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same, whereon Christ, which was God and man, and created the heauens and the earth, suffered for our saluation: therefore he exhorted them that they should reuerence it: and they made shew as though they would doe so. The fourth of Aprill the Gouernour passed by a towne called Altamaca, and the 10. of the moneth he came to Ocute. The oouto.R°a' Cacique sent him two thousand Indians with a present, to wit, many conies, and partriges, bread of Conies, PaMaiz, two hens, and many dogs: which among the ijTM^, en"' Christians were esteemed as if they had been fat wethers, because of the great want of fleshmeate and salt, and hereof in many places, and many times was great need; and they were so scarse, that if a man fell sicke, there was nothing to cherish him withall: and with a sicknesse, that in another place easilie might haue been remedied, he consumed away till nothing but skinne and bones were left: and they died of pure weaknes, some of them saying, If I had a slice of meate, or a few comes of salt, I should not die. The Indians want no fleshmeat: for they kill with their arrowes many deere, hennes, conies, and other wild fowle: for they are very cunning at it: which skill the Christians had not: and though they had it, they had no leasure to vse it: for the most of the time they spent in trauell, and durst not presume to straggle aside. And because they were thus scanted of flesh, when sixe hundred men that went with Soto, came to any towne, and found 30. or 40. dogs, he that could get one and kill it, thought himselfe no small man: and he that killed it, and gaue not his Captaine one quarter, if he knew it, he frowned on him, and made him feele it, in the watches, or in any other matter of labour that was offered, wherein hee might doe him a displeasure. On Monday the 12. of Aprill, the Gouernour departed from Ocute: The Cacique gaue him two hundred Tamenes, to wit, Indians to carrie burdens: hee passed through a towne, the Lord whereof was named Cofaqui, and came to a p^f"1' prouince of an Indian Lord, called Patofa, who, because he was in peace with the Lord of Ocute, and with the other bordering Lords, had many daies before notice of the Gouernour, and desired to see him: He came to visit him, and made this speech following.
Mightie Lord, now with good reason I will craue of fortune to requite this my so great prosperitie with some small aduersitie; and 1 will count my selfe verie rich, seeing I haue obtained that, which in this world I most desired, which is, to see, and bee able to doe your Lordship some seruicc. And although the tongue bee the image of that which is in the heart, and that the contentment which I feele in my heart I cannot
dissemble, dissemble, yet is it not sufficient wholly to manifest the same. Where did this your Countrie, which I doe gouerne, deserue to be visited of so soueraigne, and so excellent a Prince, whom all the rest of the world ought to obey and seruc 1 And those which inhabit it being so base, what shall bee the issue of such happines, if their memorie doe not represent vnio them some aduersitie that may betide them, according to the order of fortune? If from this day forward we may be capable of this benefit, that your Lordship will hold vs for your owne, we cannot faile to be fauourcd and maintained in true iustice and reason, and to haue the name of men. For such as are void of reason and iustice, may bee compared to brute beasts. For mine owne part, from my very heart with reuerence due to such a Prince, I offer my selfe vnto your Lordship, fy beseech you; that in reward of this my true good will, you will vouchsafe to make vse of mine owne person, my Countrie, and subiects.
The Gouernour answered him, that his offers and good wil declared by the effect, did highly please him, whereof he would alwaies be mindfull to honour and fauour him as his brother. This Countrie, from the first peaceable Cacique, vnto the Pro, uince of Patofa, which were fiftie leagues, is a fat An oxcellont Countrie, beautifull, and very fruitfull, and very
Smsmt. wel1 watered. and ful l of g°?d Riuers- And from thence to the Port de Spirito Santo, where wee
first ariued in the land of Florida, (which may bee 350. leagues,
little more or lesse) is a barren land, and the most of it groues
of wild Pinetrees, low and full of lakes, and in some places
very hie and thicke groues, whither the Indians that were in
amies fled, so that no man could find them, neither could any
horses enter into them. Which was an inconuenience to the
Christians, in regard of the victuals which they found conueied
away; and of the trouble which they had in seeking of Indians
to bee their guides.
How the Gouernour departed from the Prouince of Patofa, and went through a desert, where he and all his men fell into great distresse, and extreme miserie.
IN the towne of Patofa the youth, which the Gouernour carried with him for an interpretour and a guide, began to fome at the mouth, and tumble on the ground, as one possessed with the diuell: They said a Gospell ouer him; and the fit left him. And he said, that foure daies iournie from thence toward
the the Sunne rising, was the prouince that he spake of. The Indians of Patofa said, that toward that part they knew no habitation; but that toward the Northwest, they knew a Prouince which was called Coga, a verie plentifull countrie, which had very great townes in it. The Cacique told the Gouernour, that if he would go thither, he would giue him guides and Indians for burdens; and if he would goe whither the youth spake of, that he would likewise giue him those that he needed: and so with louing words and offers of courtesie, they tooke their leaues the one of the other. He gaue him seuen hundred Indians to beare burdens. Hee tooke Maiz for four daies iournie. Hee Handled sixe daies by a path which grew narrow more and more, till it was lost altogether: He went where the youth did lead him, and passed two Riuers which were waded: each of them was two crossebowshot ouer: the wa- R^°rgw1 ter came to the stirrops, and had so great a current, that it was needfull for the horsemen to stand one before another, that the footemen might passe aboue them leaning vnto them. He came to another Riuer of a grea- greiita'rRiuer ter current and largenes, which was passed with more trouble, because the horses did swim at the comming out about a lances length. Hauing passed this Riuer, the Gouernor came to a groue of pinetrees, and threatned the youth, and made as though hee would haue cast him to the dogges, because he had told him a lie, saying, it was but foure daies iournie, and they had trauelled nine, i0unrnie*'es and euery day 7. or 8. leagues, and the men by this time were growne wearie and weake, and the horses leane through the great scanting of the Maiz. The youth said, that hee knew not where hee was. It saued him that he was not cast to the dogges, that there was neuer another whom lohn Ortiz did vnderstand. The Gouernour with them two, and with some horsemen and footemen, leauing the Campe in a groue of pinetrees, trauelled that day 5. or 6. leagues to seek a way, and returned at night very comfortlesse, and without finding any signe of way or towne. The next day there were sundrie opinions deliuered, whether they should goe backe, or what they should doe: and because backward the Countrie whereby they had passed was greatly spoiled and destitute of Maiz, and that which they brought with them was spent, and the men were very weake, and the horses likewise, they doubted much whether they might come to any place where they might helpe themselues. And besides this, they were of opinion, that going in that sort out of order, that any Indians would presume to set vpon them, so that with hunger, or with warre, they could not escape. The Gouernour determined to send horsemen from
thence thence euery way to seeke habitation: and the next day he sent foure Captaines, euery one a sundrie way with eight horsemen. At night they came againe, leading their horses, or driuing them with a sticke before; for they were wearie, that they could not lead them; neither found they any way nor signe of habitation. The next day, the Gouernour sent other foure with as many horsemen that could swim, to passe the Ose and Riuers which they should 6nd, and they had choice horses the best that were in the Campe. The Captaines were Baltasar de Gallegos, which went vp the Riuer; and Iohn Danusco, downe the Riuer: Alfonso Romo, and lohn Rodriguez Lobillo went into the inward parts of the land. The
Gouernour brought with him into Florida thirThe great in- teene sowes, and had by this time three hundred swine.0 swine: He commanded euery man should haue
halfe a pound of hogs flesh euery day: and this hee did three or foure daies after the Maiz was all spent. With this small quantitie of flesh, and some sodden hearbs, with much trouble the people were sustained. The Gouernour dismissed ye Indians of Patofa, because hee had no food to giue them; who desiring to accompanie and serue the Christians in their necessitie, making shew that it grieued them very much to returne, vntill they had left them in a peopled Countrie, returned to their owne home. Iohn Danusco came on Sunday late in the euening, and brought newes that he had found a little towne 12. or 13. leagues from thence: he brought a woman and a boy that he tooke there. With his comming and with those newes, the Gouernour and all the rest were so glad, that they seemed at that instant to haue returned from death to life. Vpon Monday, the twentie sixe of Aprill, the Gouernour
departed to goe to the towne, which was called ymay. Aymay; and the Christians named it the towne of
Reliefe. He left where the Camp had lien at the foote of a Pinetree a letter buried, and letters earned in the barke of the pine, the contents whereof was this: Dig here at the foot of this pine, & you shal find a letter. And this he did, because when the Captaines came, which were sent to seeke some habitation, they might see the letter, and know what was become of the Gouernour, and which way he was gone. There was no other way to the town, but the markes that Iohn Danusco left made vpon the trees. The Gouernour with some of them that had the best horses came to it on the Monday: And all the rest inforcing themselues the best they could, some of them lodged within two leagues of the towne, some within three and foure, euery one as he was able to goe, and his strength serued him. There was found in the towne a storehouse full of the
flowre flowre of parched Maiz; and some Maiz, which was distributed by allowance. Here were foure Indians taken, and none of them would confesse any other thing, but that they knew of none other habitation. The Gouernour commanded one of them to be burned; & presently another An Indian confessed, that twodaies iournie from thence, there y/"6^^^^ was a Prouince that was called Cutifa-Chiqui. Vpon Wednesday came the Captaines Baltasar de Gallegos, Alfonso Rotno, and Iohn Rodriguez Lobillo: for they had found the letter, and followed the way which the Gouernour had taken toward the towne. Two men of Iohn Rodriguez companie were lost, because their horses tired: the Gouernour checked him very sore for leauing them behind, and sent to seeke thein: and assoone as they came, he departed toward Cutifa-Chiqui. In the way three Indians were taken, which said, that the Ladie of that Countrie had notice alreadie of the Christians, and staied for them in a towne of hers. The Gouernour sent by one of them to offer her his friendship, and to aduertise her how hee was comming thither. The Gouernour came vnto the towne: and presently chlqui. there came foure canoes to him; in one of them came a sister of the Ladie, and approching to the Gouernour she said these words:
Excellent Lord, my sister sendeth vnto you by me to kisse your Lordships hands, and to signifie vnto you, that the cause why she come not in person, is, that she thinketh to do you greater sendee staying behind, as she doth, giuing order, that with nll speed, al her canoes be readie, that your Lordship may passe the Riuer, and take your rest, which shall bee presentlie performed.
The Gouernour gaue her thankes, and she returned to the other side of the Riuer. Within a little while the Ladie came out of the towne in a Chaire, whereon certaine of the principall Indians brought her to the Riuer. She entered into a barge, which had the sterne tilted ouer, and on the floore her mat readie laied with two cushions vpo it one vpon another, where she sate her downe; and with her came her principall Indians in other barges, which did wait vpon her. She went to the place where the Gouernor was, and at her comming she made this speech following:
Excellent Lord, I wish this comming of your Lordship, into these your Countries, to be most happie: although my power be not answerable to my wil, and my sendees be not according to my desire, nor such as so high a Prince, as your Lordship, deserueth; yet since the good will is rather to be accepted, then