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that is very good; or what they receive from the Northern Colonies, or from England; Rice is here excellent and cheap. There are five Negroes to one White, and there are imported generally 3000 fresh Negroes every Year. There are computed to be 30,000 Negroes in this Province, all of them Slaves, and their Posterity for ever: They work six Days in the Week for their Masters without pay, and are allowed to work on Sundays for themselves. Baptism is rarely here administer'd to the Children of the Negroes, and Marriage is not in use amongst them; but they are suffer'd promiscuously to mix, as if they were a Part of the Brute Creation. Being tbus used, lays amongst them a Foundation of Discontent; and they are generally thought to watch an Opportunity of revolting against their Masters, as they have lately done in the Island of St. John and of St. Thomas, belonging to the Danes and Sweeds; and it is the Apprehension of these and other Inconveniences, that has induced the Honourable Trustees for Georgia, to probibit the Importation and Use of Negroes within their Colony.
MR. Oglethorpe sent on Board our Ship, by the Pilot's Sloop, a large Quantity of fresh Beef, two Butts of Wine, two Tuon of Spring Water, Cabbage, Turnips, Radishes, Fruit, &c. as a present from the Trustees, to refresh the Saltzburgers after their long Voyage; for which Kindness (under God) we cannot be sufficiently thankful to them.
Mar. 8. We thought this Morning to have gone with the Pilot's Long Boat, on Board our Ship the Purrysburg, for the Captain had taken here a Pilot, to bring us into the River Savannah. Mr. Oglethorpe had given us for our Guide Mr. Dunbar, who knows the Country very well, and was already settled in Georgia, near the Place appointed for us. We thought, I say, to have gone this Morning; but the Boat was too much loaded, and the Wind, which was E. S. E. though favourable for Georgia, was contrary for us to reach our Ship. We returned to the Town, and lay there.
Mar. 9. We beg'd of God, that he would permit us to go to our Georgia. We went away this Morning at len, and got on Board our Ship at two in the Afternoon.
Mar. 10. God blessed us this Day with the Sight of our Country, our wish'd for Georgia, which we saw at ten in the Morning; and brought us unto the Savannah River, and caused us to remember the Vows we had inade unto him, if He did through his infinite Goodness bring us hither. We were to day very much edified with the xxxii" Chapter of Genesis, and the xxvih of Leviticus. Ai Noon, we casi Anchor because of the
Tide : at eight, during the Evening Prayers, we enter'd the Ri. ver of Savannah ; and were shelter'd by the Divine Goodness, from all Dangers and Inconveniencies of the Sea. This River is in some Places broader than the Rhine, and from 16 to 25 Foot deep; and abounds with Oysters, Sturgeon, and other Fish. Its Banks were cloathed with fresh Grass; and a little beyond were seen Woods, old as the Creation; resounding with the Musick of Birds, who sung the Praise of their Creator.
Mar. 12. The Magistrates of the Town sent on Board our Ship an experienced Pilot; and we were carried up to the Town of Savannah by 11 in the Forenoon. They returned our salute of five Guns with three; and all the Magistrates, the Citizens, and the Indians, were come to the River side. The two Divines, Mr. Dunbar, some others, and my self, went ashore in a Boat. We were received with all possible Denionstrations of Joy, Friendship, and Civility. The Indians reach'd their Hands to me, as a Testimony of their Joy also for our Arrival. The Saltzburgers came on shore after us; and we immediately pitch'd a Tent for them, in the Square of the Town.
I went to view this rising Town, Savannah, seated upon the Banks of a River of the same Name.
The Town is regularly laid out, divided into four Wards, in each of which is left a spacious Square, for holding of Markets, and other publick Uses. The Streets are straight, and the Houses are all of the same Model and Dimensions, and well contrived for Conveniency: For the Time it has been built, it is very populous, and its Inhabitants are all White People. And indeed, the Blessing of God seems to have gone along with this Undertaking; for here we see Industry honoured, and Justice strictly executed, and Luxury and Idleness banished from this happy Place, where Plenty and Brotherly Love seem to make their Abode, and where the good Order of a Nightly Watch, restrains the Disorderly, and makes the Inbabitants sleep secure in the midst of a Wilderness. There is laid out, near the Town, by Order of the Trustees, a Garden for making Experiments, for the Improving Botany and Agriculture; it contains 10 Acres, and lies upon the River; and it is cleared, and brought into such Order, that there is already, a fine Nursery of Oranges, Olives, white Mulberries, Figs, Peaches, and many curious Herbs : besides which, there is Cabbages, Peas, and other European Pulse and Plants, which all thrive. Within the Garden there is an artificial Hill, said by the Indians, to be raised over the Body of one of their ancient Emperors. 1 had like to have forgot one of the best Regulations, made by the Trustees, for
the Government of the Town of Savannah, I mean, the utter Prohibition of the Use of Rum, that flattering but deceitful Liquor, which has been found equally pernicious to the Natives and new Comers, which seldom fails, by Sickness, or Death, to draw after it its own Punishment.
Mar. 13. I went to see the Indians, and their King Tomocha-chi: I caused some Raisins, of which they are very fond, to be distributed amongst them. It is worth taking Notice of, that as we were at Evening Prayers, after our Return from the Indians, who have their Huts at 100 Paces distance from the Town, one of the Saltzburgers should tell us, that he was edified to Day by this Passage of St. John, that God loved all the World.
Mar. 14. Mr. Oglethorpe had given Orders for three Horses to be ready for my Service, to take a View of the Country, and to ride to the place where the Saltzburgers were to settle. I went this Morning at nine of the Clock, with a Constable and a Guide ; but after we had gone a Mile or two, we enter'd some thick Woods, divided by deep Brooks of Water; and though we could with great Difficulty pass over some, yet there were others we could not pass; wherefore we returned back to the Town.
Mar. 15. I received the List of the Provisions and Tools for the Saltzburgers.
MR. Oglethorpe, and Mr. Jenys, Speaker of the Assembly of Carolina, arrived at Savannah, from Charles-town; the first having out of Love to our Saltzburgers put off his Journey to England, being resolved to see them settled before he went. Having informed him, that the Floods had made it impossible for me to pass the Woods by Land; he said he would go himself, to shew me the Country, and see what Place I would choose. The Speaker desired to accompany him, and I did my self the Honour to make one of the Company. He sent to the Indian King, to desire two Indians to hunt for him in the Journey; who not only granted them, but his chief War Captain, Tuskeneoi, out of Civility to Mr. Oglethorpe, came along with them to accompany us.
We went on Board a ten-oar'd Boat, to the Place where a House was building by Mr. Musgrove, * six Miles up the Savannah River.
Mar. 16. Having slept well in a Tent which we pitched under the Shade of a Tree, by the River side last Night, I accompanied Mr. Oglethorpe on Horseback, and the Speaker and others went by Water.
* Who afterwards came to England, Interpreter 10 Tomo.cha-chi.
If you ask, how a Country that is covered with Wood, and cut with Rivers and Morasses, is passable; I must acquaint you, that since the Colony was settled, the Ways were marked by Barking of the Trees, to shew where the Roads should go, and where the Rivers were passable. After passing through a Morass covered with Canes, we came to an unfordable River, through which the Indians swam our Horses, and we crossed over upon a great Tree, cut down for that Purpose: The Tree was cut down so as to lie across the River, and serve for a Bridge. And after riding some Leagues in the Woods, we passed another River. Night overtaking us, we were obliged to take up our Quarters upon a little Hill, round a Fire with the Indians, who brought us a wild Turkey for our Supper.
Mar. 17. We continued our Journey, and set out by Break of Day, and at nine arrived at the Place where the Saltzburgers were afterwards settled. I shall here give a short Description of it. The Lands are inclosed between two Rivers, which fall into the Savannah. The Saltzburg Town is to be built near the largest, which is called * Ebenezer, in Remembrance that God has brought us hither; and is navigable, being twelve Foot deep. A little Rivulet, whose Water is as clear as Crystal, glides by the Town; another runs through it, and both fall into the Ebenezer. The Woods here are not so thick as in other Placs. The sweet Zephyrs preserve a delicious Coolness, notwithstanding the scorching Beams of the Sun. There are very fine Meadows, in which a great Quantity of Hay might be made with
very little Pains : There are also Hillocks, very fit for Vines. The Cedar, Walnut, Pine, Cypress, and Oak, make the greatest Part of the Woods. There is found in them a great Quantity of Myrtle Trees, out of which they extract, by boiling the Berries, a green Wax, very proper to make Candles with. There is much Sassafras, and a great Quantity of those Herbs of wbich Indigo is made, and Abundance of China Roots. The Earth is so fertile, that it will bring forth any thing that can be sown or planted in it; whether Fruits, Herbs, or Trees. There are wild Vines, which run up to the Tops of the tallest Trees; and the Country is so good, that one may
ride full gallop 20 or 30 Miles an end. As to Game, here are Eagles, Wild Turkies, Roe-Bucks, Wild-Goats, Slags, Wild Cows, Horses, Hares, Partridges, and Buffaloes.
FROM hence I returned to the Town of Savannah, through Abercorn, a Village newly settled by Order of the Trustees,
# The Stone of Help.
upon the Savannah River, near where the Ebenezer falls into it.
Mar. 22. Mr. Oglethorpe, after a great deal of Fatigue, returned this Morning to Savannah ; every thing was immediately prepared for bis Departure, and he really thought to have gone this Afternoon ; but the Multiplicity of Affairs, the Complaints wbich were made before him, and several other Things which fell out together, kept him back till to-morrow.
Mar. 23. AND then He went away. All the People were so concerned at it, that they could not refrain their Tears, when they saw Him go, who was their Benefactor and their Father ; who had carefully watched over them, as a good Shepherd does over his Flock, and who had had so tender a Care of them, both by Day and by Night; and they were the more afficted, that the Fatigues and Difficulties of so long a Voyage, left them very small Hopes of seeing Him again.
Mar. 24. Sunday. We were spiritually comforted by receiving the Holy Communion.
Mar. 27. Mr. Jones, who is a Surveyor, and I, went away this Night in a small Boat, for Abercorn, in order to go from thence to seek and clear the River Ebenezer. It thunder'd and lightend; and the Wind being contrary and strong, we could go up no higher than Musgrove's Land; where we lay under the Canopy of Heaven, upon the bare Ground, having made a good Fire to warm our benumbed Limbs; for tho' it be hot here in the Day-time, yet it is cold in the Night.
Mar. 28. AFTER Breakfast, we continued our Journey, and came at Noon to Abercorn. At five in the Afternoon, we entred into a small River, but at nine at Night, we perceived that it was lost among the Trees and Marshes. We entered the same Night into another River, more towards the W. very large, and having a good Stream, adorned with Woods on each side of it. At last, we reach'd a rising Ground, where we landed; we cut some Canes, made a Fire, lay round it, and God granted us a good Rest.
Mar. 29. We went farther up the River, but not without great Difficulties.
Mar. 30. TOWARDS Night we came out of the River, which fell into the Savannah, 8 Miles above Purrysburg; so our Design was frustrated, by missing the River Ebenezer, and we returned the same Night to Abercorn, where we staid.
Mar. 31. We arrived this Afternoon at Savannah.