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avoid the cetacea, fly to shoal places, where they are more easily taken by the fishermen.

There are various and noble rivers, the chief of which they call Patawomek,* suitable for navigation, flowing one hundred and forty miles towards the east, where a trade with the Indians is so profitable, that a certain merchant, the last year, shipped beaver skins at a price of forty thousand pieces of gold, and the labor of traffic is compensated by thirty-fold profit.

In the level and campaign country, there is a great abundance of grass; but the region is for the most part shaded with trees; oaks and walnut trees are the most common, and the oaks are so straight and tall that beams can be made from them, sixty feet long, and two feet and a half thick. Cypress trees will shoot up eighty feet before they send forth branches, and three men with extended arms scarcely encompass them. The mulberry trees that feed silk worms, are very common. There is also found an Indian grain which the Portuguese call Vove de Vhierica. Alders, ashtrees, and chesnuts, not inferior to those which Spain, Italy, and Gaul produce—cedars equal to those which Lebanon boasts. What shall I say of the pine, laurel, fir, sassafras, and others, with various trees also which yield balsam and odoriferous gum—trees for all the most useful purposes— for architecture, for nautical uses, for plank and pitch—naptha, terebinth, and mustard, for perfumes, and for making cataplasms? But the woods are passable, not rough, with an undergrowth of thorns and shrubs, but formed by nature to afford food to beasts, and pleasure to men. There are grapes in abundance, from which wine can be pressed; you can meet with some whose juice is thick and unctuous; the inhabitants employ it as a medicine. There are cherries, with prunes, and gages very like ours. Of prunes there are three kinds. Mulberries, chesnuts, and walnuts are so abundant that they are used in various ways for food. Strawberries and esculent blackberries you will, in like manner, find.

Of the fishes, those that follow have already come into notice: sturgeons, herrings, phocenae, crevices, shrimp, torpedoes, trouts, mullets of three kinds, urchins, rochet-fish, white salmon, oystere, periwinkles, and others of that kind, of innumerable names and unknown species. But so great is the abundance of swine and deer that they are rather troublesome than advantageous. Cows also are innumerable, and oxen suitable for bearing burdens or for food; besides five other kinds

of of large beasts unknown to us, which our neighbors admit to their table. Sheep will have to be taken hence or from the Canaries; asses also, and mules and horses. The neighboring forests are full of wild bulls and heifers, of which five hundred or six hundred thousand are annually carried to Saville from that part which lies towards New Mexico. As many deer as you wish can be obtained from the neighboring people. Add to this muskrats, rabbits, beavers, badgers, and martens, not however destructive, as with us, to eggs and hens.

* Potomac.

Of the birds, the eagle is the most voracious. Of hawks there are various kinds, which live in a great measure on fish. There are partridges, not larger than our quails, but almost infinite in number. Innumerable wild turkies, which excel our tame and domestic ones, by double the size. There are also blackbirds, thrushes, and a great many little birds, of which there are various kinds, some red, some blue, &c.,&c. During the winter it abounds in water-fowl: swans, geese, cranes, and herons—ostriches, owls, parrots, and many others unknown to our part of the world. It bears apples, lemons, and the best quinces. The apricots also are so abundant, that an honorable man and worthy of credit positively affirmed that he had cast an hundred bushels to the hogs. What shall I say of the lupines, the most excellent beans, roots, and other things of this kind, when even in ten days peas grow to fourteen inches height? It is so fruitful in king's corn, that in the most barren places it returns the seed twice an hundred fold; otherwise, and for the most part, from one grain five hundred or six hundred grains; while in the more productive years from fifteen hundred to sixteen hundred grains, and this indeed in one harvest, whereas the fertility of the soil affords three harvests. That I may draw to a close presently, it is very likely that the soil is adapted to all the fruits of Italy, figs, pomegranates, golden olives, &ic, &c.

Nor are there wanting things that may be of use to conjurers and apothecaries—nor is plenty of iron, hemp, and flax wanting to their hand. There is hope also of finding gold, for the neighboring people wear bracelets of unwrought gold, and long strings of pearls. Other advantages, both numerous and lucrative, may be expected, which sagacious industry and long acquaintance will discover.




On the 22d of the month of November, 1633, on St. Cecilia's day, the east wind blowing gently, we weighed anchor from Cowes, situated in the isle of Wight. When we had first placed the principal parts of the ship under the protection of God, the most holy Mother, St. Ignatius, and all the other guardian angels of Maryland, being carried a short distance between the two headlands, for want of wind we came to anchor off the Castle of Yarmouth, which is a port on the west of the same island. Here we were saluted by the festal thunders of the cannon. We were not free from fear, however; for the sailors began to murmur among themselves that they expected a messenger from London with letters, and so appeared to frame causes-of delay. But God interrupted their wicked designs, for the same night a favorable, but strong wind blowing, a French barque, which had lain in the same port with us, being compelled to weigh anchor, nearly drove against our pinnace. Therefore, to prevent being run down, one anchor being cut loose and lost, she hastened to make sail as quick as possible, and since it is dangerous to be tossed by the waves in that place, she put out to sea. Therefore, lest we should lose sight of our pinnace, we determined to follow; so that whatever designs the sailors contemplated against us, were frustrated. This happened on the 23d of November, St. Clement's day, on which he, being bound to an anchor and cast into the sea, obtained a crown of martyrdom, and afforded to his people a way to land, as the miracles of God declare.

So the next day, at ten o'clock in the morning, being honored again by a salute from the Castle of Hurst, we were carried beyond the breakers at the extremity of the Isle of Wight, which from their form, they call the Needles. But these are a terror to sailors on account of the double tide of the sea; on this side hurrying and dashing the ships upon the rocks, and on

the the other side against the neighboring shore. To say nothing of the other imminent danger which we escaped at the Castle of Yarmouth, here the wind and tide raging while we remained, the anchor not yet being weighed and secured, the ship was almost dashed on shore, unless on a sudden, by great exertion, having tacked, and shipping a sea, we escaped the danger, by a propitious God, who vouchsafed to us this pledge of his future protection, through the merits of St. Clements.

On that day, which fell on the Sabbath, and on the succeeding night, we enjoyed winds so favorable, that the following day, about nine o'clock in the morning, we left behind us the western promontory of England and the Scilly isles; in a gentle course turned rather towards the west, coasting along the British ocean, nor running as fast as we could, lest, leaving the pinnace too far behind, it might fall a prey to the Turks and pirates for the most part infesting that sea. Hence it came to pass that a fine merchant ship of six hundred tons burden, by the name of the Dragon, which having sailed from London was going to Angola, overtook us about three in the afternoon. And since our dangers being passed, we were induced to take a little enjoyment; it was delightful to behold the two ships contending together in their course, and with the clangor of trumpets, while sky and air resounded again.

On Lord's day, the 24th, and Monday, the 25th of November, until evening, we enjoyed a prosperous sail. But then, the wind having sprung up towards the north, there arose so great a storm that the London merchant ship of which I spoke, retracing its course, steered for England, and a port celebrated among the Paumonians. Our pinnace, too, for it was only of forty tons burden, began to be distrustful of its strength, and heaving to, advised us, that, if it feared shipwreck, it would signify it by lights shown from the masthead.

We were carried in the meantime in a strong ship, of four hundred tons burden, as good as could be framed of wood and iron. We had a most skilful captain; and the option was given him of returning to England if he chose, or of contending still with the waves, to which should he yield, the Irish coast in the vicinity awaited us, noted for its breakers and very frequent shipwrecks. The daring mind of the commander prevailed, and a desire of proving what was the strength of his new ship, which desire was the greater, as it was the first time he commanded it. It was settled in his mind to try the sea, which he admitted was the more dangerous, owing to its narrowness.


Nor was the danger far distant, for the winds swelling and the sea becoming rough, about midnight we saw at a distance the pinnace with two lights hanging out from the masthead. Then, forsooth, we thought there was an end of the pinnace, and that it was swallowed up in the deep whirlpools, for in a moment she had escaped our sight, nor was any discovery of her made till six or seven weeks after. So we were all persuaded that the pinnace had perished; however, God had provided better things for us, for perceiving herself unequal to the waves, avoiding in time the Virginia ocean, by which we were now tossed, she returned to England and the Scilly isles. From thence, afterwards, the Dragon being her companion from the port of the great Bay,* she followed us to the Antilles Islands, as I may relate hereafter; God who has the care of the smallest things, providing for a guide and guardian of that little boat. But grief and fear oppressed us, ignorant of the event which a dismal Dight, full of terrors, increased. At dawn of day, when we had the southwest wind against us, though it was more faint, we made little headway on account of being compelled to tack so frequently.

In like manner during Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, the winds being variable, we made little progress. On Friday, a southeast wind prevailing, and the wind driving before it clouds heavy with sleet, towards evening such a tempest poured itself down, that every moment we seemed about to be engulfed in the waves. Nor did the following morning, being the festival of St. Andrew the Apostle, promise any abatement. The clouds blackening all around in a frightful manner, before they were rent asunder by the lightnings, were a terror to those that beheld them; and the opinion prevailed, that all the spirits of storms and all the malignant and evil genii of Maryland had come forth in battle array against us. As the day declined, the Captain saw a sunfish endeavoring to make way against the course of the sun, which is the most certain indication of a horrid storm; nor was the reality itself much behind the presage. For about ten o'clock at night, a black cloud rained down a direful tempest. This was followed by a whirlwind so dreadful that it was necessary to hasten to take in sail, nor could that be done with sufficient expedition before the mainsail, under which alone we were running, was rent in twain from top to bottom. One part of it carried into the sea was recovered with difficulty. In this juncture, the minds of the bravest, whether

passengers •The Bay of Biicay.

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