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whereby the Indians came to see if they could defend the passage, and disturbe those which made the bridge, was very hie and thicke. The crossebow men so bestirred themselues that they made them giue back: and certain plancks were cast into the Riuer, whereon the men passed, which made good the passage. The Gouernor passed vpo Wednesday, which was Vitachuco "• .^,^onc^, his day, aQd lodged at a towne which was called Vitachuco, subiect to Apalachc: he found it burning; for the Indians had set it on fire. From thence forward the countrie was much inhabited, and had great October 25. store of Maiz. Hee passed by many granges like hamlets* On Sunday the 25. of October, he came Vzola. to a towne, which is called Vzela, and vpon Tues

lacho? Apa dav to Anaica Apalache, where the Lord of all that Countrie and Prouince was resident: in which towne the Campemaster, whose office is to quarter out, and lodge men, did lodge all the companie round about within a league, and halfe a league of it. There were other townes, where was great store of Maiz, Pompions, French Beanes, and Plummes of the Countrie, which are better then those of Spaine, and they grow in the fields without planting. The victuals that were thought necessarie to passe the winter, were gathered from these townes to Anaica Apalache. within* 10. r^'ne Couernour was informed, that the sea was ten leagues of leagues from thence. Hee presently sent a Captlie aea. taine thither with horsemen and footemen : And sixe

leagues on the way, he found a towne, which was The sea. named Ochete, and so came to the sea; and found a great tree felled, and cut into peeces, with stakes set vp like mangers, and saw the skulles of horses. Hee returned with this newes. And that was held for certaine, which was reported of Pamphilo de Naruaez, that there hee had builded the barkes wherewith he went out of the land of Florida, and was cast away at Sea. Presently the Gouernour sent Iohn Danxuco with 30. horsemen to the port de Spiritu Santo, where Calderan was, with order, that they should abandon the port, and all of them come to Apalache. He departed on Saturday the 17. of Nouember. In Vzachil and other townes that stood in the way he found great store of people alreadie carelesse. Hee would take none of the Indians, for not hindring himselfe, because it behooued him to giue them no leasure to gather themselues together. He passed through the townes by night, and rested without the townes three or foure houres. SpiritiTsanto "n tenn0 daies be came to the Port de Spirito tennedaiea Santo. He carried with him 20. Indian women,

which which he tooke in Ytara, and Potano, neere vnto iournie from Cale, and sent them to Donna Isabella in the two AaPalachecarauels, which hee sent from the Port de Spirito Santo to Cuba. And he carried all the footemen in the brigandines, and coasting along the shore, came to Apalache. And Calderan with the horsemen, and some crossebowmen on foote went by land; and in some places the Indians set vpon him, and wounded some of his men. Assoone as he came to Apalache; presently the Gouernour sent sawed plankes and spikes to the seaside, wherewith was made a piragua or barke, wherein were embarked 30. men well armed; which went out of the Bay to the Sea, looking for the brigandines. Sometimes they fought with the Indians, which passed along the harbour in their canoes. Vpon Saturday the 29. of Nouember, there jjouem 29 came an Indian through the Watch vndiscouered, and set the towne on fire, and with the great wind that blew, two parts of it were consumed in a short time. On Son- Deoem 28 day the 28. of December came lohn Danusco with the brigandines. The Gouernour sent Francisco Maldonado a Captaine of footemen with 50. men to discouer the coast WestWard, and to seeke some Port, because he had determined to go by land, and discouer y' part. That day there went out eight horsemen by commandement of the Gouernor into the field, two leagues about the towne to seeke Indians: for they were now so emboldened, that within two crossebow shot of ye camp, they came and slew men. They found two men and a woman gathering French Beanes: the men, though they might haue fled, yet because they would not leaue the woman, which was one of their wiues, they resolued to die fighting: and before they were slaine, they wounded three horses, whereof one died within a few daies after. Calderan going with his men by the Sea-coast, from a wood that was neere the place, the Indians set vpon him, and made him forsake his way, and many of them that went with him forsooke some necessarie victuals, which they carried with them. Three or foure daies after the limited time giuen by the Gouernour to Maldonado for his going and comming, being alreadie determined and resolued, if within eight daies he did not come, to tarrie no longer for him, he came, and brought an Indian from a Prouince, which was called Ochus, sixtie leagues Westward from Apalache; where he had found a good Port of good iCaJuesWeit depth and defense against weather. And because of Apalache. the Gouernor hoped to find a good countrie forward, he was very well contented. And he sent Maldonado for victuals to Hauana, with order, that he should tarrie for him at the Port of Ochus, which hee had discouered, for hee would


goe seeke it by land: and if he should chance to stay, and no* come thither that summer, that then hee should returne to Hauana, and should come againe the next summer after, and tarrie for him at that port: for hee said hee would doe none other thing but goe to seeke Ochus. Francisco Maldonado „, ii departed, and in his place for Captaine of the foote

"men remained lohn de Guzman. Of those Indians "which were taken in Napetuca, the treasurer lohn Gaytan had "a young man, which said, that he was not of that Countrie, "but of another farre oil' toward the Sunrising, and that it was "long since he had trauelled to see Countries; and that his "Countrie was called Yupaha, and that a woman did gouerne "it: and that the towne where she was resident was of a won"derfull bignesse, and that many Lords round about were tribu

"taries to her: and some gaue her clothes, and others of eotd"1" "6°^ m abundance: and hee told, how it was taken

"out of the mines, and was moulten and refined, as "if hee had seene it done, or the diuel had taught it him. So that all those which knew any thing concerning the same, said that it was impossible togiue so good a relation, without hauing seene it: And all of them, as if they had seene it, by the signes that he gaue, beleeued all that he said to be true.

Chap. XIII.

How the Gouernour departed from Apalache to seeke Yupaha, and of that which happened vnto him.

N Wedensday the third of March, of

March tho 3. ^Kfi^^-h the yeere 1540. the Gouernor depart

TM ed from Anaica Apalache to seeke

Yupaha. He commanded his men to

goe prouided with Maiz for sixtie

leagues of desert. The horsemen carried their Maiz on their

horses, and the footemen at their sides: because the Indians

that were for seruice, with their miserable life that they lead

that winter, being naked and in chaines, died for the most part.

A great Riuer. Within four daies iournie they came to a great

Riuer: and they made a piragua or ferrre bote, and

because of the great current, they made a cable with chaines,

which they fastened on both sides of the Riuer; and the ferrie

bote went along by it; and the horses swam ouer, being drawne

with capstans. Hauing passed the Riuer, in a day

apac iqui. and an halfe, they came to a towne called GflpcrcAijm'.

Vpon Friday, the 11. of March, they found Indians in annes.

The next day fiue Christians went to seeke morters, which the

Indians haue to beate their Maiz, and they went to certaine

houses houses on the backside of the Campe enuironed with a wood: And within the wood were many Indians which came to spie vs; of the which came other fiue and set vpon vs. One of the Christians came running away, giuing an alarme vnto the Campe. Those which were most readie answered the alarme. They found one Christian dead, and three sore wounded. The Indians fled vnto a lake adioyning neere a very thicke wood, where the horses could not enter. The Gouernour departed from Capachiqui, and pa'ssed through a desert. On Wednesday the 21. of the moneth he came to a towne called Toalli: And from thence forward there was a difference in the houses. For those which were behind vs were thatched with Toalli. straw, and those of Toalli were couered with reeds, in manner of tiles. These houses are verie cleanly. Some of them had walles daubed with clay, which shewed like a mudwall. In all the cold Countrie the Indians haue euery one a house for the winter daubed with clay within and without, and the doore is very little: they shut it by night, and make fire within; so that they are in it as warme as in a stoue: and so it continueth all night that they need not clothes: and besides these, they haue others for summer; and their kitchins neere them, where they make fire and bake their bread: and they haue barbacoas wherein they keepe their Maiz; which is an house set vp in the aire vpon foure stakes, boorded about like a chamber, and the floore of it is of cane hurdles. The differece which Lords or principall mens houses haue from the rest, besides they be greater, is, that they haue great galleries in their fronts, and vnder them seates made of canes in manner of benches: and round about them they haue many lofts, wherein they lay vp that which the Indians doe giue them for tribute, which is Maiz, Deeres skins, and mantles of the Countrie, which are like blankets: they make them of the inner rinde of the barkes of trees, and some of a kind of grasse like vnto nettles, which being beaten, is like vnto flaxe. The fl^*8"8 women couer themselues with these mantles; they put one about them from the wast downeward; and another ouer their shoulder, with their right arme out, like vnto the Egyptians. The men weare but one mantle vpon their shoulders after the same manner: and haue their secrets hid with a Deeres skin, made like a linen breech, which was wont to be vsed in Spaine. The skins are well corried, and Excellent they giue them what colour they list, so perfect, colour», that if it be red, it seemeth a very fine cloth in graine, and the blacke is most fine: and of the same leather they make shooes; and they die their mantles in the same colours. The Gouernour departed from Toalli the 24. of March: he came on Thursday



at euening to a small Riuer, where a bridge was Riuer made whereon the people passed, and Benit Fer

nandez a Portugall fell off from it, and was drowned. Assoone as the Gouernour had passed the Riuer, a little distance thence he found a towne called Achese. ciese. rp^e lndians nad no notice of the Christians: they

leaped into a Riuer: some men and women were taken ; among which was one that understood the youth which guided the Gouernour to Yupaha: whereby that winch he had reported was more confirmed. For they had passed through Countries of diuers languages, and some which he vnderstood not. The Gouernour sent by one of the Indians that were taken to call the Cacique, which was on the other side of the Riuer. Hee came and made this speech following:

Right high, right mightie, and excellent Lord, those things which seldome happen doe cause admiration. What then may the sight of your Lordship, and your people doe to mee and mine, whom we neuer saw 1 especially being mounted on such fierce beasts as your horses are, entring with such violence and fiitie into my Countrie, without my knowledge of your comming. It was a thing so strange, and caused such feare and terrour in our mindes, that it was not in our power to stay and receiue your Lordship with the solemnitie due to so high and renowned a Prince, as your Lordship is. And trusting in your greatnesse and singular vcrtues, I doe not onely hope to be freed from blame, but also to receiue fauors: and the first which I demand of your Lordship is, that you will vse me, my Countrie, and subiects as your owne: and the second, that you will tell mee who you are, and whence you come, and whither yougoe, and what you seeke, that I the better may scrue you therein.

The Gouernour answered him, that hee thanked him as much for his offer and good will, as if hee had receiued it, and as if hee had offered him a great treasure: and told him that he was the sonne of the Sun, and came from those parts where he dwelt, and trauelled through that Countrie, and sought the greatest Lord, and richest Prouince that was in it. The Cacique told him; that farther forward dwelt a great Lord, and that his dominion was called Ocute. Hee gaue him a guide, and an interpretour for that Prouince. The Gouernour commanded his Indians to bee set free, and trauelled through his Countrie ARiuervery vp a Riuer very well inhabited. He departed from well inhabi- his towne the first of Aprill; and left a very high ted- crosse of Wood set vp in the middest of the mar

ket place: and because the time gaue no more leasure, hee declared to him onely, that that crosse was a memorie of y°


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