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general, equestrians dismount and walk the last two or three hundred yards.

In order to ascend Snowdon from Beddgelert the tourist must proceed along the Caernarvon road for about three miles, and then turning to the right, commence the ascent. After ascending some hundred yards, Llyn Cwellyn below, shaded by the vast Mynydd Mawr, with Castell Cidwm at its foot, appears extremely beautiful. Upon a clear day may be seen Caernarvon and the whole Isle of Anglesey, spread out like a map before the view. The mountains which from below appear of immense height, seem now to sink, the lakes and vallies grow more exposed, and all the little rills and mountain streams by degrees become visible, like silver lines intersecting the hollows around.

Towards the upper part of the mountain is a tremendous ridge of rock, called Clawdd Coch, the red ridge. This narrow pass, not more than ten or twelve feet across, and two or three hundred yards in length, is so steep, that the eye reaches on one side down the whole extent of the mountain. And in some parts of it, if a person was to hold a large stone in each hand, and let them both fall at once, each might roll to such a distance that, when they stopped, they would be more than half a mile asunder.

A path is now formed which avoids the summit of this ridge, by passing several feet below it, but unless the wind is very high, or the traveller extremely timid, he should by no means avail himself of it, for the view from the summit of the ridge is very grand and wild.

There is no danger whatever in crossing Clawdd Coch in the day-time, but many instances occurred (previous to the formation of the above-mentioned path) of persons who, having passed over it in the night, were so terrified at seeing it by daylight the next morning, that they have not dared to return the same way, but have taken a very circuitous route by Bettws.

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In the hollow, on the left of the ascent, are four small pools, called Llyn Coch, the red pool ; Llyn y Nadroedd, the adder's pool; Llyn Glas, the blue pool; and Llyn Flynnon y Gwas, the servant's pool.

After passing Clawdd Coch the summit is soon reached.*

* There are two other ascents of Snowdon, the one from Llanberis, the other from Llyn Cwellyn on the Caernarvon road, which were frequently selected by tourists;

but the former of these is now much neglected on account of its difficulty, and the latter on account of its being less interesting than the rest. When speaking of the ascent from Llanberis, care should be taken not to confound it with that from Dolbadarn, which is perhaps the best of any.



(By Tremadoc 14} Miles.)

Pont Aberglasllyn— Tradition respecting the BridgeSalmon leap

Roads to Tan y Bwlch -- Tremadoc- Embankment— Tan y BwlchVale of Festiniog.



Village of Festiniog Falls of the Cynfael.

PONT ABERGLASLLYN, The Bridge of the Conflux of the Blue Pool, or as it is sometimes called, the Devil's Bridge, is about a mile and a quarter distant from Beddgelert.

About a mile beyond Beddgelert, the rocks on each side become incomparably grand. The road winds along a narrow stony vale, where the huge cliffs so nearly approach as only just to leave sufficient width at the bottom for the road, and the bed of the impetuous torrent that rolls along the side of it. These lofty rocks, which oppose nothing to the eye but a series of the rudest precipices,“ raised tier on tier, high piled from earth to heaven," seem to forbid all further access and to frown defiance on the traveller.

Fled are the fairy views of hill and dale,
Sublimely thron’d on the steep mountain brow
Stern nature frowns: her desolating rage
Driving the whirlwind, or swoln flood, or blast



Of fiery air imprison'd, from their base
Has wildly hurled the uplifted rocks around
The gloomy pass, where Aberglasslyn's arch
Yawns o'er the torrent. The disjointed crags,
O'er the steep precipice in fragments vast
Impending, to the astonish'd mind recall
The fabled horrors by demoniac force
Of Lapland wizards wrought; who borne upon
The whirlwind's wing, what time the vext sea
Dash'd against Norwegia’s cliffs, to solid mass
Turn’d the swoln billows, and the o'erhanging waves
Fix'd e'er they fell.

It was, probably, from having beheld this very scene, that Giraldus Cambrensis asserted of Merionethshire that it was “ the roughest and most dreary part of Wales, for its mountains were both high and perpendicular, and in many places so grouped together, that shepherds talking or quarrelling on their tops could scarcely, in a whole day's journey, come together. *

In the structure of the bridge there is little else remarkable than that many of the ignorant people of the neighbourhood believe it to have been formed by supernatural agency. They attribute it to the devil, who, they say, proposed to the neighbouring inhabitants, that he would build them a bridge across the pass, on condition that he should have the first that went over it for his trouble. The bargain was made, and very soon afterwards the bridge appeared in its place. But the people were too cunning to adhere to any other than the literal terms of so unequal a bargain; and they cheated the devil by dragging a dog to the spot, and whipping him over the bridge. This, say those who tell the story, was all the recompense this universal agent in difficult undertakings was able to obtain for his labour. Hence they account for this structure having

* Itin. Cam, lib. i. c. 5.


the name of the Devil's Bridge.The formation of the Devil's Bridge in Cardiganshire is also accounted for in the same manner.

A few yards above the bridge the river flows down a range of rocks, eight or ten feet from the surface of the lower water. This cataract is chiefly noted as a salmon leap. Salmon come up the fresh water streams to deposit their spawn on the sandy shallows, and, when impeded in their progress by rocks or dams across the water they have the power of springing to an amazing height above the surface in order to pass over them. This extraordinary power of leaping out of the water is owing to a sudden jerk which the fish give to their body upon changing from a bent into a straight position. The general weight of the salmon caught near Pont Aberglasllyn in August and September is from one to eighteen pounds. About the month of October they become much larger.

From this celebrated bridge there are two roads, that to the left, leading to Tan y Bwlch direct, that to the right, to Tan y Bwlch through Tremadoc, the former of these occupies about 9, and the latter 14} miles ;* and the varied scene of wood, rock, and mountain, accompanying both these roads, is uncommonly fine.

TREMADOC, The town of Madocks, is a neat market town 6 miles distant from Beddgelert, and built on land which originally formed Penmorfa Marsh. This land, to the extent of nearly 2000 acres, was about the year 1800 recovered by the late William Alexander Madocks, Esq. from the sea. It lies three feet below low water mark, and is completely protected from the encroachment of the waters by a substantial embankment.

* Taking post horses the charge is for 16 miles.

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