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have attributed to the Sophists as a class. The Scholiast says that he hanged himself, but we have no other authority for this.

Secundi Carinatis, a rhetorician banished by Caligula for teaching his class to declaim against tyrants. Dio Cass. 59, 20.

205. et hunc, etc. This must refer either (1) to Secundus, who may have been banished to Athens, and there have poisoned himself on account of poverty, or (2) to Socrates, or (3) to some unnamed rhetorician, banished in Juvenal's own time. On the whole I prefer (2), although we should certainly have expected illum instead of hunc. Conf. Sat. xiii. 155 ; and Pers. iv. 1, “Barbatum haec crede magistrum dicere, sorbitio quem tollit dira cicutae.”

206. ausae, “which hadst the heart.” Conf. the use of Tláw.

207. Di, maiorum umbris, etc. Sc. dent, as in the phrase "di meliora.”

tenuem et sine pondere. So the wish in funeral inscrip. tions, S.T.T. L. (sit tibi terra levia)// See Cagnat, Cours d'Epigr. Lat. p. 249.

208. perpetuum ver, because constantly supplied with flowers.

210. Metuens virgae. Conf. Sat. v. 154, “ metuensque flagelli.” Ovid says of Achilles, Ars Am. i. 11, “poscente magistro verberibus iussas praebuit ille manus.

iam grandis, though now grown up.
211. patriis in montibus, on Mt. Pelion.
et cui, etc., “and was a pupil from whom,” etc.

213. Rufum, one of the rhetoricians of the day, who was beaten by his own class.

214. quem totiens Ciceronem Allobroga dixit, "whom it so often called the Allobrogian Cicero." Rufus was a native of Gaul, where, as we have seen, line 148, oratory was studied. quem is the reading of P. and F., and must therefore be accepted. The old reading was qui, who so often called Cicero an Allobrogian,” implying that Cicero was really the provincial orator, he the true Roman. Both readings make good sense.

215. Enceladi, a grammaticus, i.e. a teacher of boys at school. See note on i. 15.

Palaemonis. Q. Remnius Palaemon was another grammarian under Tiberius and Claudius. Quintilian and Persius are said to have been his pupils. His school is said to have brought him in “quadringena annua.' See Suet. Gramm. 23.

216. grammaticus . labor; and this was severer than that of the rhetoricians, both because they were expected to have at their fingers' ends every sort of trivial detail (see lines 234236), and also to look after the behaviour of their classes.

218. discipuli custos. The paedagoguswho had charge of the boys to and from school, and was hence called pedisequus puerorum-was usually a Greek, one of whose duties it was to accustom his charges from an early age to the Greek tongue. They often taught them things less desirable. Conf. x. 117.

Acoenonoetus ÅKOLVOV Ontos, without common sense. This is a fictitious proper name for the paedagogus; but if this is the correct reading, it still needs a satisfactory explanation.

219. qui dispensat, the dispensator or paymaster. See note on Sat. i. 91.

220. non aliter quam institor; just as a shopman or hawker abates something of his prices to get custom.

221. cadurci, a kind of linen manufactured by the Cadurci, a people of Aquitania.

222. pereat, the subject to this is the clause introduced by quod.

noctis ab hora. Work in the schools began very early in the morning. Conf. Mart. ix. 69, “Nondum cristati rupe silentia galli, murmure iam saevo verberibusque tonas."

224. lanam deducere. For the night work of spinners, conf. Verg. Georg. i. 340.

225. totidem olfecisse lucernas, quot stabant, etc. Each boy brought a lamp with him to school, and the smell or smoke from all these was suffocating to the teacher, and blackened all the school-books.

227. Flaccus. Both Horace and Vergil were used at this time as school manuals. Horace himself says to his book, Ep. i. 20, 17, “Hoc quoque te manet, ut pueros elementa docentem occupet extremis in vicis balba senectus.”

Maroni — Vergil, whose full name was Publius Vergilius Maro (70-19 B.C.)

228. cognitione tribuni. Prof. Mayor quotes Tac. Ann. xiii. 28, “Simul prohibiti tribuni ius praetorum et consulum praeripere,” which proves that under the Empire the tribunes had the right in certain cases of conducting trials. Under the Republic they certainly had none. See also Sat, xi. 7.

229. vos, you parents. 230. verborum regula constet, “that his rule for the use of words should remain constant,” i.e. that he should never make a slip in grammar.

231. historias goes with omnes. How voluminous these histories were see from line 100.

233. thermas. thermae are usually the public baths, such as those of Agrippa, which had gymnasia, heated chambers, lecture rooms, and sometimes even libraries, attached to them. The usual hour for bathing was the eighth, though sometimes the weary client could not get to his bath till the tenth. Conf. Mart. x. 70, 13, “Balnea post decimam lasso petuntur.”

Phoebi balnea. Phoebus was a private balneator ; see note on line 4. Other private baths are mentioned by Martial—the Balnea Fortunati, Fausti, Grylli, Lupi, Tigellini.

235. Anchemoli, mentioned together with his stepmother in Verg. Aen. x. 388.

annis, abl. of duration of time, is common in silver Latin. Conf. Sat. xi. 72, and passim in funeral inscriptions, “vixit annis xxx.,” etc. See Cagnat, Cours d'Épigr. Lat. p. 247.

236. quot Siculus ... urnas. Conf. Verg. Aen. i. 195. The urna =

half an amphora, and contained four congii. There were six sextarii in a congius, and twelve cyathi in a sextarius. See note on Sat. v. 32.

237. ducat is used of beating out gold, sometimes also of moulding wax. Conf. Persius, v. 40, "Artificemque tuo ducit sub pollice vultum.”

238. ut sit . . . pater. Conf. line 209.

240. cum se verterit annus. The fees in the better schools were paid annually, probably after the Quinquatria in March. See Sat. x. 115. At the lower country schools the fees would seem to have been paid monthly on the Ides. Conf. Hor. Sat. i. 6, 75, “octonos referentes Idibus aeris.”

241. accipe, victori populus quod postulat, aurum. On this the Scholiast says,

aut in theatro solent petere, quinque aureos nam non licebat amplius dare.' A recently found Spanish inscription (Ephem. Epigr. vii. 388 foll. ) enables us to explain and correct this statement. From this it appears that the price paid by an editor to the lanista for an ordinary gladiator was 2000 sesterces. But it was usual for the editor in addition to this sum to pay to the victorious gladiator himself 500 sesterces if he was a freeman, i.e. auctoratus,” or 400 sesterces if he was a slave, “ita observandum ut praecipuum mercedis gladiator sibi quisquis pacisoatur, eius pecuniae quae ob hanc causam excipiebatur, quartam portionem liber, servus autem quintam excipiat.” What the Scholiast therefore intended, and what probably Juvenal really means, is that in the amphitheatre the editor was called upon by the spectators to pay each victorious gladiator the sum of 5 or 4 aurei (the aureus = 100 sesterces) according as he was a freeman or a slave.

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SATIRE VIII

1. Stemmata, pedigrees. The noble Romans used to have in the atrium of their houses waxen masks representing their ancestors. These imagines, as they were called, were placed inside wooden frames, and hung up side by side along the alae of the apartment. Connecting them with one another were festoons or garlands of flowers (stemmata), and these occasionally gave their name to the whole. Conf. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 2, 2. “Expressi cera vultus singulis disponebantur armariis-stemmata vero lineis discurrebant ad imagines pictas ;” Mart. iv. 48, “Atria Pisonum stabant cum stemmate toto.” In later times these waxen figures were replaced by marble busts. Seneca says, “Nobilem non facit atrium plenum fumosis imaginibus.

2. sanguine censeri. Conf. Mart. viii. 6, “Hi duo longaevo censentur Nestore fundi,” “to take rank by a long line of ancestry.” So “iustitia censeri,” Val. Max. 5, 7, and Tac. Agric. 45. See also below, line 74.

pictos . . . vultus, i.e. the waxen masks which were painted to represent the life. At funerals these masks were taken down and worn by men representing the various ancestors. The imagines of any one disgraced by the state or emperor were taken down and broken. Ius imaginum was the patent of nobility.

3. in curribus. See Sat. vii. 125. The younger Scipio was P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus. He belonged to the gers Aemilia, but was adopted by Scipio the elder. He died in 129 B.C.

4. Curios, e.g. M. Curius Dentatus, who conquered Pyrrhus (275 B.C.)

5. Corvinum-M. Valerius Corvus, the hero of the encounter with the Gallic champion (349 B.C.) Conf. Sat. i. 108.

Galbam. The Emperor Servius Sulpicius Galba (68-69 A.D.). Suetonius, Galb. 2, tells us, “in atrio stemma proposuit, quo paternam originem ad Iovem referebat.” He belonged to one of the noblest families in Rome, Plut. Galb. 3.

6. generis tabula . . . capaci, a wide genealogical chart.

7. Corvinum, etc. This is a very suspicious line, and is probably not genuine. The repetition of Corvinus is awkward, and the expression “multa ... virga ” obscure.

multa virga. I should take this as an ablative of quality with “fumosos equitum . magistros “with many a staff of office,” in which sense Ovid, Trist. v. 6, 32, uses the word,

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quos praetexta verendos virgaque cum verbis imperiosa facit.” See also infra, 23.

contingere, “to be related to.” Conf. Sat. xi. 62, and Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 52. This is the reading of the best MSS., and has now supplanted the old reading deducere.

8. fumosos, because there was a hearth in the atrium, which possibly in olden days may have been used for the kitchen.

9. Lepidis. The Lepidi were an illustrious branch of the gens Aemelia. Juvenal would assert the principle "noblesse oblige.”

effigies quo; sc. habes. Conf. Sat. xiv. 56, 135 ; xv. 61.

10. alea. See Sat. i. 88; and Persius, v. 17, "hunc alea decoquit."

11. Numantinos, the generalising use of the plural. Scipio the younger was called Numantinus from his capture of Numantia in Spain (133 B.C.) Conf. Plin. Ep. viii. 6.

si dormire incipis ortu Luciferi. Banquets were often continued by the gay throughout the night. Lucifer is the morning star. Conf. Verg. Ecl

. viii. 17, “Nascere praeque diem veniens age Lucifer almum.”

12. quo, i.e. ortu.

13. Allobrogicis. Fabius Maximus, consul 121 B.C., was called Allobrogicus from his victory over the Allobroges. Liv. Epit. lxi. magna

Near the Circus Flaminius there was an altar, called “Maxima ara,” sacred to Hercules. Vergil, Aen. viii. 271, says that Evander built it to commemorate the conquest over Cacus. Sat. v. 125. Conf. Tac. Ann. xv. 41.

14. natus in Herculeo Fabius Lare. The Fabian gens was said to be descended from Hercules. Ovid, Fast. ii. 237, speaks of “Herculeae gentis.'

15. Euganea mollior agna. The Euganei once lived between the Alps and the sea. One of the towns in that district, Altinum, is mentioned by Martial, xiv. 155, as famous for its wool.

16. attritus Catinensi pumice. Catana was a town near Mount Aetna; the pumex was a kind of stone thrown up by the volcano, and used, as Pliny says, H. N. xxxvi. 154, “in usu corporum levandorum.

17. squalentes traducit avos, "disgraces his shaggy ancestors.” squalentes is in contrast with tenerum. For traducit, see Sat. vii. 16 and xi, 31.

18. frangenda ... imagine, because, if convicted of poison

ara.

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