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50. men to discouer the hauen of Florida ; and from thence hee brought two Indians, which he tooke vpon the coast, wherewith (aswell because they might be necessarie for guides and for interpretours, as because they said by signes that there was much gold in Florida) the Gouernour and all the companie receiued much contentment, and longed for the houre of their departure, thinking in himselfe that this was the richest Countrie, that vnto that day had been discouered.

Chap. VII.

How we departed from Hauana, and ariued in Florida, and of such things as happened vnto vs.

Efore our departure, the Gouernour depriued Nunno de Touar of ye office of Captaine Generall, and gaue it to Porcallo de Figueroa, an inhabitant of Cuba, which was a meane that the shippes were well furnished with victuals: for he gaue a great many loads of Casabe bread, and manie hogges. The Gouernour tooke away this office from Nonno de Touar, because hee had fallen in loue with the daughter of ye Earle of Gomera, Donna Isabellas waighting maid, who, though his office were taken from him, (to returne againe to the Gouernours fauour) though she were with child by him, yet tooke her to his wife, and went with Soto into Florida. The Gouernour left Donna Isabella in Hauana; and with her remained the wife of Don Carlos, and the wiues of Baltasar de Gallcgos, and of Nonno de Touar. And hee left for his Lieutenant a Gentleman of Hauana, called Iohn de Roias, for the goueinment of the Island.

On Sunday the 18. of May, in the yeere of our Mav 18 1539 Lord, 1539. the Adelantado or president departed from Hauana in Cuba with his fleete, which were nine vessels, fiue great ships, two carauels, and two brigantines: They sailed seuen daies with a prosperous wind. The 25. day of May, the day de Pasca de Spirito Santo, (which we call Whitson Sondav,) they saw the land of Florida; Tl?;!' P'*ce w"

, , , ". i II i i culled Bayade

and because of the shoalds, they came to an anchor SpiritoSancto, a league from the shore. On Friday the 30. of being on the May they landed in Florida, two leagues from «JM' "de °f towne of an Indian Lord, called Vcita. They set degrees,' J. on land two hundred and thirteene horses, which they brought with them, to vnburden the shippes, that they might draw the lesse water. Hee landed all his men, and only

the the sea men remained in the shippes, which in eight daies, going vp with the tide euery day a little, brought them vp vnto the towne. Assoone as the people were come on shore, hee pitched his campe on the sea side, hard vpon the Bay which went vp vnto the towne. And presently the Captaine generall

Vasques Porcallo with other 7. horsemen foraged The ahips the Countrie halfe a league round about, and found towneof Vcita. sixe Indians, which resisted him with their arrowes,

which are the weapons which they vse to fight withall: The horsemen killed two of them, and the other foure escaped; because the countrie is cumbersome with woods and bogs, where the horses stacke fast, and fell with their riders, because they were weake with trauelling vpon the sea. The same night following the Gouernour with an hundred men in the brigantines lighted vpon a towne, which he found without people, because, that assoone as the Christians had sight of land, they were descried, and saw along the coast many smokes, which the Indians had made to giue aduicethe one to the other. The next day Luys de Moscoso, Master of the Campe set the men in order, the horsemen in three squadrons, the Vantgard.the Batallion, and the Rerewarde: and so they marched that day and the day following, compassing great Creekes which came out of

the Bay : They came to the towne of Vcita, where The towne tne Gouernour was, on Sunday the first of Iune, tane. being Trinitie Sunday. The towne was of seuen

or eight houses. The Lordes house stoode neere the shore vpon a very hie mount, made by hand for strength. At another end of the towne stood the Church, and on the top

of it stood a fowle made of wood with gilded eies. foundPetle" Heere were found some pearles of small valew,

spoiled with the fire, which the Indians do pierce and string them like beades, and weare them about their neckes and handwrists, and they esteeme them very much. The houses were made of timber, and couered with Palme leaues. The Gouernour lodged himselfe in the Lords houses, and with him Vasques Porcallo, and Luys de Moscoso: and in others that were in the middest of the towne, was the chiefe Alcalde or Iustice, Baltasar de Gallegos lodged; and in the same houses was set in a place by it selfe, al the prouision that came in the ships: the other houses and the Church were broken down, and euery three or foure souldiers made a little cabin wherein they lodged. The Countrie round about was very fennie, and encombred with great and hie trees. The Gouernor commanded to fel the woods a crossebow shot round about the towne, that the horses might runne, and the Christians might

haue haue the aduantage of the Indians, if by chance they should set vpon them by night. In the waies and places conuenient, they had their Centinelles of footemen by two and two in euery stand, which did watch by turnes, and the horsemen did visit them, and were readie to assist them, if there were any alarme. The Gouernour made foure Captaines of the horsemen, and two of the footemen. The Captaines of the horsemen were, one of them Andrew de Vasconcelos, and another Pedro Calderan de Badaoiz: and the other two were his kinsemen, to wit, Arias Timoco, and Alfonso Romo, borne likewise in Badaioz. The Captaines of the footemen, the one was Francisco Maldonado of Salamanca, and the other luan Rodriguez Lobillo. While wee were in this towne of Vcita, the two Indians, which Iohn Danusco had taken on that coast, and the Gouernor caried along with him for guides and interpretours, through carelessenes of two men, which had the charge of them, escaped away one night. For which the Gouernour and all the rest were very sorie, for they had alreadie made some roades, and no Indians could bee taken, because the countrie was full of marish grounds, and in many places full of very hie and thicke woods.

Chap. VIII.

Of some inrodes that were made into the Countrie: and how there was a Christian found, which had bin long time in the power of an Indian Lord.

i Rom the towne of Vcita, the Gouernour sent the Alcalde Mayor, Baltasar dc Gallegos with 40. horsemen and 80. footemen into the Countrie to see if they could take any Indians: and the Captaine lohn Rodriguez Lobillo another way with 50. footemen, the most of them were swordmen and targettours, and the rest were shot and crossebowmen. They passed through a countrie full of bogges, where horses could hot trauell. Halfe a league from the campe, they lighted vpon certaine cabins of Indians Certaine caneere a Riuer: The people that were in them leaped bins of Ininto the Riuer; yet they tooke foure Indian women: diaDSAnd twentie Indians charged vs, and so distressed vs, that wee were forced to retire to our campe, being, as they are, exceeding readie with their weapons. It is a people so warlike and so

nimble, nimble, that they care not awhit for any footemen. For if their enemies charge them, they runne away, and if they turne their backs, they are presently vpon them. And the thing that they most flee, is the shot of an arrow. They never stand still, but are alwaies running and trauersing from one place to another: by reason whereof neither crossebow nor arcubuse can aime at them: and before one crcssebowman can make one shot, an Indian will discharge three or foure arrowes; and he seldome misseth what hee shooteth at. An arrow, where it findeth no armour, pierceth as deepely as a crossebow. Their bowes are very long, and their arrowes are made of certaine canes like reedes, very heauie, & so strong, that a sharpe cane passeth thorow a target: Some they arme in the point with a sharpe bone of a fish like a chisel, and in others they fasten certaine stones like points of Diamants. For the most part when they light vpon an armour, they breake in the place where they are bound together. Those of cane do split and pierce a coate ol maile, and are more hurtfull then the other. Iohn Rodriguez Lobillo returned to the Campe with sixe men wounded, whereof one died; and brought the foure Indian women,whichBaltasar Gallegos had taken in the cabins or cotages. Two leagues from the towne, comming into the plaine field, he espied ten or eleuen Indians, among whom was a Christian, which was naked, and scorched with the Sunne, and had his amies razed after the manner of the Indians, and differed nothing at all from them. And assoone as the horsemen saw them they ran toward them. The Indians fled, and some of them hid themselues in a wood, and they ouertooke two or three of them, which were wounded: and the Christian, seeing an horseman runne vpon him with his lance, began to crie out, Sirs, I am Christian, slay me not, nor these Indians, for they haue saued my life. And straightway he called them, and put them out of feare, and they came foorth of the wood vnto them. The horse men tooke both the Christian and the Indians vp behind them; and toward night came into the Campe with much ioy: which thing being knowne by the Gouernour, and them that remained in the Campe, they were receiued with the like.




Chap. IX.

How this Christian came to the land of Florida, and who he was: and what conference he had with the Gouernor.

>*His Christians name w3S hhn Or- Ioim °rtil. tiz, and he was borne in Siuil, of „me„.'

. . IT . yueres, among

worshipful parentage. He was 12. the Floridiam yeeres in the hands of the Indians. of Vcita and He came into this Countrie with OCOPamphilo de Naruaez, and returned in the ships to the Island of Cuba, where the wife of the Gouernour Pamphilo de jVaruaez was: and by his commandement with 20. or 30. other in a brigandine returned baeke againe to Florida: and comming to the port in the sight of the towne, on the shore they saw a cane sticking in the ground, and riuen at the top, and a letter in it: and they beleeued that the Gouernour had left it there to giue aduertisement of himselfe, when he resolued to goe vp into the land: and they demanded it of foure or fiue Indians, which walked along the sea shore: and they bad them by signes to come on shore for it: which against the will of the rest lohn Ortiz and another did. And assoone as they were on land, from the houses of the towne issued a great number of Indians, which compassed them about, and tooke them in a place where they could not flee: and the other which sought to defend himselfe, they presentlie killed vpon the place, and tooke Iohn Ortiz aliue, and carried him to Vcita their Lord. And those of the brigandine sought not to land, but put themselues to sea, and returned to the Island of Cuba. Vcita commanded to bind Iohn Ortiz hand and foote vpon foure stakes aloft vpon a raft, and to make a fire vnder him, that there he might bee burned: But a daughter of his desired him that he would not put him to death, alleaging, that one only Christian could do him neither hurt nor good, telling him, that it was more for his honour to keepe him as a captiue. And Vcita granted her request, and commanded him to be cured of his wounds: and assoone as he was whole, he gaue him the charge of the keeping of the Temple: because that by night the wolues did cary away the dead corpses out of the same: who commended himselfe to God and tooke vpon him the charge of his temple. One night the wolues gate from him the corpes of a little child, the sonne of a principal Indian ; and going after them he threw a darte at one of the wolues and strooke him that carried away the corps, who feeling himselfe


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