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Art. Sec.

New York city- judicial district,.. 6

inay have more than four jus-
tices of supreme court, ....

6
to have city courts,

6
courts into continue until al-
tered,

14

10

Oath of office,..

12
Officers-county, how to be elected
or appointed,

10
city and town, how to be elected
or appointed,

10
other, elected or appointed as
law shall direct,

10
removal of other than judicial,
local or legislative,

10
militia, how chosen,

11
major-generals, &c.,

11
oath of,

12
tenure of,

10
Oyer and terminer—[see Court of.]
Pardons and commutations, &c.,... 4

laws may be passed regulating

mode of applying for, . 4

governor to report yearly, . 4
Practice of courts to be simplified,. 6
Petition-right of, not to be abridged, 1
President of the senate-lieutenant-

governor, casting vote,.. 4
pro tem., when chosen,

3
when to act as governor, .

4
Personal liability of stockholders and
corporators, &c.,

8
in banking corporations,
Pleadings to be revised and simpli-
fied,..

6
Political year-when to begin,.. 10
Property—not to be taken without
process of law,.....

1
without just compensation, 1
value to be ascertained,.

1
by jury for private road, . 1
public—for local or private pur-
poses,

1
ultimate, in lands.

1
rights of, not affected,

1
Private road, may be opened, . 1

damages to be found by jury,. 1
Private or local bills,...

3
Punishment--not cruel or unusual,. 1
Public money or property for local
or private purposes, .

1
not to be paid without appro-

priation in two years, ...... 7
Qualification of members of legisla-
ture,

3
Quarter sales—to be void,

1
Question on bill to borrow morley
how put, ...

7
Quorum-majority of each house,.. 3

three-fifths of each house re-
quired,

7

Art Sec
4 | Register in New York, ....

10
Religion--freedom in, secured,... 1
4 Removal of judges, .

6 1
14 decrease of districts not to effect 6 1
of justices of the peace,

6 1
12 of judges of inferior courts, if
not of record, ......

6 1
1 of judges of inferior courts, if
of record,

6 1
2 of officers, other than judicial,
local, or legislative, .

10
2 Reports of decisions to be published, 6

Resolutions, certain-law of the state, 1 1
2 Residence of electors—what shall be, 2

of person eligible to the office
7
of governor, ;

4
2 Reprieves—and pardons for offences, 4
3 Revenues of canals—to pay superin-
1
tendence and repairs,

7
3 to pay $1,300,000 on canal
debt yearly,

7
to pay $1,700,000 on canal
5
debt yearly,

7
to pay $350,000 on general
5
fund debt,

7
5 to pay $1,500,000 on general
24
fund debt,

7
10 to repay deficiency in sinking
fund,

7
7 to pay $200,000 to expenses
of government, .

7
7 to pay $350,000 to expenses
of government,

7
2 to pay $672,500 to expenses of
7
government,

7
Rules-each house to determine its
24
own,

3 11
6

Salt springs—not to be sold, ...... 7
6 lands contiguous-may be sold, 7
6 State engineer and surveyor, . . .

5
7 commissioner of land office,

5
7 member of canal board, .

5
Statutes-certain, law of this state, 1 11
9 to be published, publication
11
free,

6
18 State prisons, .

5
7 Secrecy of legislative proceedings-
when allowed,

3 11
16 Secretary of state-election and
5
tenure of office,

1
compensation, not to receive
9
fees,

5
commissioner of the land office, 5
8 of the canal fund,

5
member of the canal board,
Senate-number of senators, .

3
10 districts,

3
15

when and how altered,
compensation,

3
12 not to receive civil appoint-
10
ments,

3
majority to constitute a quo-
14
rum,

3 10

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Art. Sec.

11

Art. Sec.
Senate to determine its own rules

Supervisors—boards of, may have
and judge of elections, &c.,. 3 10 local legislation,

3 17
to keep journal and open doors, 3

may apply for election of officers
not to adjourn without consent

to act as surrogate, &c., .... 6 15
of assembly,

3 11 Supreme court—of law and equity, 6 3
freedom of debate secured, 3 11 Surrogate--county judge to perform
majority requisite to pass bills, 3 15

duties of,..

6 14
question on bills to be taken

separate office..

6 14
by ayes and nays,...
3 15 in case of inability or vacancy, 6

15
extra session may be convened, 4 7

how removed,

6 11
president of, and pres't pro tem., 4 4 Surveyor-state, I see Engineer and
members of the court for the

Surveyor.)
trial of impeachments,

... 6

1
may remove judicial officers on
Taxation-colored persons exempt, 2

1
recommendation of governor, 6 11 cities and villages to be restrict-
may remove militia officers on

ed in,....

8 9
recommendation of governor, 11 5 Tax direct—to support government, 7 3
may appoint on nomination of

to supply deficiency in sinking
governor,

11 3
fund,

7 5
first election of senators, &c.,. 14 1 to be repaid from canal reve-
incumbents, when to go out of

nues,

7
office,

14 1 law to state distinctly object of, 7 13
Sessions, court of—by whom held, 6 14 bill for; how to be passed, .... 7 14
Speaker of the assembly-commis-

Travel of members of the legisla-
sioner of the land office, .. 5 5

ture,

3 6
compensation of,

3 6 Testimony in equity cases — how
Speech-freedom of secured,

1 8
taken,

6 10
in legislative debate,...

3 12 Treason

-governor may suspend
Specie-payments not to be sus-

execution of sentence, .

4 5
pended,

8 5 legislature may pardon,. 4 5
Sheriffs - election and tenure of

Treasurer-election and tenure of
office,

10 1
office of,

1
vacancy in office of,.

10 5 compensation of, not to receive
to hold no other office, and ine-

fees,

5 1
ligible for next term,

10 1 commissioner of the land office, 5 5
to renew security,...

10 1 commissioner of canal fund,.. 5 5
county not to be responsible

member of the canal board, ... 5
for acts of,..

10 1 may be suspended by governor,
governor may remove,.

1

and vacancy supplied, . 5 7
time of election of,

10 4 Treasury-no money to be paid,
Sinking fund—$1,300,000 from canal

without appropriation,

8
revenues yearly,...

7 1 Title of bills-local and private, . 3 16
$1,700,000 from canal revenues

Tribunals of conciliation,

6 23
yearly, ...

7 1 Town officers to be elected or ap-
$350,000 from canal revenues

pointed,..

10 2
yearly,......
7 2 Three-fifths necessary for quorum,. 7

14
$1,500,000 from canal revenues

Two-thirds of all elected to pass cer-
yearly,

7 2
tain bills,

1 9
if deferred, interest to be com-

of all present on bill returned
puted on,..

7 2
by governor, .

4 9
dues from incorporated compa-

of all present to change mode of
nies, part of,

7 4

electing militia officers, &c.,. 11 6
money may be borrowed on

of all elected to remove judge
credit of,

7 5

or justice of supreme court. 6 11
money to be repaid from canal
revenues,

7 5 United States officers, judicial, or
School fund, .

9 1

military, not to hold seat in
Safirage rights of, .

2 1
legislature,

8
who may be deprived of,. 2 2 deposit fund, income of,.... 9 1

proofs of, how ascertained,.... 2 4
Sapervisors-to make assembly dis-

Vacancy in office of treasurer, ...

5 7
tricts,

3 5 judge of court of appeals, and
of New York city, to make sen-

justice of supreme court, .... 6 13
ate districts,

3 3 county judge in certain cases, . 6 15

10

Art. Sec.

Vacancy in office of justice of peace, 6
sheriffs, &c.,...

10
legislature to declare what con-
stitutes,

10
provide for supplying,.

10
Veto of the governor,

4
Villages may be created by special
acts,

8
judicial officers in, to be elected, 6
to be restricted in powers of
taxation,..

8
officers in, to be elected or ap-
pointed,

10
courts in,

14
Votes-certain, for members of le-
gislature, void, .....

3
by soldiers-amendment.

Art. Sec.
17 Votes — for judges of the court of
5
appeals,

6 8
supreme court,

6 8
8
5 Weighing—all offices for, abolished, 5 8
9 Weights and measures-standards
of,

5 8
1 Witness, religious belief of,... 1 3
18 not to be unreasonably detained, 1

not to testify against himself,.. 1
9 Writs of error to the court of ap-
peals, ..

6 20
2
12 Year-political and legislative term, 10 6

Yeas and nays-(see Ăyes and Nays.]
7

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37

CONSTITUTION

OF THE

STATE OF NEW YORK.

Adopted November 3, 1846.

We, the people of the state of New York, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure its blessings, do establish this constitution.

16 J. R., 233; 17 J. R., 108, 195, 225; 19 J. R., 153; 20 J. R., 313; 7 J.

C. R., 297; 1 Cow., 450; 3 Cow., 713; 4 W., 9; 10 W., 547; 18 W.,
9; 20 W., 365; 21 W., 563; 24 W., 215, 337; 26 W., 43; 3 Pai.,
45; 5 Pal., 137; 6 Pai., 554; 11 Pai., 484; 1 B. C. R., 547; 5 H.,
317, 468; 6 H., 47; 3 D., 381; 3 B., 196; 4 B., 56; 9 B., 350 ; 14
B., 405, 559; 18 B., 583; 24 B., 232, 248, 446; 27 B., 575; 1 N. Y.,
536; 3 N. Y., 511; 4 N. Y., 276; 6 N. Y., 176; 7 N. Y., 9, 109; 9
N. Y., 100°; 12 N. Y., 541; 13 N. Y., 378; 16 N. Y., 501; 17 N.
Y., 235; 18 N. Y., 38; 22 N. Y., 128.

ARTICLE I.

SECTION 1. No member of this state shall be disfranchised or deprived of No person any of the rights or privileges secured to any citizen thereof, franchised. unless by the law of the land or the judgment of his peers.

1 Cow., 550; 6 H., 47; 3 D., 382; 4 D., 374; 15 W., 436; 20 W., 365 ;

8 Cow., 543; 3 B., 196; 4 B., 64; 13 N. Y., 383; 14 N. Y., 423;
19 N. Y., 445.

SECTION 2. The trial by jury, in all cases in which it has been hereto- Trial by fore used, shall remain in violate forever. But a jury trial may be waived by the parties in all civil cases in the manner to be prescribed by law.

2 Cow., 815; 1 H., 355 ; 6 H., 75; 5 W., 251, 468; 8 W., 85; 10 W., 449 ; 3

Pai., 45; 24 W., 337; 10 B., 35; 14 B., 425; 18 B., 412; 20 B., 625; 13 N.
Y., 378; 16 N.Y., 501; 18 N.Y., 199; 27 N.Y., 148; 39 B., 115; 17 A., 4.

SECTION 3.
The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and Religious

liberty. worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever

&c.

be allowed, in this state, to all mankind : and no person shall
be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account of his
opinions on matters of religious belief; but the liberty of
conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to
excuse acts of licentiousness or justify practices inconsistent
with the peace or safety of this state.
18 J. R., 93; 2 Cow., 432.

SECTION 4.
Habeas

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be corpus.

suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.

SECTION 5.
Bail, fines, Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines

imposed, nor shall cruel and unusual punishments be inflicted,
nor shall witnesses be unreasonably detained.
13 N. Y., 378.

SECTION 6. Bill of No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise rights. infamous crime (except in cases of impeachment, and in cases

of militia, when in actual service; and the land and naval forces in time of war, or which this state may keep with the consent of congress in time of peace; and in cases of petit larceny, under the regulation of the legislature), unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury, and in any trial in any court whatever, the party accused shall be allowed to appear and defend in person and with counsel, as in civil actions. No person shall be subject to be twice put in jeopardy for the same offence; nor shall he be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

2 J. C. R., 162.; 20 J. R., 103; 3 Pai., 45; 5 Pai., 137; 7 Pai., 598; 4

W., 9; 10 W., 449; 11 W., 148; 14 W., 54; 15 W., 374, 451 ; 17 W., 649; 18 W., 9; 19 W., 654; 20 W., 365; 24 W., 65; 25 W., 462; 4 Cow., 195; 5 Cow., 346; 7 Cow., 585; 2 D., 272; 1 H., 324; 3 H., 567; 4 H., 140; 6 H., 47; 3 B., 275, 459; 4 B., 64, 295; 5 B., 474; 7 B., 297, 416, 508; 8 B., 358; 9 B., 449, 350; 14 B. 405; 15 B., 255, 627; 18 B., 619, 159; 19 B., 118, 166, 179; 21 B., 513; 24 B., 232, 658; 25 B., 9; 3 N. Y., 511; 4 N. Y., 195, 419; 5 N. Y., 285; 6 N. Y., 358, 522; 7 N. Y., 314; 8 N. Y., 241; 9 N. Y., 100; 11 N. Y., 308; 12 V. Y., 209, 486; 13 N. Y., 378, 143; 18 N. Y. 38, 199; 19 N. Y., 116; 25 N. Y., 416; 24 How. P. R., 369, 388.

SECTION 7. Private When private property shall be taken for any public use, and roads. the compensation to be made therefor, when such compensa

tion is not made by the state, shall be ascertained by a jury, or by not less than three commissioners appointed by a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law. Private roads may be opened in the manner to be prescribed by law; but in every case the necessity of the road, and the amount of all damage to be sustained by the opening thereof, shall be first

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