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146. ianua. The fact that the door took fire first was a pretty conclusive proof that the conflagration was not accidental. Conf. Sat. ix. 98,"candelam adponere valvis non dubitat." 148. adorandae robiginis-gen. of quality.

149. antiquo

rege-some king like Croesus or Amasis,

who made offerings to the Delphian temple.

150, etc. "If these costly things are not to be had, he comes out, a sacrilegious rascal with humbler views, to scrape," etc.

152. bratteolam, thin leaf of gold: ducat, beat out.

153. an dubitet solitus, etc. "Would he hesitate, accustomed as he has been (i.e. when he had the chance), to melt down a whole statue of Jove the Thunderer?" Juvenal begins by speaking of a class of men "hos. qui tollunt," but then passes to the singular exstat as if he had been speaking of some particular person. This way of taking the passage gets rid of the difficulty in describing one who had melted down a statue of Jupiter as "minor sacrilegus." minor is a predicate. The man only stoops to the petty acts of sacrilege when nothing more lucrative is to be done. Munro suggested solitumst, which Prof. Mayor at one time adopted, though he has now returned to solitus, the reading of P.

156. innoxia simia. On the punishment of parricides, see note to Sat. viii. 214.

157. quota. See note on Sat. iii. 61.

custos Gallicus urbis. C. Rutilius Gallicus was praefectus urbi in the reign of Domitian. As such he would possess some criminal jurisdiction, and was a kind of prefect of police. In Sat. iv. 77 he is called "vilicus urbis." Juvenal, according to his custom, takes a well-known praefect of former days to represent the class.

160. una domus, viz. that of Gallicus.

paucos consume dies, spend a few days there.

162. tumidum guttur, goître. In certain climates huge wens grow under the throat looking almost like the dewlap of a


163. in Meroe, an island in the Nile. Some think that the peculiarity here mentioned may have been seen by Juvenal himself during his exile in Egypt, but see the Introduction on the question of his banishment.

164. caerula . . Germani lumina. Tacitus, Germ. 4, speaks of their caerulei oculi." Conf. Hor. Epod. 16, 7.

165. madido torquentem cornua cirro, "which twists its tufts of greasy curls." torquentem agrees with caesariem. The Germans wore their hair fastened back into a twisted knot

on the top of the head, which had the appearance of a horn. Conf. Mart. Spect. 3, 9. It was also dyed a reddish colour by means of a kind of soap; hence the epithet "madido." dido cirro may be abl. of material.


167. Thracum volucres-cranes, of which large numbers were found near the river Strymon. Conf. Verg. Georg. i. 120. 168. Pygmaeus. The Pygmies were a fabulous race, supposed to live in India or Africa, according to some traditions. Homer, Il. iii. 3 seq., refers to their combats with the cranes of Thrace.

169. curvis unguibus.

Cranes have no talons, but Juvenal

is never very exact about such things.

179. "The least drop of blood from his maimed body will bring you a comfort which will make you hated by all."

181. Nempe, yes-but. nempe always affirms some previous statement, but here with a tone of objection.

indocti, sc. dicunt.

183. adeo, so true is it that.

184. Chrysippus (born 283 B.C.), a pupil of Zeno, on whose death in 260 B.C. he became chief of the Stoics. Conf. Sat. xv. 107.

Thaletis, 636-596 B.C., one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, and a native of Miletus. He is mentioned here merely as an example of a philosopher, in contrast to the "indocti."

185. senex vicinus Hymetto-Socrates of Athens, which was near to Hymettus, famous for its honey; hence "dulci.' Socrates was seventy at the time of his death, 399 B.C.

186. qui partem acceptae, etc. This only means that Socrates was so free from all thoughts of revenge that he would have been unwilling to harm his accuser.

187. accusatori-Anytus or Meletus.

Plurima felix, etc., "happy is he who gradually gets rid of his many vices and errors: it is philosophy which first teaches all the rule of right."

189. minuti, petty.

191. collige, infer. Conf. the use of ovußißášw.

193. diri conscia facti mens. Seneca says, "prima illa

et maxima peccantium poena est, peccâsse.'

194. surdo verbere, "unheard lash." Conf. caecus, which means unseen as well as blind. vii. 71.

196. illis, than those punishments.

the use of

Conf. Sat.

197. Caedicius-perhaps, as the Scholiast says, a cruel judge of Nero's reign.


Minos, Aeacus, and Rhadamanthus were the judges in the lower world. Verg. Aen. vi. 566.

199. Spartano cuidam. Herodotus tells the story, vi. 86. A Milesian deposited some money with Glaucus, a Spartan, who afterwards, when the sons of the former redemanded the money, professed to have forgotten the matter, and consulted the oracle as to whether he should swear that he had never received it. On the oracle denouncing those who violated their oaths, Glaucus in fear gave back the money, but his house soon became extinct.

200. quod dubitaret—τὸ πειρηθῆναι τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὸ ποιῆσαι ἴσον δύνασθαι.

207. quamvis longa deductis gente, derived from his race, however far back, i.e. even distant relations.

210. facti crimen habet, "incurs the guilt of crime committed."

Cedo, an old imperative "give," or, as here, "what if he has executed his design?"

211. nec ovdé.

"tell me ;

213. difficili crescente cibo. Conf. Ovid, Her. xv. 122, "crescit et invito lentus in ore cibus."

sed vina, "nay too, etc." Setina is a conjecture not supported by MSS.

214. Albani.

See note on Sat. v. 33.

215. ostendas. . . cogitur.

Conf. Sat. iii. 100.

216. acri... Falerno, sharp Falernian. See note on Sat. iv. 138. The Falernian was a strong wine, requiring to be kept some time and then mixed with honey.

220. sudoribus. Conf. Sat. i. 167.

221. te videt in somnis. So Pliny (Ep. ix. 13) says of Publicius Certus, whom he had accused in the senate, "audivi referentes hanc imaginem menti eius, hanc oculis oberrasse tamquam videret me sibi cum ferro imminere." See also Suet. Oth. 7. sacra, almost " supernatural," and so well coupled with maior humana With maior humana conf. Verg. Aen. ii. 773, "nota maior.

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224. exanimes, half dead with fear.

225. non quasi fortuitus. quasi goes with the whole clause, not with fortuitus alone.

226. iudicet, "with purpose of judgment," = iudex cadat. Another reading is vindicet.

228. hoc

vii. 179.

229. lateris.

sereno. serenum is used as a noun in Sat.

dolorem, pleurisy.

232. sacello. Conf. Sat. v. 340.

233. cristam promittere galli. Aesculapius and also to the Lares. See Sat. xii. 96.

Cocks were offered to Conf. Plato, Phaed. 118 A.

234. nocentibus aegris, to the guilty when sick.

236. malorum had better be taken as masculine.

237. superest constantia, "effrontery comes to their support." Conf. line 77, "ficti constantia vultus"; and 109, "malae superest audacia causae.

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239. natura, because habit becomes a second nature. Hor. Ep. i. 10, 24, "Naturam expellas furca, tamen usque


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damnatos, "to the character condemned by

242. attrita de fronte, from his hardened forehead.

244. noster perfidus, i.e. the man who had stolen Calvinus's deposit.

dabit in laqueum vestigia, "will yield his footsteps to the snare," i.e. will be caught.

245. carceris uncum. Conf. note on Sat. x. 66.

246. maris Aegaei rupem. Conf. Sat. i. 73, "aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum"; and x. 170.

frequentes, crowded with.

248. nominis. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 27, 34, "o pater o nomen filiae relictum."

249. Tiresian-put here for "blind." He was the blind prophet who foretold the fate of Oedipus.


1. Fuscine; perhaps the Fuscinus who, according to the Barberini Life, married Juvenal's sister.

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3. monstrant . traduntque, "show by example and teach by precept."

4. alea. Conf. Sat. i. 88 and xi. 176.

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and conf. the same metaphor in Sat. i. 93 "Proelia quanta illic dispensatore videbis armigero?"

6. melius, i.e. than about the youthful gambler.

7. tubera terrae, truffles.

8. boletum. See id. 147.

See Sat. v. 116.

eodem iure, the same sauce as the mushrooms.

9. mergere--not "to swallow," as it is sometimes taken, but "to souse. See the precepts on cookery given in Hor. Sat. ii. 4.

ficedulas, beccaficos, so called because they were fond of figs. Conf. Mart. xiii. 49, "Cum me ficus alat, cum pascar dulcibus uvis, cur potius nomen non dedit uva mihi?" It was the only bird which was eaten entire. In Martial, xiii. 5, the e is ong. Conf. Sat. v. 158.

10. cana... gula, a hoary glutton; abstract for concrete. 11. transierit puerum, "shall have passed over the boy's head."

12. barbatos . magistros, bearded philosophers. So Persius, iv. 1, says of Socrates, "barbatum hoc crede magistrum dicere." See also Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 35. barbatus is used, Sat. iv. 103, as a sign of antiquity, "barbato imponere regi"; in Sat. xiii. 56, merely for a youth with his first beard. So Cicero speaks of Catiline and his companion as "barbatuli homines."

15. modicis erroribus aequos, "dispassionate towards venial. faults."

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16. nostra materia, "the same material as our own. Roman philosophers had more enlightened views on the question of slavery than the Greeks, but for all that in practice Roman masters were harsher than Greek.

19. nullam Sirena flagellis comparat, thinks no Siren's song as sweet as the sound of the lash.

20. Antiphates trepidi Laris, "the Antiphates of his trembling household." Antiphates was king of the Laestrygones, and after sinking the ship of Odysseus devoured one of his crew— Hom. Od. x. 80 seq.

Polyphemus, the Cyclops who was blinded by Odysseus. 21. aliquis, some slave.

22. uritur ardenti

ferro. Dishonest slaves were

branded on the forehead with the letter F, standing for FUR.

23. stridore catenae-referring to the gangs of slaves who worked in chains. Conf. Sat. xi. 80.

24. mire afficiunt, "excessively delight.”

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