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his workmanship were highly prized. L. Crassus, the orator, gave 100,000 sesterces for two of them. Conf. Mart. ix. 60, 66 Pocula Mentorea nobilitata manu," and iii. 41.

105. Dolabellae. The Dolabellae enjoyed an unenviable notoriety in this respect. A Cn. Dolabella who was proconsul of Macedonia was accused of repetundae by Caesar in 77 B.C. (Suet. Caes. 4), but acquitted. Another Cn. Dolabella was governor of Cilicia, with Verres as his legate, and was accused in 78 B.C. by Scaurus and condemned (Cic. in Verr. i. 95). Lastly, P. Dolabella, Cicero's son-in-law, was propraetor of Syria, and on his way to that province plundered the province of Asia.

Antonius, Cicero's colleague in the consulship, 63 B.C. He was afterwards governor of Macedonia, accused of repetundae by C. Caesar, and defended, but unsuccessfully, by Cicero.

106. sacrilegus Verres. See note on Sat. iii. 53. He was propraetor of Sicily, 73-70 B.C., which province he shamefully oppressed. The plunder of temples was one favourite mode of enriching himself; hence the epithet "sacrilegus." See Cicero's Speech passim, esp. Act i. § 14. Conf. Sat. ii. 25, Quis caelum terris non misceat et mare caelo si fur displiceat Verri, homicida Miloni ?"


107, occulta spolia. For the lengthening of a before sp, conf. Vergil's "date tela, scandite muros.

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plures, more than others gained in war.

Weidner takes it

as nom., and de pace very strangely as=de pacatis.

110. ipsi deinde Lares. When everything most valuable was taken, even the figures of the household gods would be carried off from their niches (aediculae) in the atrium.

signum, bust. Conf. supra, "signis Myronis.”

111. in aedicula, a little cupboard or niche in the atrium. Conf. Tibull. i. 10, 20, "Stabat in exigua ligneus aede deus." unicus, the only one left.

112. tu, i.e. the provincial governor.

113. imbelles Rhodios. The Rhodians had much degenerated from their former character, and were now effeminate and luxurious. Rhodes is coupled with Miletus and Tarentum in Sat. vi. 296, "hinc et Rhodos et Miletos, atque coronatum et petulum madidumque Tarentum."

unctamque Corinthum, "Corinth with its unguents,' which are here intended to stand for luxury generally. The luxury of the later days of Corinth is notorious; as also is the immense quantity of spoil brought to Rome by Mummius on the capture of Corinth. Horace uses "captiva Corinthus" for the spoils of any city brought to Rome, Ep. ii. 1, 193.

114. resinata iuventus. The resin was the exudation from certain trees. Pliny says, H. N. xiv. 20, "resina omnis oleo dissolvitur: pudetque confiteri maximum iam honorem eius esse in evellendis a virorum corporibus pilis." Conf. line 16.

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116. Horrida. Hispania. Spain was not thoroughly conquered so early as Gaul. Horace speaks of the Cantabrian indoctum ferre iugum." By Trajan's time, however, the province was thoroughly Romanised, and had produced literary men of the first rank: e.g. Seneca, Lucan, Martial, Quintilian.

Gallicus axis. The Gauls frequently rose against Iulius Caesar, and after his time made rebellions headed by Sacrovir and Florus, and by Vindex in 68 A.D.

117. Illyricumque latus. The Republican province of Illyricum was now divided into Pannonia and Dalmatia. Both needed a large military force, but especially the former, from which the middle Danube had to be defended against the barbarians.

messoribus illis-the Africans, from whom came the largest quantity of corn to Rome. Conf. Sat. v. 119, "Tibi habe frumentum... O Libye."

118. saturant, "fill the stomachs of." Conf. xiv. 166.

circo scenaeque vacantem, "which employs all its time in the circus and theatre." The agricultural population of Italy had either died out or had migrated to swell the city mob, which the emperors found it advisable to keep perpetually amused. Conf. Sat. iii. 223, x. 81, xi. 53; and Tac. Hist. i. 4, "plebs sordida et circo ac theatris sueta."

120. Marius. See note on Sat. i. 50.

discinxerit, "has stripped to their girdle."

125. non est sententia, "is no mere maxim or commonplace.' sententiae or maximae sententiae (hence our word maxim), answering to the Greek τόποι οι τοπικοὶ λόγοι, were general propositions, admittedly true, serving as the basis on which to found an argument. Quintilian calls them the "supellectilem" of a speech.

126. folium recitare Sibyllae. For the Sibyl, see Sat. iii. 3. She wrote her prophecies on leaves which were blown away by the wind. Conf. Verg. Aen. vi. 74, "foliis tantum ne carmina manda ne turbata volent rapidis ludibria ventis." The Sibylline books at Rome, preserved in the Capitol under the charge of decemviri, were consulted at the advice of the pontifices in times of danger.

128. Acersecomes=акEpσEкóμns, unshorn-Hom. 17. xx. 39. Favourite slaves always wore their hair long, and often elaborately curled. Conf. Mart. ii. 57, Quem grex sequitur togatus

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et capillatus"; iii. 58, 30, lascivi parere gaudent vilico capillati. Contrast with this Juvenal's closely cropped boy in Sat.

xi. 149.

nullum in coniuge crimen. See the debate in the senate (Tac. Ann. iii. 33) as to whether provincial governors should be allowed to have their wives with them. Pliny mentions that Casta, wife of Caecilius Classicus, proconsul of Baetica, was involved in the malpractices of her husband.

129. per conventus. The conventus were districts into which the provinces were divided for judicial purposes, in each of which there was a town where the governor held his tribunal.

130. Celaeno was one of the Harpies. Conf. Verg. Aen. iii. 245 and 216, "Una in praecelsa consedit rupe Celaeno. Virginei volucrum vultus, foedissima ventris proluvies, uncaeque


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131. a Pico, an ancient king of Italy and son of Saturn. Conf. Verg. Aen. vii. 48.

132. omnem Titanida pugnam. The abstract put for the concrete. The Titans, sons of earth, belonged to the older race of gods, while Jupiter and the rest were the younger generation, who had ousted them from Olympus.

133. ipsumque Promethea. Prometheus was one of the Titans, and the most famous. See note on Sat. iv. 133, where he is represented as a potter. He stole fire from heaven and gave it to men; he is also represented as having taught them the arts of life, and by a later tradition as having created them out of clay. 134. de quocunque voles... libro, from any story you like. 136. virgas, i.e. of your lictors.

sociorum in sanguine. Roman citizens were protected from this punishment by the lex Portia.

139. claramque facem praeferre. Conf. Sall. Iugurth. 85, "maiorum gloria posteris quasi lumen est."

142. Quo mihi te, sc. iactas. See note on line 9.

falsas signare tabellas. Conf. Sat. i. 67.

143. in templis. The temples were used as banks, where money, as well as such documents as wills, were kept. Conf. Sat. xiv. 260,"ponendi ad Castora nummi," i.e. the temple of Castor and Pollux. Prof. Mayor quotes the Digest, xliii. 5, 3, 3, "si custodiam tabularum . aedituus suscepit.

statuamque parentis ante triumphalem. Sat. i. 129.

144. quo, i.e. te iactas.

See note on

145. Santonico... cucullo. The Santones were a Gallic tribe which sent woollen manufactures to Rome. Conf. Mart. xiv.

128, "Gallia Santonico vestit te bardocucullo." The cucullus was worn by persons desirous of concealment, and also in the country, see Sat. iii. 170, and vi. 118, "nocturnos cucullos." Otherwise the head was usually uncovered.

146. Praeter maiorum cineres, i, e. along the Flaminian or Appian or Latin Road; see note on Sat. i. 171.

147. carpento, a two-wheeled carriage of luxurious make; it was very frequently used by women. Conf. Ov. Fast. i. 6, 19, nec prius Ausonias matres carpenta vehebant.

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Lateranus. A Plautius Lateranus was expelled from the senate in 48 A.D., then restored by Nero in 55 A.D. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 11). He was consul designatus in 65 A.D., and in the same year joined Piso's conspiracy (id. xv. 49). But a T. Sextius Magius Lateranus was consul in 94 A.D., and so in Domitian's reign. Possibly the latter is intended here.

148. sufflamine mulio consul. This, certainly the true reading, has now been restored from the Florilegium Sangallense and the Scholiast instead of the traditional multo sufflamine. The collocation of substantives is thoroughly Juvenalian. Conf. "citharoedo principe, mimus nobilis, viii. 198; "parasitus infans," v. 145; meretrix Augusta," vi. 118; "remigibus porcis," xv. 22; captatore macello," vi. 40; "filia virgo"; "leo alumnus," xiv. 247.


150. tempus honoris. The consulship was usually conferred for four months, sometimes only for two.

152. amici iam senis. His friend being an old man ought to have inspired Lateranus with some shame, but he unblushingly gives him the professional coachman's salute.

153. virga prior adnuet.


Conf. Sat. iii. 318, "mulio virga

155. robumque, an archaic word=robustum.

156. more Numae, according to the institution of Numa. See note on Sat. iii. 12.

Iovis ante altaria, in the temple on the Capitol, where the consuls sacrificed on entering on their office.

157. Eponam, a goddess propitious to horses and grooms, Wilm. 2282. Possibly a Celtic goddess.

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facies pictas, rough paintings of Epona and similar subjects on the walls of the stables.

158. pervigiles. Conf. Sat. xv. 43, "pervigili toro,” and iii. 275, "vigiles fenestrae."

instaurare, to visit again and again.

popinas, cook-shops. Cooked meats and drinks were sold at


Originally they were frequented only by the lowest classes, conf. lines 172-3; but they afterwards became the resorts of the most disreputable and riotous of the higher classes, conf. Cic. in Pis. 5, 13. See also Sat. xi. 81.

159. Syrophoenix. Phoenice, including Tyre, Damascus, and Palmyra, was a part of the province of Syria, but to distinguish it from Coele Syria (Zvpía kolλŋ) it was called Syrophoenicia. Conf. St. Mark vii. 26.

160. Idumaeae... incola portae, "a native of the Idumaean pass." Conf. "porta Syenes," xi. 124. Idumaea stretched between Judaea and Arabia. Some take it to refer to one of the gates of Rome called "Idumaea," owing to the fact that Titus entered by it on his return from the capture of Jerusalem, 70 A.D. porta Idumaea can hardly be the triumphal arch of Titus, as Prof. Mayor suggests, since this was arcus not porta, and not in a low part of the city.

161. hospitis adfectu, with the air of a host.

dominum regemque. Conf. Sat. v. 137. "Domine was getting to be an ordinary salutation for the upper classes. Conf. Mart. i. 113, "Cum te non nossem dominum regemque


162. succincta. Conf. Sat. iv. 24. lagona. Conf. Sat. v. 29. 164. nempe here means "just so, but." It is used in dialogue to affirm what the last speaker has said.

166. cum barbam," iii. 186.

prima barba.

See note on "ille metit

168. thermarum calices, drinking-bouts in the baths. The thermae were provided not only with gymnasia, etc. (Sat. vii. 233), but also with refreshment rooms, where dissolute young nobles drank freely. See Mart. xii. 70, 6, "sobrius a thermis nescit abire domum," etc.

inscriptaque lintea are the awnings over the shops, with the articles offered for sale inscribed upon them.

169. tuendis amnibus goes with maturus. The Euphrates frontier was protected against the Parthians by the legions of Cappadocia and Syria.

170. Rheno, sc. tuendo. After the time of Tiberius the Rhine was practically the boundary of the Roman Empire. Drusus and Germanicus had penetrated beyond, but the perpetual risings induced subsequent emperors to change their policy of advance in that direction.

Istro. Legions were permanently stationed in Moesia and Pannonia, to keep the Dacians and other barbarian tribes on their own side of the river.

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