris, or the Seat of Idris, it is implied that he had an observatory or study on its summit.

The places from which Cader Idris is most usually ascended are Dolgelley, an inn called the Blue Lion, or Idris Hotel, situated on the Machynlleth road, at a distance of 27 miles from Dolgelley, and Barmouth. The distance from the summit of the mountain to Dolgelley is about 6 miles, to the Blue Lion 3, to Barmouth 7.

ASCENT FROM DOLGELLEY.

To the left of the road leading from Dolgelley to Towyn, and at the distance of about 3 miles from Dolgelley, is a

ASCENT FROM THE BLUE LION.

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small gate leading to a narrow lane: here the immediate ascent commences; after proceeding a few hundred yards, Llyn y Gader comes into view, and over it the sea; continuing the ascent a little further, the river Mawddach is visible: the tourist must now proceed to that part of the mountain called the Saddle, and by taking a circuitous but ascending route round it, he will attain the summit of the mountain.

ASCENT FROM THE BLUE LION.

Crossing the fields in a slanting direction from the Blue Lion, the person about to make the ascent will arrive at a rivulet which flows from one of the hollows above, and after any great fall of rain forms several pretty cascades ; ascending from thence, he will reach the mountain hollow that contains the waters of Llyn y Cae,* the Inclosed Pool, from the west side of which rises a stupendous, black, and precipitous rock, called Craig y Cae, that casts a gloomy shade on every thing below it, and throws upon the water its own dismal hue. Its sullen and majestic front is enlivened only with patches of the moss saxifrage, and a few sheep may be seen skipping carelessly among its dangerous steeps. The whole of the scene, from near the edge of the pool, is truly picturesque and grand. To the right of Craig y Cae is Bwlch y Cae, this must be climbed, and the summit is then soon attained.

The ascent from Dolgelley, till within 200 yards of the summit, may be made with ponies, but the path from the Blue Lion is far too rugged and steep for equestrians.

The immediate ascent from Barmouth is nearly the same

* “ Some travellers have mentioned the finding of lava and other volcanic productions here; upon strict examination, however, we were unable to discover any thing of the kind; nor did the water of the lake appear to differ in any respect from the purest rock water, though it was tried repeatedly with the most delicate test."- Aitkin's Tour through North Wales, p. 62.

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