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Santa Helena) but 60. leagues distant toward the North, of the townes called Otapales and Olagatanos, where we understand that there are mines of gold, siluer, and copper. By which reckoning these rich mines are in the latitude of 35. degrees and an halfe. I desire you likewise to take knowledge of the famous golden province of Chisca, stretching further to the Chap. 15. North, whereof the Cacique of Coste gaue notice to

Ferdinando de Soto in the towne of Chiaha, affirming, that there were mines of copper, and of another mettall of the same colour, saue that it was finer, and of a farre more perfect lustre, and farre better in sight, and that they used it not so much, because it was softer. And the selfesame thing was before told the Gouernour in Cutifachiqui ; who sent two Christians from Chiaha with certaine Indians which knew the countrie of Chisca, anıl the language thereof, to view it, and to Chap. 23. make report of that which they should finde. We

likewise reade not long after, that the Gouernour set forward to seeke a province called Pacaba, which hee was informed to be neere unto Chisca, where the Indians told him, Chap. 24.

that there was gold. And in another place hee saith;

That from Pacaba hee sent thirtie horsemen and fiftie footmen to the prouince of Caluça, to see if from thence he might trauell to Chisca, where the Indians said, there was a worke of gold and copper. So that here is foure times mention, and that in sundrie places, of the rich and famous goldē mines of Chisca, and that they lie beyond the mountaines toward the North, ouer which they were not able to trauell for the roughnes thereof. But what neede I to stand upon forren testimonies, since Master Thomas Heriot, a man of much iudgement in these causes, signified vnto you all, at your late solemne meeting at the house of the right honourable the Earle of Exeter, how to the Southwest of our old fort in Virginia, the Indians often informed him, that there was a great melting of red mettall, reporting the manner in working of the same. Besides, our owne Indians haue lately reuealed either this or another rich mine of copper or gold in a towne called Ritanoe, neere certaine mountaines lying West of Roanoac.

Another very gainfull commoditie is, the huge quantitie of excellent perles, and little babies and birds made of them, that Chap 14.

were found in Cutisachiqui. The abundance whereof

is reported to be such, that if they would haue search. ed diuers graues in townes thereabout, they might haue laded many of their horses. Neither are the Turkie stones and colton wooll found at Guasco to be forgotten, nor passed ouer in silence.


But that, which I make no small account of, is, the multitude of Oxen, which, from the beginning of the 16. to the end of the 26. Chapter, are nine seuerall times made mention of, and that along from Chiaha, Coste, Pacaha, Coligoa, and Tulla, still toward the North, to wit, toward us, there was such store of them, that they could keepe no corne for them: and that the Indians liued upon their flesh. The haire of these Oxen is likewise said to be like a soft wooll, betweene the course and fine wooll of sheepe : and that they use them for couerlets, because they are very soft and woolled like sheep: and not so onely, but they make bootes, shooes, targets, and other things necessarie of the same. Besides the former benefits, their young ones may be framed to the yoke, for carting and tillage of our ground. And I am in good hope, that ere it be long we shall haue notice of their being neerer vs, by that which I reade in the Italian relation of Cabeça de Vaca, the first finder of them ; which writeth, That they spread themselues within the countrie aboue foure hundred leagues. Moreouer, Vasques de Coronado, and long after him, Antonio de Espejo (whose voiages are at large in my third volume) trauelled many leagues among these heards of Oxen, and found them from 33. degrees ranging very farre to the North and Northeast.

A fourth chiefe commoditie wee may account to be the great number of Mulberrie trees, apt to feede Silke-wormes to make silke : whereof there was such plentie in many places, that, though they found some hempe in the countrie, the Spaniards made ropes of the barks of them for their brigandines, when they were to put to sea for Noua Hispania.

A fifth is the excellent and perfect colours, as black, white, greene, yellow, and red, and the materials to dye withall

, often spoken of in this discourse: among which I haue some hope to bring you to the knowledge of the rich graine of Cochonillio, so much esteemed, and of so great price. 1 speake nothing of the seuerall sorts of passing good grapes for Wine and Raisons. Neither is it the least benefit, that they found salt Chap. 31.

& 32. made by the Indians at Cayas, and in two places of the prouince of Aguacay: the manner also how the Inhabitants make it, is very well worth the obseruation.

One of the chiefest of all the rest may be the notice of the South Sea, leading us to Japan and China, which 1 finde here twice to be spoken of. Whereof long & 39:

Chap. 31. since I haue written a discourse, which I thinke not fit to be made ouer common.


For closing up this point, The distances of places, the qualities of the soiles, the situations of the regions, the diuersities and goodnesse of the fruits, the seuerall sorts of beasts, the varietie of foules, the difference betweene the Inhabitants of the mountaines and the plaines, and the riches of the Inland in comparison of the Seacoast, are iudicially set downe in the conclusion of this booke, whereunto for mine owne ease I referre you.

To come to the second generall head, which in the beginning I proposed, concerning the manners and dispositions of the Inhabitants : among other things, I finde them here noted to be very eloquent and well spoken, as the short Orations, interpreted by lohn Ortiz, which lived twelve yeeres among them, make sufficient proofe. And the author, which was a gentleman of Eluas in Portugall, emploied in all the action, whose name is not set downe, speaking of the Cacique of Tolla, saith, that aswell this Cacique, as the others, and all those which came to the Gouernour on their behalfe, deliuered their message or speech in so good order, that no Oratour could utter the same more eloquently. But for all their faire and cunning speeches, they are not ouermuch to be trusted: for they be the greatest traitors of the world, as their manifold most craftie contriued and bloody treasons, here set down at large, doe euidently proue. They be also as unconstant as the wethercock, and most readie to take all occasions of aduantages to doe mischiefe. They are great liars and dissemblers; for which faults often times they had their deserued paiments. And many times they gaue good testimonie of their great valour and resolution. To handle them gently, while gentle courses may be found to serue, it will be without comparison the best : but if gentle polishing will not serue, then we shall not want hammerours and rough masons enow, I meane our old soldiours trained in the Ne. therlands, to square and prepare them to our Preachers hands. To conclude, I trust by your Honours and Worships wise in. structions to the noble Gouernour, the worthy experimented Lieutenant and Admirall, and other chiefe managers of the businesse, all things shall be so prudenily carried, that the painfull Preachers shall be reuerenced and cherished, the valiant and forward soldiour respected, the diligent rewarded, the coward emboldened, the weake and sick relieued, the mutinous suppressed, the reputation of the Christians among the Saluages preserued, our most holy faith exalted, all Paganisme and Idolatrie by little and little utterly extinguished. And here reposing and resting my selfe upon this sweete hope, 1



cease, besceching the Almightie to blesse this good work in your

hands to the honour and glorie of his most holy name, to the inlargement of the dominions of his sacred Maiestie, and io the generall good of all the worthie Aduenturers and vndertakers. From my lodging in the Colledge of Westminster this 15.

of Aprill, 1609.


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