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best arrangement for the centurion to act as judge in military cases, and he will punish his soldiers if they are in the wrong; but then the complainant has all the other soldiers to fear, who will manage to make him regret his victory.

19. iustae . . . causa querelae-gen. of definition : the complaint is the cause.

20. Tota . . . cohors. Each legion had ten cohorts, but the primary reference here is probably to the cohortes praetoriae. See line 25. cohors is often pronounced as a monosyllable. See especially Mart. iii. 58, 12, vagatur omnis turba sordidae cohortis."

manipli. There were three manipuli in each cohort. 21. curabilis ut sit, “should stand in need of a remedy." All the verbals in -bilis may be either active or passive.

23. mulino corde Vagelli. Vagellius has been mentioned in Sat. xiii. 119. mulino here means obstinate, and so foolhardy. It would be a piece of rashness worthy of Vagellius to pursue an action against a soldier in the camp.

24. caligas. See note on Sat. iii. 322. 25. clavorum. Sat. iii. 248.

tam procul absit ab urbe. This is ironical, because the words below, “molem aggeris,” show that Juvenal is speaking of the praetorian camp outside the agger Servii, so that the actual distance would be very small, though it serves a timid friend with an excuse. Conf. Sat. v. 153, viii. 43, and x. 95.

26. Pylades. The friendship of Pylades and Orestes was proverbial.

27. se excusaturos, who will be sure to make some excuse.

28. non sollicitemus, let us not importune. Notice the non used for ne. See Sat. iii. 54.

29. Da testem, produce your witness.

audeat. et credam, let him dare and I will believe. Conf. Sat. i. 155, “Pone Tigellinum, taeda lucebis in illa.”

30. pugnos qui vidit, dicere vidi. Conf. Sat. vii. 13, "Hoc satius, quam si dicas sub iudice 'vidi,' quod non vidisti.'

31. barba dignumque capillis maiorum. Conf. “ barbato regi,” Sat. iv. 103 ; and “ capillato consule,” Sat. v. 30.

33. contra paganum. The word paganus is often used by writers of the Silver Age for a civilian as opposed to the soldiery. Tac. Hist. i. 53, iii. 24 ; Plin. ad Trai. 86.

36. sacramentorum. sacramentum was the military oath taken by every soldier on being enlisted. The phrase generally used was “iurare in verba alicuius." The oath was to the effect that they would obey their general, and not leave the camp till the campaign was ended.

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38. sacrum saxum. See Ov. Fast. ii. 639. Figures of the god Terminus, roughly cut in stone, were placed by the Romans at the boundaries of their fields. In honour of these a festival was held in February called_Terminalia. Conf. Hor. Epod. ii. 59, “Vel agna festis caesa Terminalibus."

39. annua, i.e. in the Terminalia held in February. 40. pergit non reddere, "persists in not repaying.”

41. vana supervacui, etc. The same line occurs in Sat. xiii. 137.

42. exspectandus erit, qui lites incohet, annus, etc., “a whole year will have to be waited for the beginning of the hearing of a whole nation's suits”; a fortiori, any individual suitor will probably have to wait much more than a year. totius populi is in opposition both to the military classes and to the individual suitor. Suetonius (Vesp. 10) speaks of the long delays in the court of the centumviri, dealing chiefly with wills, etc., “iudicia centumviralia quibus vix suffectura litigatorum aetas videbatur.”

43. tunc quoque, even when the case is heard.

44. subsellia tantum sternuntur. Pliny, Ep. v. 9, gives an instance of the kind,“ sedebant iudices, decemviri venerant, obversabantur advocati, silentium longum ; tandem à praetore nuntius : dimittuntur centum viri.”

45. ponente lacernas, because advocates in court were obliged to appear in the toga. The lacernae are in Sat. ix. 29 called "munimenta togae.

. 47. lenta is the emphatic word with reference to the “mille taedia” and “mille morae above.

51. testandi ... ius, the right of making a will. Sons who were “in manu patris ” could legally possess no property of their own, though they were often allowed to hold a peculium, just as the slaves were. See note on Sat. iii. 189. They could therefore not dispose of any property by will as long as their father was alive. After the time of Augustus, however, this rule was relaxed in the case of soldiers, who were allowed to treat all property acquired by their military services (“castrense peculium quae sunt parta labore militiae") as their own, and accordingly to dispose of it by will. Prof. Mayor quotes Justin. Instit. ii. 12, “statim enim hi qui alieno iuri subiecti sunt, testamentum faciendi ius non habent ... exceptis ... militibus qui in potestate parentum sunt, quibus de eo, quod in castris adquisierint, permissum est ex constitutionibus principum testamentum facere.'

53. non esse in corpore census, "should not be included in the paternal property.”

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54. Coranum. The name is taken from Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 57,
Captatorque dabit risus Nasica Corano.”
56. captat, plays the legacy-hunter to-

favor aequus, impartial patronage. All the MSS. have labor, which, with labori in the next line, can hardly be right.

58. Ipsius . . . ducis, the emperor himself. Conf. Sat. vii. 21, “ducis indulgentia.'

60. phaleris. Conf. Sat. xi. 103.

Line 60 is the last line of the last page of a quaternion in P., which favours the view that the rest of the Satire has been lost, not left uncompleted

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APPENDIX I

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE RARER WORDS

IN JUVENAL

Those marked with an asterisk are άπαξ λεγόμενα.

abacus, a sort of sideboard on which plate was set out for show. abolla, a cloak worn especially by philosophers (iii. 115), but

also by senators (iv. 76) and kings. aedicula, dim. of aedes. In viii. 111 it is a niche in the atrium,

where a statue of a god was placed. alapae, slaps ; an onomatopoeic word, like murmur, whisper,

roar, etc.

aliptes (ålelow), lit. an anointer, and so a medical rubber. Vanabathra, the tiers of seats in the theatre rising in a semi

circle behind the orchestra. Arabarches, a title given to the Governor of Thebais, one of the

divisions of Egypt. aretalogus, a parasite philosopher, engaged to entertain com:

pany at dinner by his disquisitions on virtue. artopta, a bread-pan, used also by Plautus. ✓ *attegia, a hut used by African tribes, found elsewhere only in

inscriptions.

Bardaicus, an epithet possibly applied to calceus, the military boot;

from the Bardiaei, from whom the shape was introduced. ✓ bascauda, a British word, a basket. ✓ *bratteola, dim. of brattea, a thin leaf of gold. caballus, used in silver Latin for a horse. Conf. cheval, cavalry, cacoethes (kakonés), a medical term for an ulcerous disease :

etc.

C. scribendi, an itch for writing. cardiacus, a medical term ; " with disordered stomach.” cercopithecus, a long-tailed monkey ; used by Pliny. Cerdo (képdos), properly an artisan ; then in the Digest as a

proper name for the lower classes. *ceromaticus, anointed with the ceroma, a mixture of wax, oil,

and clay. chironomunta (xelpovojoûvta), gesticulating. conduplicare, to double ; occurs in a suspicious line, xiv. 229. cophinus, a small basket carried usually by Jews. v crepido, a raised footpath on which beggars took their stand.

crypta, usually a vault. In Juvenal it is a sewer-pipe. cucurbita, a gourd, and then, from its shape, a cupping-glass. in cucullus, a hood fastened on to the lacerna. ✓ decidere, to cut a knot; and so to settle a dispute, come to

terms. defendier, archaic infinitive passive for defendi. discursus, a running about, distraction, hurry and skurry. diverticulum, a digression. duellum, archaic form of bellum.

endromis, a thick woollen cloak worn by runners and athletes. V epimenia (éluńvia), monthly rations for slaves. epirhedia (ėti, and a Gallic word reda), probably some kind of

car or harness. ergastula, prison-houses for the slaves who worked on the

latifundia.

famelicus (fames), famished. fanaticus (fanum), inspired by deity, especially by Bellona. farrago, a mixture of corn given to cattle ; then a medley of

subjects. ferculum (fericulum), a course at dinner. ferula, properly a fennel stalk, then a rod. *flammeolum, dim. of flammeum, a bridal veil. *fornacula, dim. of fornax, a little stove.

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