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The following translation of a few words of frequent occurrence will be a key to the meaning of the names of many of the places :

Aber, a confluence; the fall of one river into another, or

into the sea, as Aberdovey, the confiux of the Dovey. Afon, or Avon, what flows; and thence a stream or river. Am, about, around. Allt, a cliff; the steep of a hill. Ar, upon; bordering or abutting upon. Ban, high, lofty, tall. Bach, and Bychan, little: feminine Vychan and Vechan. Bedd, a grave or sepulchre. Bettws, a station between hill and dale. Blaen, a point, top, or end. Bód, a dwelling, residence, or station. Braich, a branch, an arm. Bryn, a hill. Bychan, little, small. Bwlch, a gap or pass between rocks. Cader, a keep, fortress, or stronghold; a chair. Cae, an inclosure, a hedge. Caer, a fort, or fortified place, generally constructed with

stones and mortar. Capel, a chapel. Coed, a wood. Carn, a heap. Carnedd, a heap of stones. Castell, a castle. Cefen, a ridge; a high ground. Clawdd, a dike, ditch, or trench; and sometimes a wall or

fence. Clogwyn, a precipice.

Craig, a rock :- from this the English word crag is de

rived. Cél, a retreat, a recess. Cwm, a great hollow or glen. Dinas, a fort, or fortified place, constructed in general with

a rampart of loose stones and earth without any ce

ment. Dól, a meadow or dale in the bend of a river. Drws, a door, pass, or opening. , black. Dwfr, or Dwr, water. Dyffryn, a wide cultivated valley. Eglwys, a church. Ffordd, a way, a road, a passage. Fynnon, a spring, well, or source. Gallt, a cliff, an ascent, the side of a hill. Garth, a mountain that bends round, or that incloses. Glan, a bank or shore. Glás, bluish, or greyish green. Glyn, a deep vale, through which a river runs :-from

hence was derived our word glen.
Gwern, a watery meadow.
Gwydd, a wood; woody or wild.
Gwyn, white.
Gwys, a summons.
Havod, a summer residence.
Is, lower, inferior.
Llan, a smooth plot; a place of meeting; the church place,

or village; and, figuratively, the church.
Llech, a flat stone or crag; a smooth cliff.
Llwyn, a grove, or copse.
Llyn, a pool, or pond.
Maen, a stone.

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Maes, an open field.
Mawr, great; feminine, Vawr.
Melin, a mill.
Moel, fair ; bald; a smooth mountain.
Morfa, a marsh.
Mynydd, a mountain.
Nant, a ravine; a brook.
Newydd, new ; fresh.
Pant, a narrow hollow or ravine.
Pen, a head, top, or end.
Pentref, a village or hamlet.
Pistyll, a spout; a cataract.
Plás, a hall or mansion.
Plwyf, a parish.
Pont, a bridge.
Porth, a port; a ferry.
Pwll, a pit; a pool.
Rhaiadr, a cataract.
Rhiw, an ascent.
Rhôs, a moist plain or meadow.
Rhyd, a ford.
Sarn, a causeway.
Tal, the front, head, or end.
Tan, under.
Traeth, a sand on the sea-shore.
Tre, or Tref, a township.
Tri, three.
Troed, a foot, or skirt of a hill.
Twr, a tower.
Ty, a house.
Yn, in, at, into.
Ystrad, a vale.
Yspytty, a hospital; an almshouse.





ENTERING Wales by the Great Holyhead road, Chirk is the first place which the traveller reaches. This village is situated on the northern bank of the river Ceiriog, which separates the counties of Denbigh and Salop, and consequently England and Wales. Strictly speaking, therefore, a tour through North Wales (if the route laid down in the following pages be adopted) commences with Chirk; but as Shrewsbury, Oswestry* and Brynkinnalt* are so im

Oswestry and its hundred, at the making of Domesday, formed a part of Wales. They were annexed to England in the eighth year of the reign of Edward I.

† Brynkinnalt is partly in England and partly in Wales, a portion of the grounds being in Shropshire, and the remainder, together with the house, in Denbighshire.


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