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(3) where? The fact of the banishment seems to me to be as well established as any other fact of Juvenal's life. All the Lives attest it, and Sidonius Apollinaris (428-484 A.D.) certainly alludes to Juvenal in the lines (ix, 267 foll.)

Non qui tempore Caesaris secundi
Aeterno incoluit Tomos reatu
Non qui consimili deinde casu
Ad vulgi tenuem strepentis auram

Irati fuit histrionis exul, while the fourth line seems to show that he did not derive the story from any of the Lives as we know them, and if so, he is an independent authority. But by whom was the punishment inflicted? Some say by Domitian, but a number of obvious arguments may be urged against this. (1) The only reason adduced for connecting it with Domitian is the story of the lines composed against Paris. This I have disposed of above, and besides, this would necessitate the date of the banishment being placed not later than 83 A.D. (2) Most of the Lives say that he remained in exile till his death, and Sidonius Apollinaris in comparing his fate to Ovid's (“ aeterno . .. reatu” and “consimili casu ") seems to imply the same thing. But to suppose that he remained in exile during Trajan's and Hadrian's reigns, the period when he wrote his Satires, is absurd. (3) The Satires, and especially the first Book, clearly indicate that Juvenal knew Rome well during at any rate the last half of Domitian's reign. (4) We know from Martial, vii. 24 and 91, that Juvenal was in Rome in 91 or 92 A.D., and from xii. 18 that he

i Friedländer shows that Book vii. of the Epigrams was published at the end of 92 (Sittengesch. vol. iii. p. 432).


was also there in 101 or 102 A.D. (5) The first and, as we have seen, probably the earliest of the Lives distinctly states that he was not banished at the time when he composed the first verses against Paris, but by some later emperor—“quasi tempora praesentia figura notasset.” Others think it was Trajan, and adduce in favour of the supposition the fact that according to Dio Cassius (68, 10) Trajan had a favourite named Pylades, who was an actor. But (1) supposing that Juvenal alluded to him under the name of Paris in Sat. vii., as is quite possible, this, as will be seen below, by no means proves that he was banished by Trajan; (2) Sat. vi., which must have been written in Rome, was not written till after Trajan had left Rome for the last time for the East, and that Juvenal was in Rome dur the earlier part of Trajan's reign is proved by Book I. of the Satires ; (3) if Juvenal was banished under Trajan, and remained in exile till his death, this would imply that Sat. vii. xvi. were published in exile, which is quite incredible; and (4) the act is quite inconsistent with all we know of Trajan's character. On the other hand, if he was banished by Hadrian, all seems consistent. His eightieth year would be 135 A.D., a time when, as we know from Spartian, Hadrian committed a number of cruel, arbitrary, and eccentric acts, quite in keeping with his supposed conduct to Juvenal. Again the poet, if banished at that time, would naturally die in exile. Nor is it hard to suggest a reason for the exile, as indeed we are bound to do, not entirely inconsistent with the statement of the Lines and the phrase of Sidonius Apollinaris, "histrionis exul.” The line of the latter poet—"ad vulgi tenuem

1 Book xii. was published from Bilbilis in 102 A.D.


strepentis auram ”—may perhaps help us to an explanation. That Hadrian towards the close of his reign had some favourite actor in the place of Antinous, like Paris under Domitian, and Pylades under Trajan, is extremely probable though not attested, and it is certain that such a favourite, if he existed, would exercise the sort of patronage which Juvenal satirises in Sat. vii. Quite conceivably the populace on some public occasion, in the amphitheatre or the circus, would mark their indignation at this by shouts and exclamations, and very likely by repeating amid hisses the well-known lines of Juvenal. If this was done, Juvenal's innocence of any intention to offend would probably not have stood in the way of his being made a scapegoat, and punished for lines written some fifteen years earlier. This is of course a mere hypothesis, but it at any rate answers to all the facts, and is certainly suggested by the words of Sidonius Apollinaris. There remains the question as to the place of exile, and its supposed connection with a military command. Two of the Lives say distinctly that he was sent to Britain contra Scotos ; the rest say that he was sent to Egypt; all say that he was sent under pretence of military service, most of them as praefectus cohortis How are we to reconcile these conflicting statements, and account for the absurd story that an octogenarian poet without previous military experience should be put in command of a cohort on a distant frontier ? Would not the following supposition account for the facts ? Juvenal as a young man may have entered on a military career, and have been sent in the course of time to Britain as praefect of a cohort. At a later time in his old age he may have been banished by Hadrian to Egypt. These two episodes in Juvenal's career, though neither of them absolutely forgotten, may in the course of a century or two have become confused, so that on the one hand the exile may have been connected with the praefecture in Britain and the mention of Egypt dropped, as in the Lives of Group IV., or on the other hand the praefecture may have been connected (perhaps partly owing to Sat. vii.) with the exile in Egypt and the mention of Britain dropped, as in the other Groups. Fortunately, however, what I have suggested as a supposition is supported by evidence of the strongest kind, and is, indeed, placed almost beyond doubt by the inscription already alluded to (C. I. L. x. 5382, or Orelli-Henzen, 5599).

[Cere]ri Sacrum
[D. Iu]nius Iuvenalis
[praef] coh. [I] Delmatarum
II [vir] quinq. flamen

divi Vespasiani
vovit dedicav[it q]ue

sua pec.

Now this inscription throws a good deal of light on the military and municipal career of Juvenal. We will take the former first. Two things are proved at once(1) that Juvenal served as praefect or tribune (the reading is uncertain) of a cohort of Dalmatians (the number again being uncertain); and (2) that Juvenal came home again to Aquinum from this service, for he himself had the slab in question put up. This, therefore, can have had nothing to do with the exile, in the course of which he is said to have died. But more information than this can be gained from the stone. There were altogether seven cohortes Delmatarum. Of these the sixth and

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seventh were stationed in Mauretania during the first two centuries, but the partly illegible number on the inscription is certainly not one of these. The first cohort is proved by a military diploma (C. I. L. vii. 1195) to have been in Britain in 124 A.D., and also under Antoninus Pius (ib. 400), being stationed at Uxellodunum in Cumberland. The second cohort was stationed in the second century at Magnae, one of the stations along Hadrian's wall (ib. 760), and was still there at the date referred to by the Notitia, i.e. about the end of the second century. The fourth cohort is proved by a military diploma (ib. 1194) to have been in Britain in 103 A.D.; and as Hübner points out, there is the greatest probability that all five cohorts came over to Britain with the legio 9th Hispana, which was itself a Pannonian legion previously to its removal to Britain by Claudius (Tac. Ann. xiv. 32). Three (I. II. IIII.) out of the five at any rate were certainly there early in the second century, and had probably been there for some time previously, and the reading on the stone is almost certainly I. or II. It is therefore in the highest degree probable that the tradition that Juvenal was sent as praefect of a cohort contra Scotos depends on historical grounds, though not connected, as in the Life, with his exile. But knowing that Juvenal served in this military capacity, we are in a position to draw some further inferences. The position of praefect of an auxiliary cohort was a definite grade in a definite military career, and could be reached only in one of two ways. It might be gained by enlisting as a common soldier, and then rising gradually to be a centurion, then a primipilus, and hen a praefect of a

ort. It was, however,

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