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44. ad cyathos. The slaves of the imperial family were usually described shortly as a cubiculo, a libellis, ab epistulis, ad cyathos, signifying chamberlain, secretary, cup-bearer, etc.

et iam siccato nectare. The et here carries on the negation. siccato nectare, having quaffed the nectar. The words tergens brachia are probably a reminiscence of Homer's phrase, Il. xviii. 414, και άμφω χείρ' απομόργνυ.

47. talis, ut est hodie. In Juvenal's time deities—all sorts of deities, especially from Egypt and the East—had been introduced, to say nothing of the frequent apotheosis of the emperor.

48. Atlanta. Conf. Verg. Aen. iv. 481. 49. aliquis, any god.

profundi, of the sea, though some have thought that triste imperium must refer to the lower regions. The aut favours the former view.

50. Sicula ... cum coniuge, Proserpine. 51. rota, the wheel of Ixion. Furiae, the Greek 'Epívves. See note on Sat. vii. 68. saxum, a reference to the punishment of Sisyphus. vulturis atri poena-genitivus definitivus. Tityus is here alluded to. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 4, 77, “incontinentis nec Tityi iecur reliquit ales.”

52. regibus, i.e. king and queen. Conf. note on Sat. xi. 105.

54. credebant hoc grande nefas. Conf. the instance given by Tacitus of a complaint made by Domitius Corbulo that L. Sulla had not given way to him at the gladiatorial games, Ann. iii. 31. He adds, memorabantur exempla maiorum qui iuventutis irreverentiam gravibus decretis notavissent.”

56. puer, i.e. one who has not yet taken the toga virilis.

57. fraga et . . . glandis acervos, the food of primitive ages. Notice that glandis is used as a noun of multitude. Conf. Verg. Georg. iv. 81.

58. praecedere quatuor annis. The puer generally took the toga virilis at about sixteen, and the first beard was shaved off at about twenty or twenty-one, at which time he might be called “barbatus.

61. cum tota aerugine, with all its rust, i.e. coin. 62. prodigiosa, amounting to a portent.”

Tuscis digna libellis. It was from the Etruscans that the Romans derived much of their ritual, especially in relation to portents, omens, and prodigies. Cicero speaks of the “Etruscorum libri,” in which all sorts of portents were recorded.

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63. coronata. Conf. Sat. xii. 118.

lustrari, to be purged away. Portents were usually signs of impending evil. So below, line 67, Juvenal says that when he sees an honest man, he is “sollicitus " just as if it had rained stones, etc.

64. bimembri puero, a portent mentioned by Livy, xxvii. 11,

cum elephanti corpore puerum natum.” 65. sub aratro piscibus inventis. Conf. Liv. xlii. 2. 70. lactis vortice. This portent is related by Livy, xxxiv. 45.

71. fraude sacrilega ; so in line 15 he speaks of “ depositum.”

72. bis centum, i.e. sestertia.

73. arcana, entrusted in private, i.e. without any witnesses. Conf. Ov. Am. ii. 15, 15.

74. angulus arcae. The meaning is, that the chest cannot hold the sum though every corner is filled up.

75. superos contemnere testes. Conf. Sat. iii. 145. 77. ficti constantia vultus, “boldness in the expression he


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78. Tarpeia fulmina, the thunderbolts of Tarpeian Jove. Conf. Sat. xii. 6, where see note. Conf. Ov. Am. ii. 3.

79. frameam. Tacitus, Germ. 6, says that this is a German word for hasta.

Cirrhaei . . . vatis, Apollo. Conf. note on Sat. vii. 64. 80. venatricis ... puellae, Diana the huntress.

82. Herculeos arcus—the bow and arrows of Hercules, stained with the blood of the hydra, and owned by Philoctetes, without which Troy could not be taken.

84. flebile-used in a quasi-proleptic sense, "to my sorrow.”

nati sinciput, etc. Conf. Plin. Ep. ii. 20, 5, “iram deorum quos ipse quotidie fallit, in caput infelicis filii detestatur.”

85. Phario. aceto; so Martial, xiii. 122, has “Niliaci aceti.”

86. Sunt in Fortunae qui casibus omnia ponunt, viz. the Epicureans, who believed that there were gods, but that they took no part in the administration of the world.

87. nullo ... rectore is ablative absolute.

89. quaecunque is generally used with a verb; but see note on Sat. x. 312.

tangunt. Conf. Verg. Aen. xii. 201, and Sat. xiv. 219. 90. alius, another class of men.



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metuens, who does fear, in opposition to the first class, who do not.

91. et peierat, and yet perjures himself. Conf. Sat. vii. 124.

93. Isis. The worship of the Egyptian goddess Isis was a favourite one at Rome. Conf. Sat. xii. 28.

sistro (oelw), a kind of rattle used in the worship of Isis. 95. dimidium crus, amputation of a leg. .

96. sunt tanti, are worth incurring." Mr. Macleane quotes Cic. in Cat. ii. 7, “est mihi tanti, Quirites, huius invidiae falsae tempestatem subire ;” also Mart. i. 12, nunc ipsa pericula tanti.”

locupletem. podagram, the rich man's gout. 97. nec=neu, as in Sat. xii. 130.

Ladas was a celebrated runner and victor at the Olympian Games. He was an Argive by birth, and had a statue in the temple of Apollo at Argos. His swiftness was proverbial among the Romans. Conf. Catull. 55, 25, and Mart. x. 100, “Habeas licebit alterum pedem Ladae, inepte, frustra crure ligneo curres.

si non eget Anticyra, if he is not mad. Anticyra was a town in Phocis, on the Corinthian Gulf. It was famous for the hellebore which grew there, and which was reputed to be a cure for madness. Conf. Hor. Ars Poet. 300, * tribus Anticyris caput insanabile”; and Sat. ii. 3, 166, "naviget Anticyram.”

98. Archigene, a doctor who administered hellebore. Notice the length of the final e; it is really the Greek dative ('Αρχιγένη). Conf. Sat, xiv. 252.

esuriens—with ramus by hypallage.
99. Pisaeae. Pisa was a town in Elis, close to Olympia.
100. Ut, although.

lenta ira deorum. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 2, 32, “pede poena claudo.”

103. his, crimes like this. 104. diverso .. fato, with different consequences. 105. tulit-gnomic aorist. 108. praecedit, i.e. to show his readiness. immo, nay, even. 109. superest, comes to the support of ;” see line 237. 110. Mimum agit, etc., "acts a part in a mime) like that of the runaway rascal in the witty Catullus.” For Catullus, see note to Sat. viii. 186. The runaway slave in question probably drags his master to the altar to hear his oath that he was freeborn.


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112. Stentora, a Greek herald in Homer, Il. v. 785, who could shout as loudly as fifty men.

113. Gradivus Homericus, Il. v. 859. Ares when he was wounded by Diomedes shouted as loudly as nine or ten thousand men.

114. necrouôé.

cum mittere vocem debueris, “though you ought to have said something." Conf. Sat. vi. 394, * Respondes his, Iane pater ? magna otia caeli : non est, quod video, non est quod agatur apud vos.

115. vel marmoreus vel aeneus, “marble as you are or brazen,i.e. his silence shows him to be a mere statue after all. Most MSS. have debueras which Mr. Macleane follows, making it a conditional sentence, “since you ought to have, etc., even if you had been,” etc., quoting “ me truncus illapsus cerebro sustulerat nisi,” but the cum makes this construction impossible here. The vivid indicative put for the subjunctive can only be in the principal clause.

aut, or else.

116. charta. Martial warns his book that it may become “turis piperisve cucullus,” iii. 2. Conf. also Hor. Ep. ii. 1, 269, “Deferar in vicum vendentem tus et odores et piper et quidquid chartis amicitur ineptis.”

119. statuamque Vagelli. Vagellius is called in Sat. xvi. 23 a “declamator mulino corde." Like Aemilius, mentioned in Sat. vii. 124, he probably had a statue of himself in his vestibulum.

121. et qui nec Cynicos, nec Stoica dogmata legit, even one who is no philosopher, and who only gives common-sense consolation. The Cynics were founded by Antisthenes, but were most typically represented by Diogenes. They withdrew themselves from all public affairs as unworthy of the attention of the wise man. They owed their name to their dog-like, snarling, railing philosophy. The Stoics, a much more famous school, arose out of that of the Cynics, and were founded by Zeno. Their principle was that virtue is the only good, and that all other things-pain, pleasure, honour, and riches--are indifferent to the wise man. The Stoic philosophy was much affected by eminent lawyers at Rome.

122. a Cynicis tunica distantia. To a layman like Juvenal the difference between Stoics and Cynics seemed to be the merely external one of dress. The Cynics discarded the tunic and wore only a kind of double cloak, which was used both for raiment and bed-covering. Conf. Hor. Ep. i. 17, 25, “quem duplici panno patientia velat.”

123. suspicit, “looks with respect to."

exigui laetum plantaribus horti. Epicurus was excessively frugal, and lived almost entirely off the product of his garden. Conf. Sat. xiv. 319.

124. medicis maioribus, “greater remedies,” see note on Sat. xi. 191.

125. vel discipulo, even to an apprentice.” So small was the loss of Calvinus that very ordinary consolation will meet the case.

129. claudenda est ianua. When a death took place at Rome the house was shut up till after the funeral. Conf. Tac. Ann. ii. 82.

131. funera, a death.
132. in hoc casu, i.e. when money is lost.

vestem diducere summam, "merely to rend the top of the dress,” i.e. instead of really tearing it from top to bottom, as would be done in real grief.

135. fora. The forum Romanum had long since ceased. to be sufficient for the increased needs of Rome. The forum Iulium, the forum Augusti, the forum Pacis, and the forum Traiani, were successively added.

136. deciens lectis ... tabellis, “when their own acknowledgments have been read over and over again.” tabellis are the tablets on which the debtor gives his I.O.U.

diversa parte. Prof. Mayor well translates “on the other side,”.i.e. by the creditor's advocate ; and compares Sat. vii. 156, “diversae sagittae.”

137. vana supervacui dicunt chirographa ligni, “they (i.e. the debtors) assert that it is a worthless bond written on mere waste-paper”-i.e. deny their own notes of hand, and assert them to be forgeries. supervacui is by hypallage ; ligni is the same as tabellis — wooden tablets, usually called "pugillares.” Conf. Mart. xiv. 3, 1, “secta in tenues ligna tabellas.”

138. arguit, "convicts of a lie.” littera, handwriting.

princeps sardonychum, choicest of sardonyxes. Conf. Sat. i. 68, “gemma fecerat uda.”

140. delicias. Conf. Sat. iv. 4, and x. 291, "fortune's darling.”

141. gallinae fillius albae, the proverb explains itself. Conf. Suet. Galb. 1.

145. sulfure . . atque dolo-hendiadys.

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