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dimite corona, aurea qui nitidis vellera tingis aquis." Conf. Verg. Ecl. iv. 42.

41. sed et, moreover too.

egregius fons, i.e. the Baetis, now the Guadalquivir.

43. lances Parthenio factas. This seems to be in apposition to argentum, and if so the dishes were of silver, and Parthenius (notice the dative of the agent, like "formidatus Othoni") may have been an embosser in silver like Mentor, on whom see Sat. viii. 104. Others say that Parthenia was an old name for Samos, and so that Parthenio refers to Theodorus of Samos, mentioned by Herodotus, i. 51, as having made a huge silver crater for Croesus. Friedländer thinks Parthenio is "for Parthenius," the well-known chamberlain and freedman of Domitian.

cratera, a mixing bowl.


capacem, holding an urna. The urna contained half an amphora, and was equivalent to 4 congii. note on Sat. vii. 236.


45. sitiente Pholo, a centaur who took part in the battle with the Lapithae. Conf. Verg. Georg. ii. 455.

coniuge Fusci-some woman no doubt notorious for her drunkenness, as Hispulla was for her corpulence, and Procula for her diminutive size.

46. bascaudas, also of silver. The word is British (basket). Conf. Mart. xiv. 99, "barbara de pictis veni bascauda Britannis.' caelati. See note on Sat. i. 76.

callidus emptor Olynthi-Philip of Macedon, who took Olynthus in Chalcidice in 348 B.C. by bribing Euthycrates and Lasthenes, two of its citizens. Conf. Cic. Ep. ad Att. i. 16, § 12, “Philippus omnia castella expugnari posse dicebat in quae modo asellus onustus auro posset ascendere." See also Hor. Od. iii. 16, 13. Pliny says that Philip used to sleep with a golden goblet under his pillow.

48. qua mundi parte, quis-double interrogation, which is frequent in Greek, but not so common in Latin.

50. patrimonia here, of course, does not mean an inherited property, though it would become so in the second generation. patrimonia faciunt. Conf. Sat. xiv. 326.

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54. reccidit. Perhaps a better reading than decidit. The double c or the long re, if only one c is read, is due to the old reduplication rececidit. Conf. rettuli for retetuli. Trans. "he came to such a pass.'

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ac se explicat angustum, "and so remedies his want of


Conf. " me amicum," my friendship. The concrete put for the abstract. Or, "extricates himself, cramped as he is for space. Mr. Macleane reads hac re, making angustum substantival.

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55. discriminis ultima, the danger is at its height whenultima is neut. plur., like Sat. xv. 96, "bellorumque ultima," and perhaps iv. 18, "votorum summa.

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57. I nunc. See note on Sat. x. 310. ligno. Conf. supra,

dolato rough-hewn plank.

"arboris incertae," a

58. digitis. The digitus was nearly but not quite an inch.

59. taeda, properly a torch made of pine wood; here used for the pine itself. Conversely pinus is used in Verg. Aen.

ix. 72, for a torch.

60. reticulis et pane-hendiadys for reticulis panis. Conf. Hor. Sat. i. 1, 47, reticulum panis.'

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ventre lagonae, a big-bellied wine jar. See note on Sat. iv. 30. amphora, lagona, and cadus are synonymous as far as size goes, though the shape was different.

venter," Sat. iv. 107.

Conf. "Montani

62. iacuit planum. The adjective is proleptic.

tempora postquam, etc., "after the weather of the tra veller has become prosperous and his fate stronger than wind and sea. With postquam understand facta sunt, as est is to be supplied with dum in Sat. iii. 26.

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64. Parcae. See note on Sat. iii. 27.

65. staminis albi lanificae. The Fates were favourable when they span with white threads; black threads were signs of disaster or death. Conf. Mart. vi. 58, "Si mihi lanificae ducunt non pulla sorores stamina"; and Sat. x. 252, "nimio de stamine."

67. inopi

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arte, "with make-shift contrivance."

68. vestibus extentis. Conf. Tac. Ann. ii. 24.

quod superaverat unum, "the only one left" the pluperfect is only used because the principal verb is in the perfect. For superaverat in the sense of supererat, conf. Verg. Aen. v. 519, "superabat Acestes.

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69. velo prora suo. The foretop-sail or dolon (see Liv. xxxvi. 44) was the only sail left; the place of the others was supplied by garments spread out. Notice that prora is used (like carina and puppis) for the whole ship, and yet that velo suo has reference to the prow or bow of the ship in its special


71. novercali sedes praelata Lavinio. Conf. Liv. i. 1,


11. Aeneas was said to have founded a town called Lavinium (Verg. Aen. xii. 194, urbique dabit Lavinia nomen "). Iulus, when the population increased, founded a new city on the Alban Mount, which is here, therefore, the "sublimis apex." Lavinia, daughter of Latinus, whom Aeneas married, was of course noverca to Iulus. Conf. Sat. iv. 61.

72. cui candida nomen scrofa dedit. For the prophecy about the white sow with thirty young, which was to be found on the future site of the city, see Verg. Aen. viii. 43 seq., which passage ends with, "Ascanius clari condet cognominis Albam.'

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73. miserabile sumen. Conf. Sat. xi. 138, and Pers. i. 53. miserabile is the reading of P. and the Scholiast, but mirabile is partly recommended by Verg. Aen. viii. 81.

74. numquam visis, never seen before.

clara-agreeing with scrofa.

triginta . mamillis. Conf. Verg. Aen. viii. 44, "Triginta capitum foetus enixa iacebit."

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75. positas inclusa per aequora moles. This alludes to the Portus Augusti constructed in 42 A.D. by the Emperor Claudius. The old Roman port was at Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber, but this had gradually got choked up by the alluvial deposits of sand, until Rome was practically without a port into which the corn ships from Africa might be received. Claudius therefore dug a deep basin a little to the north of Ostia, which he connected with the Tiber by a canal. To protect this basin he threw out two arms on the right and left, and constructed a breakwater between, with a lighthouse upon it. Conf. Suet. Claud. cap. 20, “portum Ostiae exstruxit circumducto dextra sinistraque brachio, et ad introitum profundo iam sale mole obiecta. congestisque pilis superposuit altissimam turrim in exemplum Alexandrini phari.'

76. Tyrrhenamque Pharon. On the little island of Pharos, opposite Alexandria, a lighthouse was constructed which gave its name to lighthouses in general.

porrectaque brachia rursum, "arms stretched backwards"; i.e. after running out to sea they curved inwards again towards the breakwater.

78. Non sic, not so much; i.e. the artificial harbour is more admirable than any natural one.

80. interiora . . . stagna. This refers to an inner hexagonal basin constructed by Trajan, which was surrounded by quays and magazines for storing the corn when brought into port. Trajan also enlarged the canal, which was called after him "fossa Traiana."


cymbae, a pleasure-boat of Baiae. On the


luxurious excursions made on the water by pleasure-seekers at Baiae, see Becker's Gallus, p. 96.

81. vertice raso. Sailors, in terror of shipwreck, often vowed to dedicate their hair to some god on their safe return.

83. linguis animisque faventes. favete linguis (Greek evonμeîte) was a ritual injunction to silence at a religious observance, in order to prevent the possibility of any ill-omened word being spoken. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 1, 1. Mr. Macleane very appositely quotes Soph. Oed. Col. 131, ȧpwvws, áλóyws, τὸ τᾶς εὐφήμου στόμα φροντίδος ἱέντες. Conf. Cic. de Div. i. 102, "rebus divinis quae publice fierent ut faverent linguis imperabatur." Conf. Ov. Met. xv. 677.

84. serta delubris, garlands for the shrines. Conf. Verg. Aen. ii. 248.

farra imponite cultris, "scatter the meal on the knives." imponite goes with farra by a slight zeugma: inspargite would be more appropriate. The fire, the victim's head, and the sacrificial knives, were sprinkled with the salt cake. Conf. Luc. i. 610, "molas inducere cultro."

85. molles . . . focos, soft, because made of turf. Conf. also "glebam virentem.'

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86. quod praestat, "which is the most important," viz. the sacrifice at the public shrine. He then goes home and offers to the Lares.

87. graciles .

coronas. Conf. Sat. ix. 137, "O parvi nostrique Lares quos ture minuto aut farre aut tenui soleo

exornare corona.

88. simulacra nitentia cera.

Apparently the images of the Lares received now and then a varnish of wax to make them bright.

89. nostrum Iovem, our household Jupiter. Each household, besides having its own peculiar Lares and Penates, was also under the special protection of one of the greater gods, such as Jupiter or Minerva or Juno. Conf. above "nostrique Lares.'

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91. longos erexit ianua ramos. Conf. Sat. x. 65, “pone domi lauros." This was a common sign of festivity and rejoicing.

92. operatur, offers sacrifice, and so keeps holiday. Conf. Verg. Georg. i. 339, "laetis operatus in herbis"; and Aen. iii. 136, operata iuventus." Conf. the use of péče in Greek.

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matutinis . . . lucernis. On festive occasions lamps wreathed with flowers and leaves were hung up on the doorposts and round the vestibulum. matutinis implies that they were all got ready in the morning, though the illumina

tion was naturally not to be till evening. Seneca, Epist. 96, says, "accendere lucernas prohibemus quoniam nec lumine Dii egent, et ne homines quidem delectantur fuligine.'

93. Nec suspecta tibi sint haec, i.e. as though these manifestations of joy were the tricks of a legacy-hunter. See notes on Sat. iii. 221, v. 98, x. 202.

95. tres habet heredes. Conf. Sat. v. 138, "nullus tibi parvulus aula luserit Aeneas." Catullus would therefore have the "ius trium liberorum."

Libet exspectare, "I should like to wait and see."

96. gallinam impendat. Conf. Sat. xiii. 233. Prof. Mayor quotes from Lucian and Tertullian to show how often old and useless animals were employed for sacrifices.

97. coturnix. Quails were thought little of because they were believed to eat poisonous seeds, and were also subject to epilepsy.

98. cadet. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 18, 5, “si tener pleno cadit haedus anno."

Sentire calorem, to have symptoms of fever.

99. coepit a slight anacoluthon for coeperunt after orbi.

Gallitta. Prof. Mayor points out that this is a pet name from Galla. Pliny, Ep. vi. 31, mentions a Gallitta, daughter of Aurelius Gallus.

100. legitime, in due form.

tabellis, waxen tablets, which were hung either in the porch of the temple or on the walls, or on the images of the gods themselves. Conf. " genua incerare deorum," Sat. x. 55. 101. porticus, the porch of the temple-not, I think, of Gallitta or Paccius, as Prof. Mayor says.

promittant. Another reading is promittunt, but as the whole case is hypothetical, the subjunctive is better.

hecatomben-here strictly a hundred bullocks (ěkaтov Boûs). It is often used of other animals as well.

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non sunt nec venales.

Conf. Hor. Sat. i. 1, 64,

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nec, etc. The double negative is not very usual in Latin, as it is in Greek; but conf. Liv. i. 26, "non tulit populus nec patris lacrimas nec ipsius parem in omni periculo animum," also Verg. Aen. ix. 426.

104. nec... talis bellua concipitur. A simpler construction would have been "nec concepti," etc., without unnecessarily changing the subject into the singular. These captatores would have some of them thought it worth while to offer a hecatomb of elephants if they could have been procured.

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