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129. minutal, a minced compound of meat, fish, and vegetables. See Mart. xi. 31.

Septembri. Conf. note on Sat. iv. 56, “letifero autumno.

130. cenae alterius, the next day's dinner. 131. conchem. See Sat. iii. 293, “cuius conche tumes.”

aestivam. aestivam, because the summer was the wrong season for it.

lacerti. The lacertus was a cheap and common kind of fish, often introduced in a simple meal. Conf. Mart. vii. 79, and x. 48, “secta coronabunt rutatos ova lacertos.”

132. signatam, under lock and key, lit. sealed up.
dimidio, governed by cum.
siluro. See Sat. iv. 32.

133. sectivi . porri. On the two kinds of leek, see note to Sat. iii. 293, sectile porrum.”

numerata, he had counted every leek upon the string.

134. aliquis de ponte. See note on Sat. iv. 116, “dirusque a ponte satelles."

135. quo divitias. See note on Sat. viii. 9.
136. phrenesis, insanity.
137. sacculus. See Sat. xi. 27.
140. paratur, is bought. Conf. note on Sat. iii. 224.

143. vicina seges, one's neighbour's crop. Conf. Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 8, “O si angulus ille proximus accedat.”

arbusta, a vineyard. Conf. Verg. Ecl. iii. 10.
151. iniuria, a wrong like this.
venales . . . fecerit, “has put in the market.”

152. quam foedae buccina famae, “how disgraceful a story will fame trumpet forth.”

153. Tunicam mihi malo lupini, etc., “I would prefer a bean-pod to the praise of all my neighbours.” So Juvenal says, Sat. i. 48, “Quid enim salvis infamia nummis ?” and Hor. Sat. i. 1, 65 seq., “populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo, ipse domi simul ac nummos contemplor in arca.

155. secantem-conditional participle, "if I reap.”

156. Scilicet-ironical : then I suppose if you can despise common opinion, you will also be free from, etc. Conf. Hor. Ep. i. 2, 47.

159. culti ... agri, i.e. ploughed land as opposed to pasture.

tantum ... solus possederis ... quantum, etc. -i.e. one of the latifundia of Juvenal's time would be as large as the whole domain of the primitive Romans.

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160. sub Tatio—the Sabine monarch who became joint king with Romulus.

quantum sub Tatio, etc. Prof. Mayor quotes Sen. de Ira, i. 21, 2, “sub singulis vilicis latiores habet fines quam quos consules sortiebantur.”

161. fractis, sc. Quiritibus.

162. Pyrrhum immanem, gladiosque Molossos. Sat. xii. 106.

163. vix iugera bina, “a bare two acres. This was the tisual amount of land given to each colonist. The veterans frequently had their arrears of pay given to them in the form of land after they were “emeriti.”

165. meritis minor, too small for their deserts.

166. curta fides patriae. Prof. Mayor translates, "a breach of faith on the part of their country.”

saturabat. Conf. Sat. viii. 118. 167. turbam casae, their rustic families. 169. vernula. See notes on Sat. i. 26, v. 105, and x. 117.

170. altera cena, a second dinner, i.e. after the others had had theirs.

171. pultibus. Conf. Sat. xi. 58. puls was in early times the national food of Italy. So Varro says, “de victu antiquissima puls,” and Pliny, H. N. xviii. 83, “pulte non pane vixisse longo tempore Romanos manifestum.” Conf. also Mart. xiii. 8, “Imbue plebeias Clusinis pultibus ollas.” It consisted of a kind of porridge made of far.

172. modus hic, i.e. “bina iugera.”

nostro . . . horto, for the pleasure-gardens of to-day, i.e. such as those of Caesar or Maecenas or Lucullus.

173. inde, from this land-fever. 174. miscuit, guomic perfect, and so legitimately coupled with a present.

ferro grassatur. Conf. Sat. iii. 305, “ferro grassator agit rem.

178. properantis avari, "of a man hasting to be rich.” Conf. Verg. Aen. iii. 56, “Quid non mortalia pectora cogis, auri sacra fames ?

180. Marsus Hernicus. Vestinus-all peoples of the Sabellian stock, which was noted for its bravery and simplicity Conf. Sat. iii. 169,

mensamque Sabellam.” 182. numina ruris—such as Ceres and Liber and Priapus.

183. quorum ope et auxilio, etc. Conf. Verg. Georg. i. 7, “Liber et alma Ceres, vestro si munere tellus Chaoniam pingui glandem mutavit arista"; and Ov. Fast. iv., "Prima Ceres, homine ad meliora alimenta vocato, mutavit glandes utiliore cibo.”

185. alto perone, a high rustic boot. Conf. Verg. Aen. vii. 690, “crudus pero"; and Pers. v. 102, “peronatus arator.”

186. qui summovet. The antecedent is of course not perone, but the subject of volet.

187. peregrina. The best was the Tyrian ; next to this ranked the Laconian and Tarentine.

188. quaecunque est, "whatever it may be.” These are the words of the Sabellian elder who has never seen this corrupting purple.

190. post finem autumni. This would make the hardship of getting up in the middle of the night greater ; or perhaps the winter months were those most given to study on account of the longer nights. Conf. Plin. Ep. iii. 5, 8, “lucubrare Vulcanalibus (i.e. Aug. 23) incipiebat, non auspicandi causa, sed studendi statim a nocte multa."

191. Accipe ceras, the pugillares or tablets of wax.

192. rubras maiorum leges. The first letters of the laws were written in red, and so “rubrica” sometimes stands alone for a law. Conf. Pers. v. 90, "Masuri rubrica.”

193. vitem—the vine staff with which the centurion punished the soldiers, and so the centurionship. Conf. Sat. viii. 247. See note on vii. 89.

libello, in a petition. 194. buxo, with the comb, i.e. of boxwood. Persius speaks, iii. 77, de gente hircosa centurionum."

195. grandes miretur . . . alas, probably an allusion to the rule introduced by Hadrian, Spart. Hadr. 10, “nulli vitem nisi robusto et bonae famae daret.” Conf. also Sat. ii. 12, "hispida membra et durae per brachia setae promittunt atrocem animum."

Laelius is the general to whom the petition would be presented.

196. Maurorum. There was a rising in Mauritania at the beginning of Hadrian's reign, 117 A.D. Spart. Hadr. 12.

attegias, earth-huts, a word found elsewhere only in inscriptions.

Brigantum. The Brigantes occupied all the northern counties of England ; their chief town was Eboracum (York). They also rebelled under Hadrian. castella Brigantum=forts erected against the Brigantes.


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197. locupletem aquilam. This refers to the primipilatus. The first centurion of the first cohort had charge of the eagle of the legion. He was called centurio primipili, and on attaining this position was admitted into the ordo equester. Ex cept in rare cases this was the highest post in the army which any one of the humbler classes could hope to attain. Conf. Mart. vi. 58, 10.

sexagesimus annus, i.e. of course of his age, not of his service. Twenty years was the us period of military service; many, however, remained considerably longer.

199. solvunt tibi . ventrem, make your heart melt within you.” The bowels were considered the seat of fear as well as of pity. Conf. the use of orláyxva in the Greek Testament.

200. pares, you may buy.

201. pluris dimidio, at more by half, i.e. at half as much again, or at 50 per cent profit.

mercis ablegandae Tiberim ultra, wares which must be banished beyond the Tiber.” Tanning, the manufacture of sulphur matches, and other offensive trades, were carried on in the Transtiberine district. Conf. Mart. i. 42, “Transtiberinus ambulator qui pallentia sulphurata fractis permutat vitreis”; and vi. 93, “Non detracta cani Transtiberina cutis."

204. lucri bonus est odor ex re qualibet. Conf. the story of Vespasian in Suet. Vesp. 23, “reprehendenti filio Tito quod etiam urinae vectigal commentus esset, pecuniam ex prima pensione admovit ad nares, sciscitans num odore offenderetur.'

206. dis atque ipso love digna, poeta, “worthy of the gods or Jove himself as its author.” Conf. Sen. Ep. 19, 6 ; also Sat. iii. 143.

208. repentibus, crawling, i.e. too young to walk.

assae, dry nurses. The usual reading is “poscentibus assem,” on which conf. Sat. v. 144, assemque rogatum.”

212. meliorem praesto magistro, “I warrant the pupil a better hand.”

215. Parcendum est teneris, a parody on Verg. Georg. ii. 363.

nondum implevere medullas, “they are not yet full grown."

216. naturae, etc. The old reading was maturae mala nequitiae, going with the previous words.

217. longae, to it when grown. cultri, razor.

219. Cereris tangens aram. Conf. Sat. xiii. 89, cunque altaria tangunt”; and Hor. Od. iii. 2, 26, “vetabo qui Cereris sacrum vulgavit arcanae, sub isdem sit trabibus.”



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220. Elatam, carried out to burial.

limina vestra . . . subit. It was customary for the bride to be lifted over her husband's threshold, this being probably a survival from ancient times, when wives were forcibly carried off by their husbands.

223. brevior via conferet illi, he will gain by a shorter method, i.e. by his wife's murder. 228. avaros-used proleptically, train up

to avarice." 229. et qui per fraudes, etc. This is a very suspicious line, since the inf. after producit or even praecepit is doubtful Latin. I am inclined to think that Weidner in this one out of his many injudicious emendations has hit upon the right reading, et qui per fraudes patrimonia conduplicandi dat libertatem, etc., omitting et.

230. effundit habenas curriculo. Conf. Verg: Georg. i. 514, “Fertur equis auriga nec audit currus habenas.”

231. quem, i.e. the youth, not the chariot.
233. satis credit, thinks it enough, is satisfied.

234. adeo, etc., “so much more freedom do they give themselves.”

235. cum dicis iuveni, stultum, “when you tell a youth that he is foolish who,” etc.

237. circumscribere, to cheat. See notes on Sat. x. 222, and xv. 136.

239. Deciorum. On the Decii, who devoted themselves to the gods below for their country, see Sat. viii. 254.

240. Menoeceus. When the Seven came against Thebes, Calchas prophesied that Thebes would be saved if the last of the race of Cadmus should sacrifice himself for his city. Menoeceus, the son of Creon, accepted these conditions and saved his city. This is referred to in Eurip. Phoen. 913 seq.

si Graecia vera. Conf. Sat. x. 174, “ et quidquid Graecia mendax audet in historia.” He goes on to mention somewhat satirically the wonderful story of the warriors who sprang from the dragon's teeth.

241. quorum. The antecedent has to be supplied from Thebas.

dentibus anguis. The story of the crop of warriors who sprang from the teeth of the dragon which Cadmus slew, and tħen mutually killed one another, is told in Ovid, Met. iii. 104 seq.

Conf. also Verg. Georg. ii. 140 seq. 243. tubicen, a trumpeter. Conf. the expression “ante tubas," Sat. i. 169.

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