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97. Huius enim, quod nunc agitur, etc., "for the present example of this sort of food (i.e. the instance of the Vascones) ought to be pitied.”

98. mihi, dat. of the agent.
102. esse parati, prepared to eat.

104. urbibus is the reading of P. and is decidedly better than that of the other MSS., viribus, which can hardly mean “strong men,” as Mr. Macleane thinks. ventribus is a conjecture.

105. quibus=iis quibus.
poterant ignoscere, "might have pardoned.”

107. Zenonis praecepta. Zeno, 350-258 B.C., was the founder of the Stoic School, who taught that virtue was the only good, and that pain, misfortune, and even death, were to be preferred to vice.

nec enim omnia quidam, “for there are some who think that not all things are to be done for life.” For a similar use of quidam in reference to a definite class of persons, conf. Sat. xii. 50.

108. Cantaber. The Vascones were not Cantabri really : Juvenal used the name loosely for Spaniards.

109. antiqui . Metelli. See above. Metellus is called "antiquus” simply in comparison with Juvenal's time, in which the Stoic doctrines had spread very widely among the aristocratic classes at Rome. Metellus was consul in 83 B.C., and triumphed over Spain in 71 B.C.

110. Graias nostrasque Athenas, “the Greek culture and our own. Greek civilisation, language, and literature, of which Athens was the type, was spread over all the eastern portion of the Empire, while the western provinces, especially Spain, Gaul, Africa, and Britain, were equally affected by the Latin civilisation. On Athens as the type of culture (conf. Thuc. ii. 42, rîs 'Elládos maidevous) see Val. Max. ii. 1, 10, quas Athenas, quam scholam, quae alienigena studia huic domesticae disciplinae praetulerim ?". As Greek and Latin literature spread in the provinces, even the tribes of Hispania might be expected to know something of the Stoics.

habet, has access to.

111. Gallia. facunda. Conf. Sat. vii. 148, “Gallia vel nutrix causidicorum Africa."

causidicos docuit. Britannos. The British youth were very likely sent to the Gallic schools of Augustodunum or Lugdunum. Conf. Tac. Agric. 21 ; and Mart. xi. 3, “Dicitur et nostros cantare Britannia versus.

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112. Thule-called by Vergil, Georg. i. 30, “ultima Thule," has been variously placed in the Shetlands, in Iceland, and in Norway. It represents, at any rate, the extreme north.

113. quem diximus, i.e. the Vascones.

114. Zacynthos, or Saguntus, was south of the Ebro, and so not in the Roman portion of Spain ; it was besieged by Hannibal in 219 B.C., and held out obstinately for eight months. Livy, who describes the siege, does not mention any instances of cannibalism, though other historians do. Liv. xxi. 8 seq.

115. tale quid excusat, has a similar excuse, or has a similar crime to excuse. Maeotide

The Palus Maeotis was at the mouth of the Tanais. The inhabitants were called Tauri, and their country the Tauric Chersonese. In the worship of the Tauric goddess, who is identified by the Greeks with Artemis, human victims were offered. See in Classical Dict. for the story of Iphigenia and her brother Orestes, as told in the play of Euripides, Iphigenia in Tauris.

116. illa . . . Taurica, the goddess. 117. iam,

for the moment." carmina—nom. case-“the poets."

120. hos, the Ombites.

122. terra Memphitide sicca, when the land was suffering from drought.

Anne aliam ... invidiam facerent, etc. "Could they, when the land of Memphis was stricken with drought, cast any greater infamy on the Nile because of its unwillingness to rise ?" If the Nile did not rise a famine would ensue, and any crime which the famine - struck people might commit would be a disgrace to the river which caused it; but famine could never give occasion to a greater crime than that of the Ombites.

124. Brittones, as Dürr points out, is the form usually found in military inscriptions and diplomata, whereas “Britanni” is usually found in literature. Martial (xi. 21) has “Britānis."

125. Sauromatae, a Scythian tribe beyond the Tanais.

Agathyrsi—also Scythians. Vergil, Aen. iv. 146, calls them “picti,” tattooed.

127. fictilibus phaselis. The Egyptians made their river-boats sometimes of papyrus, sometimes of clay. Conf. Verg. Georg. iv. 287. The phaselus was properly the name of a bean, from resemblance to the shape of which these boats received their name.

128. pictae testae. They were generally painted with gaudy colours.

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134. iubet, she orders us. causam dicentis, “of a friend who is pleading his cause." Other MSS. have casuin lugentis.

135. squalorem refers to the signs of mourning, such as the torn black robe which defendants usually put on to excite pity.

rei. Not necessarily the same person as “amici,” but any defendant.

pupillum. See note on Sat. i. 46, and x. 223.

136. circumscriptorem. See Sat. x. 222, and xiv. 237. The circumscriptor would be the fraudulent tutor."

137. faciunt incerta, "disguise the sex of”; conf. Hor. Od. ii. 5, 21, “discrimen obscurum solutis crinibus ambiguoque vultu.”

140. minor igne rogi. Young children were never burnt on the funeral pyre, but always buried.

face dignus arcana. During the Eleusinian mysteries in honour of Demeter, the initiated all marched with torches (dadoûxou) from Athens to the temple of the goddess, and celebrated a midnight festival, accompanied by a torch race. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 2, 25, “ vetabo qui Cereris sacrum vulgavit arcanae,' etc. ; and see Sat. xiv. 218.

141. qualem. vult esse sacerdos, “such as the priest wishes him to be.” Conf. Sat. vi. 50, “Paucae adeo Cereris vittas contingere dignae. The initiated were supposed to be free from all pollution and crime. Hadrian introduced an imitation of these rites into Rome, and some have thought that Juvenal is alluding to this here, but the subject was a comm

nmonplace, as the quotations collected by Prof. Mayor sufficiently prove.

142. ulla aliena sibi credat mala. Conf. Ter. Haut. i. 1, 25, “humani nil a me alienum puto.”

143. mutorum, dumb animals. venerabile, capable of veneration.

145. capiendisque. The reading in P. is doubtful, and possibly Weidner's conjecture, tradendis, i.c. teaching, is preferable.

147. prona et terram spectantia. Conf. Cic. de Leg. i. 22, “nam cum ceteros animantes Deus abiecisset ad pastum, solum hominem erexit”; and Ovid's Met. i. 84.

149. animas, life or breath. This would be the OpenTTiKN yuxń, which Aristotle speaks of as opposed to vous.

151. trahere=ouvolkifelv. migrare vetusto de nemore. Conf. Sat. xiii. 57, xiv. 184. 152. proavis--dat. of agent.

157. defendier — archaic form of defendi.

Vergil also uses this form. Some explain the final syllable er by saying that it is a transposition of se, the reflexive pronoun, and therefore that it is really a middle form. Other archaic forms in Juvenal are induperatur, duellum, robus.

160. cognatis maculis, “its spotted kindred.” quando leoni, etc. Conf. Hor. Epod. vii. 11, “Neque hic lupis mos nec fuit leonibus umquam nisi in dispar feris." It is not, however, true that wild animals spare their own species.

164. inter se convenit, “there is a mutual truce between.”

166. produxisse, to have beaten out, i.e. on the forge. Vergil has

ocreas lento ducunt argento. parum est, i.e. the use of the fatal sword is mild compared with such barbarities as cannibalism. Conf. Verg. Georg. ii. 539.

cum, although. 168. extendere=producere. Pliny has “extenditur malleo." 170. sed ... crediderint. Supply qui from quorum. 173. Pythagoras. See note on Sat. iii. 229. 174. indulsit. See supra, line 148.

non omne legumen. Beans, e.g., were strictly forbidden by Pythagoras to his followers for some secret reason. Horace affects to think that it was from the same reason as their refusal to eat animal flesh, and so speaks of " faba Pythagorae cognata,Sat. ii. 6, 63.


2. prospera castra, a fortunate camp, or a lucky regiment or legion. Under the Empire the custom of having permanent camps in which the same legion was kept year after year was becoming more and more frequent, so that castra and legio might be used almost interchangeably. Or prospera may be proleptic, “with fortune's favour.”

3. excipiat, optative, “I should like it to receive.” Conf. Sat. vii. 194, “distat enim, quae sidera te excipiant,” etc. ; and ix. 93,

nam si tibi sidera cessant, nil facies.' porta. A Roman camp had four gates - porta praetoria, porta decumana, and two portae principales at the two sides.

4. plus etenim fati valet hora. Conf. Sat. vii. 200, “sidus et occulti miranda potentia fati.” 6. Samia

Juno had a famous temple at

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Samos, mentioned by Herodotus, iii. 60. Conf. Verg. Aen. i. 15, “Quam Iuno fertur terris magis omnibus unam posthabita coluisse Samo.”

7. Commoda . communia, i.e. common to both oficers and common soldiers. Juvenal intended, no doubt, to deal with the particular advantage of particular classes afterwards, but the scheme if carried out is lost.

8. ne, after “haud minimum illud erit,” is irregular. We should expect “quod non.” Prof. Mayor says it is because there is involved the idea of preventing.

togatus, civilian. Conf. Sat. viii. 240.

9. dissimulet, "overlook it." ut must be supplied to this verb.

10. excussos dentes. Conf. Sat. iii. 301.

praetori ostendere. The praetor urbanus would be the magistrate to whom a civilian would naturally appeal, but if the assailant were a soldier, the praetor would have to hand the case over to the praefectus praetorio, who again might entrust it, if comparatively insignificant, to a court of centurions.

11. offam, a bruise. 12. relictum-just left in the head, but without much hope of recovery.

13. Bardaicus iudex datur, etc. A rough Illyrian is assigned as judge . . . all boot and huge calves at the massive benches.” The 'Αρδιαίοι or Ούαρδιαίοι were a tribe in Illyricum, called in Latin Bardiaei or Vardiaei. From these, for some reason, the rough soldier's boot seems to have derived its name. Conf. Mart. iv. 4, 5, “lassi vardaicus evocati,” and no doubt Juvenal has this in mind here. Most editors take Bardaicus calceus together, “an Illyrian shoe (i.e. a centurion) is assigned as judge.”

This may be right, but it is somewhat harsh, and the separation of Bardaicus from calceus seems against this interpretation. For the epithets “grandes” and “magna,” conf. Hor, Sat. i. 6, 73, “magni quo pueri magnis e centurionibus orti”; and see Tac. Agric. 9, "credunt plerique militaribus ingeniis subtilitatem deesse quia castrensis iurisdictio securior et obtusior et plura manu agens calliditatem fori non exerceat.”

15. more Camilli. L. Furius Camillus, dictator against Veii, during the siege introduced what was practically a standing army, not allowing the soldiers to leave the camp in order to spend the winter months at home. He seems to be taken as the founder of Rome's military system, as Numa was of the religious institutions. See Liv. v. 5, 2.

17. Iustissima centurionum cognitio est. This does not seem to be ironical. Juvenal says that probably it is really the


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