Language Shifts Among the Scheduled Tribes in India: A Geographical Study
The present work attempts to identify spatial patterns fo the extent and nature of language shifts among the tribal population in India. It provides social, economic and political dimensions of changing linguistic identity. Based on both secondary and primary data, some of the socio-economic variables have been statistically tested through Correlation and Regression to determine the relationship with language shifts. The impact of urbanisation and regional development on the linguistic behaviour of the tribal population has been analysed.The study rejects the claim that language shift indicates the process of integration--rather it shows the process of assimilation of the tribal people into the majority culture group. In fact, language shifts among these societies have been perceived more often as social compulsions.The study emphasises the need of promoting and preserving the tribal languages as these are cultural heritage of India. The study may provide a basis to understand the dynamics of language shift--as it might have implications of language planning in multilingual societies like India.
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80 per cent accounted areas Assam assimilation Austric Austric languages BANGLADESH belonging Bhili Bhils Bihar bilingual census cent cent per cent central chapter classified communities concentrated considered correlation cultural decadal declared degree of language dependent dialect DISTRIBUTION districts Dravidian East Nimar factors growth hand high degree higher Hills Hindi household important included India indicating Indo-Aryan languages Jalpaiguri Kharia Khasi Korkus lakh persons language maintenance language shift less linguistic groups located Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra major medium mother tongue Mundari Mundas Murhu nature non-regional non-tribal languages Orissa percentage persons in 1971 pocket political positive Ranchi regional languages registered relationship remaining result revealed Santals Savara share shift and maintenance shows Singhbhum social speakers speaking spoken Table town traditional language tribal groups tribal languages tribal population tribes Tripura urban urbanisation variables variation varies villages W.Bengal West Bengal whereas
Page 4 - Social and cultural tables. Delhi. CENSUS OF INDIA 1981, Series I, India, households and household population by language mainly spoken in the household, Paper-I of 1987. Delhi.