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out the colours. Conf. Propertius, iv. 5, 27, “Murreaque in Parthis pocula cocta focis,” a line which some have interpreted to mean that it was Chinese porcelain.

134. spondet, is surety for him-secures him credit.

stlataria, an uncertain word. Prof. Mayor shows that Paulus Diaconus, Ausonius, and Aulus Gellius ali speak of stlata as a kind of ship, in which case the adjective perhaps means borne” or - foreign." The Scholiast explains it as “illecebrosa,” i.e. probably “deceitful as a pirate craft.”. Corss (Krit

. Beitr. zu lat. Formenlehre, p. 462 ' foll.) thinks that stlatarius=stratarius, and so here “worked purple carpet.”

135. vendit, sells him, i.e. gets him practice. Hor. Ep. ii. 1, 74, “venditque poema.

136. amethystina = amethystinae vestes. Martial, ii. 57, speaks of a man walking through the streets "amethystinus, who had just before been obliged to pawn his ring. convenit illi, it pays

him. 138. Sed finem impensae, etc., “but luxurious Rome keeps no limit in its expense.' So Seneca, Epist. 50, says, sumptuosus, sed urbs ipsa magnas impensas exigit.”

141. servi octo, to carry his octophoros. See note on Sat. i. 64.

142. togati, i.e. clients who were always bound to appear in the toga. See note on Sat. i. 96.

143. ante pedes, i.e. to act as anteambulones.

146. flentem producere matrem, to produce in court a mother in tears for her son. The feelings of the iudices were often worked upon in this way. Conf. Quint. vii. 1, 30.

148. Gallia. Rhetoric was much studied in Gaul, conf. Sat. xv. 111; and at Lugdunum rhetorical contests were held in Caligula's reign. Quintilian, in his Tenth Book, mentions as famous orators Iulius Af canus and Domitius Afer, both Gauls. Carthage was one of the most important centres of Roman culture and literature.

150. Declamare doces ? Having discussed the poor prospects of causidici, he now proceeds to describe the position of teachers of rhetoric.

ferrea, insensible as iron, because if they could stand the declamations of their pupils they could stand anything.

Vetti. Perhaps the Vettius mentioned as a rhetorician by Pliny.

151. perimit saevos . · tyrannos,“ kills off the tyrants”; i.e. practises declamation in favour of tyrannicide, perhaps a not uncommon subject. We know that Carinas Secundus (see


line 204) was banished by Caligula for declaiming against tyrants (Dio Cass. 59, 20), while Maternus was killed by Domitian for the same reason (id. 67, 12).

Conf. Sat. x. 105. 152. sedens ... stans. The class sits while reading over the declamation to be practised, stands up to recite it. See Plin. Ep. vi. 6 6,"sicut in scholis discipuli sedentes de scripto legunt, stantes declamant.

153. cantabit versibus isdem, "will drawl it forth in the self-same lines. versus are lines of prose as well as poetry. Conf. Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 52.

154. crambe repetita. There was an old saying, dis kpáußn θάνατος.

155. Quis color. color is a technical term in rhetoric, and means the particular aspect given to a case, either by the accuser or defender, by a skilful representation of facts in themselves undisputed.

quod sit causae genus. The causes were divided into judicial, deliberative, and laudatory.

156. diversae ... sagittae, "shafts from the other side,” i.e. counter-arguments. Conf. Tac. Hist. ii. 75.

158. quid enim scio, Why, what do I know?

Culpa docentis . arguitur,“the fault is made out to be that of the teacher.”

159. laeva in parte mamillae ; his heart, often spoken of as the seat of the understanding. Conf. Persius, iii. 111, tibi rite salit?”

160. Arcadico iuveni. The Arcadians, like the Boeotians, were proverbially dull. Conf. Persius, iii. 9, “ut Arcadiae pecuaria rudere credas,” i.e. asses.

cuius—to be taken with “Hannibal.”

161. dirus Hannibal, a frequent subject for declamations. Conf. Sat. x. 166, “curre per Alpes ut pueris placeas et declamatio fias.

162. an petat urbem a Cannis, as Maherbal advised him to do; Liv. xxii. 51. This would be one of the suasoriae. See note on Sat. i. 16. Notice that an petat and an circumagatare two distinct questions by asyndeton, and not two alternatives, put for utrum and an. The second question refers to a time several years later than the battle of Cannae.

164. circumagat madidas a tempestate cohortes. On two asions near Capua, when the armies were about to engage, they were separated by a sudden storm. Liv. xxvi. 11.


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165. Quantum vis stipulare, “stipulate for what sum you please.”

protinus accipe, receive down, i.e. on the spot. quid do, ut, etc., “what would I give that,” etc. This is the MS. reading, and seems better than Prof. Mayor's quod do, "receive what I offer.” Munro thought the punctuation might be, “protinus accipe : quid ? do ut,” etc.

166. totiens, as often as I have had to.

Haec alii sex, etc. “This is the unanimous complaint of half a dozen or more other rhetoricians.”

167. sophistae rhetores. Numbers of them came over from Asia Minor.

168. veras agitant lites, i.e. have to go to law to get their fees.

raptore relicto: the raptor of some maiden was a stock subject for declamation. Conf. also Quint. Decl. 247.

169. fusa venena, another favourite subject, Quint. Decl. 17. malus ingratusque maritus, a subject suggested by Seneca (Controv. ii. 13). A wife is tortured by a tyrant who suspected her husband of a plot. She reveals nothing. Soon after the husband kills the tyrant, and then divorces his wife. She accuses him of ingratitude.

170. et quae iam veteres, etc. Some subject which can only be conjectured. There is no reference in these subjects to the story of Medea and Jason.

171. sibi dabit ipse rudem. Gladiators on retiring were presented with a rudis or wooden sword. So Horace, Ep. i. 1, 2, has “donatum iam rude.” Cic. Phil. ii. 29, 74, “Tam bonus gladiator rudem tam cito (accepisti) !”

173. ad pugnam. This is explained by the next line. He goes to law (ad pugnam descendit) in order not to lose the paltry sum (summula) he has earned by his teaching.

rhetorica . . . ab umbra. Conf. the expression “umbratilis vita,” a life of retirement as opposed to action.

174. qua vilis tessera venit frumenti. The custom of distributing corn either gratis or at a nominal price to the poorer Roman citizens, begun by the Gracchi, was continued under the Empire, when the distribution took place once a month. Those privileged to receive it, of whom there was a definite number, were provided with a ticket of wood or metal, with their name on it, and that of their tribe. Properly only Roman citizens had the right to these, but they were sometimes sold to others, as here to the Greek rhetorician, who spent his little gains in buying one. Conf. Pers. v. 74, "scabiosum tesserula far possidet.” The distribution was made at the Porticus Minucia. Cagnat (Cours d'Épigraphie Latine, p. 321) gives some examples of these tesserae frumentariae.

175. quippe haec merces lautissima, “this is, forsooth, the richest gain he can expect," i.e. he will be lucky if he gets as much.

176. Chrysogonus and Pollio were teachers of singing and the cithara, who were very much better paid than the rhetoricians. Juvenal says to the latter, “Find out how much teachers of music receive, and you will tear to pieces the text-book of Theodorus."

177. scindes. I have followed Friedländer and Mayor in reading Jahn's conjecture scindes instead of scindens. Conf. Sat. i. 155, “Pone Tigellinum, taeda lucebis in illa.” For ars=text-book, conf. Cic. de Fin. iii. 7, ."scripsit artem rhetoricam." Sat. vi. 452, “volvitque Palaemonis artem.”

Theodori, a famous rhetorician of Gadara, who settled at Rhodes, and taught Tiberius while he was living in retirement in that island. Suet. Tib. 57, and Quint. iii. 1, 17.

178. sexcentis, i.e. milibus.

porticus. See note on Sat. iv. 6, and conf. Mart. i. 12, “Heu quam paene novum porticus ausa nefas ! Nam subito collapsa ruit, cum mole sub illa gestatus biiugis Regulus esset equis."

182. Numidarum columnis. A fine yellow marble was imported from Numidia.

183. algentem rapiat cenatio solem, “let the banquetroom catch the winter's sun. In great houses there were special cenationes for different seasons of the year. For the winter, one facing the south was best.

184. qui fercula docte componit, i.e. a structor ; see note on Sat. v. 120.

186. qui pulmentaria condit, a cook.

187. Quintiliano. Quintilian was born at Calagurris in Spain in 35 A.D., and came over to Rome with Galba. He received a salary as professor of rhetoric from Vespasian, was Pliny's teacher (Plin. Ep. ii. 14, 9), and after retiring from his professorship was made tutor to Domitian's two grand-nephews; receiving perhaps at the same time the consularia ornamenta. Martial, ii. 90, addresses him as gloria Romanae togae.”

His great work was the Institutio Oratoria. Though well off in comparison with other rhetoricians, we know from Pliny, Ep. vi. 32, that he was not rich, “te modicum facultatibus scio. Still, what would appear a moderate fortune to the wealthy Pliny, might seem riches to Juvenal.

190. felix, “the lucky man, being both fair,” etc.

192. nigrae lunam subtexit alutae. The senators wore a peculiar kind of boot, which came higher up the leg than others, and was fastened by four thongs. On the front it bore a crescent-perhaps, as has been suggested, the letter C—to represent the original number of 100, as instituted by Romulus. Conf. Mart. ii. 29, “Non hesterna sedet lunata lingula planta.” Juvenal means here that with luck a man may rise to be a senator.

193. iaculator, a debater. Conf. the expression “torqueat enthymema,” Sat. vi. 450. Prof. Mayor is surely wrong in taking it to refer to the sports of the Campus Martius.

194. et si perfrixit, especially if he has a cold (ironical). Conf. Mart. iii. 18, “ Perfrixisse tuas questa est praefatio fauces ?

cantat bene. Another accomplishment with which the lucky man is credited.

Distat, it makes a difference= diagépel.

197. fies de rhetore consul. Quintilian received the consularia insignia from Domitian out of compliment to him as the young princes' tutor. Conf. Plin. Ep. iv. 11, “quos tibi Fortuna ludos facis ! facis enim ex professoribus senatores, ex senatoribus professores.”

199. Ventidius. P. Ventidius Bassus, born in Picenum, was taken prisoner in the Social War by the father of Pompey the Great, in whose triumph he was led. He then became a muledriver. He was ultimately taken up by Julius Caesar, and made tribune, praetor, and consul, and then by M. Antonius, by whom he was sent as general against the Parthians, over whom he celebrated a triumph. See Aul. Gell. xv. 4.

Tullius. Servius Tullius, the sixth Roman king, said to have been born of a slave mother. Conf. Sat. viii. 259.

anne aliud, quam, was it anything else than-
201. Servis regna, referring to Servius Tullius.
captivis . . . triumphum—to Ventidius, see supra.
202. ille. Quintilian.

203. vanae sterilisque cathedrae. Conf. Mart. i. 76, “circum pulpita nostra et steriles cathedras basia sola crepant.” cathedrae are- --(1) sloping chairs, generally used by women ; (2) the chairs of the professors or teachers.

204. Thrasymachi. Thrasymachus of Chalcedon was one of the Sophists who migrated to Athens, where he enjoyed a considerable reputation. Plato, in the first book of the Republic, puts into his mouth certain anti-social doctrines which some

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