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manus, who led on the Britons to the famous " Alleluia"* victory obtained over the Saxons at Maes Garmon near Mold.

NANT MILL. About half a mile beyond Bettws, are a beautiful little cascade and bridge, at a place called Nant Mill. This waterfall would appear to much greater advantage in almost any other situation than the present ; for here the black and majestic mountain of Mynyd Mawr, on the right, and the more smooth and regular, though lofty Moel Aelir, on the left of the vale, attract to themselves so much of the traveller's attention, that the little waterfall appears diminutive amidst such surrounding grandeur.

On the right of the road is a pool called

LLYN CWELLYN, Which extends itself for nearly a mile and a half. During the winter season, the Red chart were formerly caught here in considerable quantities. These fish are called by the Welsh Torgoch, or Red belly, and are in season only during the winter.

On the farther edge of the lake, just under and forming part of the mountain of Mynydd Mawr, is

CASTELL CIDWM, Cidwm's fort. This is a high and steep rock, on the summit of which, we are informed, there was once a fortification, one of the guards to the interior of the mountains. This is said to have been founded by the Britons, some time prior to the sixth century. The Welsh people have a tradition respecting this rock, that its summit was formerly inhabited by a giant, or a warrior, called Cidwm. As Constantine, the son of Helen, was marching in the rear of an army,

* An account of this battle is given in an ensuing Chapter.
+ Salmo Alpinus of Linnæus.


towards Merionethshire, he was distinguished from his soldiers by the watchful Cidwm, who was on his station; and though the distance is many times as great as our modern degenerated bows would twang their arrows, yet he aimed one, that, with instant celerity, proved fatal. He was interred in the meadow at the lower end of the lake, in a place now called Bedd y mab, the grave of the son.

LLYN Y DYWARCHEN. Higher up amongst the mountains is a small pool, about the size of a good horse pond called Llyn y Dywarchen the pool of the sod, first celebrated by Giraldus Cambrensis in the account of his journey through Wales in the twelfth century, as containing a floating island.

After passing Llyn Cwellyn, the traveller must proceed westward, between Llyn Cader and Llyn y Dywarchen, and a wild mountainous pass will lead him into Nant Lle, the vale of Lle. The mountains rise on each side to an immense height, those towards the north forming a long range of precipices, singularly marked by the innumerable gullies of the mountain storms. The whole scene is that of savage wildness, of nature in her most dreary attire. It is a narrow pass, encompassed by mountains, uncultivated, and unsheltered on all sides from the fury of the tempests. Proceeding onwards, the scene by degrees begins to extend its limits, and the mountains to attain more varied and elegant forms. At length the two Nantlle Pools, called by the Welsh Llyniau Nantlle, and the whole range of the vale, with the gradually declining mountains, become visible nearly to the

The prospect is exceedingly beautiful; and the number of trees in different parts, and particularly about the foreground, add greatly to the effect. At some distance beyond the farthest lake, the view on looking back is elegantly picturesque, Snowdon in all its grandeur bounds the




end of the vale. The steep black rocks of Mynydd Mawr, on the left, and the craggy summits of the elegant and varied range of the Drys y Coed mountains, on the right of the vale, form a truly elegant middle distance. The expanse of the water of the two lakes, intersected by a narrow isthmus, appears in the bosom of the vale. The rude trunks and weatherbeaten limbs of the old oaks around, not only add beauty to the foreground, but vary, by their intervention, the otherwise too uniform appearance of the meadows of the vale, and of some parts of the mountain's sides. This landscape is not exceeded in beauty by any in North Wales.

Near this place are some slate quarries, where may be found a chasm formed in the rocks that, from its peculiar appearance, is almost as surprising as the excavations in the mountains of Nant Frangon belonging to Mr. Pennant. This is very narrow, long, and deep, its sides being nearly all perpendicular; and to a stranger, unaccustomed to sights of this nature, it will be found very interesting. The mountain in which these quarries are formed is called Cilgwyn, the white retreat ; it is in the parish of Llanllyfni.



TORY OF LLYN, &c. **

The Promontory of Llyn-Dinas Diulle and other Ancient Forts

Clynog— Beuno's Chapel and ChestCuriosities in the Neighbourhood of Clynog-Nevin-Porthdinllyn— Pwllheli— Island of Bardsey~ History of Bardsey-Hell's MouthCriccieth and CastleSir Howel y Fwyall— Penmorfa- Sir John Owen.

The promontory of Llyn, or that division of Caernarvonshire which juts out into the Irish sea, affords very

little that can be interesting to the tourist. In the more northerly parts a considerable quantity of corn is grown; so much indeed as to supply nearly all the rest of the county. The further extremity is, in general, bleak, open and exposed.

DINAS DINLLE, An ancient fort, is the first place of any consequence that the traveller arrives at. This is situated on the summit of a green eminence, immediately on the coast. In a stream called Voryd, that flows not far from the place, there are two fords, which to this day retain the names of Rhyd equeste and Rhyd pedestre, (Rhyd being the Welsh word for ford), and are understood by these names to mean the horse and foot fords. The mount on which the fort was

* Those persons who are desirous of making this excursion, had better defer seeing the objects described in the last Chapter, and take them in their return from Penmorfa by Beddgelert to Caernarvon.

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constructed is supposed to have been artificial. It is so near the sea, that at high tides the water comes entirely up to it; on the side towards the water, the bank is very steep. The fort was of a circular form, and about 400 feet in diameter. On all sides, except towards the sea, it was defended by a deep fosse, five or six yards wide. The principal entrance was on the east side. The station not only commanded the whole of Caernarvon Bay, its creeks and harbours, but a great part of the county of Caernarvon and of the isle of Anglesey was also within sight of the garrison. To this great centre of observation and action correspond several other forts, that lie diagonally across the country, some towards the north and others towards the south ; which, like the wings of an army, were of infinite service to this part of the country, in times of danger, for its safety and protection. The most considerable on the east are Dinorddwig in the parish of Llanddiniolen, and Yr Hên Gastell and Dinas Gorfan, both in the parish of Llanwnda, and about three miles distant. Towards the south, one of the most rocky is Craig y Dinas. On the river Llyfni, about a mile and a half distant, Dinorddwig, or as it is now called, Pen Dinas, is still entire, and has a ditch and rampart. Yr Hen Gastell, the old castle, near the brook Carrog, is a small entrenchment with a single rampart, about fifty paces in length. Dinas Gorfan, near Pont Newydd, the new bridge, has merely the name remaining.

Craig y Ddinas, the rocky fort, is a circular encampment, about 100 paces in diameter, very steep towards the river that passes it on the south, as it is also on every other side except the west. The ramparts, with a treble ditch, are composed of loose stones. The entrance is towards the north, very narrow, and forty paces in length. This fort is about a mile from Caernarvon and Pwllheli. Farther on towards the extremity of the diagonal line, is the foot of Llanhaiarn

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