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libraries, and also in the public library in the temple of Apollo on the Palatine. macra because the poet would be half-starved on his road to fame.

30. dives avarus. So in Sat. ix. 38, “mollis avarus”; and conf. viii. 49, “nobilis indocti.”

31. tantum laudare. Conf. Sat. i. 74, “probitas laudatur et alget.'

32. Iunonis avem, the peacock, a number of which birds were kept in the sacred grove of Juno at Samos. Conf. Ov. Met. xv. 385, “Iunonis volucrem quae cauda sidera portat.”

34. suamque Terpsichoren, "and the muse it has chosen." Terpsichore was the muse of choral dancing and song.

facunda et nuda, " eloquent but threadbare.”

36. Accipe nunc artes. “Now hear the excuses they make.” This seems a better punctuation than making “artes go closely with ne quid tibi conferat.

37. Musarum et Apollinis aede relicta. It seems better, with Prof. Mayor, to take this as one temple, viz. that on the Palatine, in which there stood statues of the Muses. Poets were wont to recite their compositions here in public. Some, however, were foolish enough to give up the chance of any advantage to be gained by these recitations, and to attach themselves to some patron who would lend them a room. See note on Sat. i. 3. Prof. Mayor quotes Schol. Cruq. on Hor. Sat. i. 10, 38, “Tarpa fuit iudex criticus auditor assiduus poematum et poetarum in aede Apollinis seu Musarum quo convenire poetae solebant suaque scripta recitare.”

39. propter mille annos. Herodotus calculates the age of Homer (iii. 53) to have been about 400 years earlier than his own time.

40. maculosas commodat aedes, "lends you a dirty room,” which, as the next lines explain, has long been locked up and unused. Some MSS. have Maculonus, as if this were the name of the patron. P. reads Maculonis, in which case we should have to translate “lends a house like Maculo's ”; Maculo being some one notorious for his dirty shabby house. Conf. Tac. de Orat. 9.

41. longe ferrata, “barred up at a distance," so that the audience would have some distance to go. Conf. Mart. iii. 58, 51, “rus haec vocari debet an domus longe ?"

42. sollicitas portas, the gates of a city in the anxious time of siege.

43. dare libertos, “to distribute his freedmen,”-in order, i.l., to lead the applause and shout oopws= bravo ! Conf. Plin.


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Ep. ii. 14, “auditores actoribus similes conducti . . . ternis denariis ad laudandum trahebantur.”

45. dabit is the emphatic word. The patron will lend an old disused chamber, but the chairs, etc., must be provided by the poet himself. Conf. Tac. de Orat. 9, “domum mutuatur, et auditorium exstruit et subsellia conducit,” etc.

46. anabathra, the tiers of seats rising one above the other, opposed to the orchestra or space in front of the stage.

conducto ... tigillo. Some planks had to be hired to make a platform for the cunei or anabathra.

47. orchestra. Here, at the theatre, were the senatorial seats, while the equites occupied the fourteen front rows of the anabathra. See note on Sat. iii. 178.

reportandis, “which have to be carried back.” 48. hoc agimus, we are engrossed in this.”

49. sterili aratro. The epithet is applied to aratro by hypallage. To plough the sand was a proverbial expression. Conf. Ov. Her. v. 115, and below, line 203," sterilis cathedrae.”

50. Nam si discedas. tenet. Suppressed apodosis, 'it would be useless for,” etc. Conf. Sat. x. 339.

52. scribendi cacoethes, itch for writing. cacoethes is often used of an ulcerous disease metaphorically, Pliny, H. N. xxii. 132.

53. publica vena, “commonplace talent.” Conf. Hor. Ars Poet. 409, “ego nec studium sine divite vena, nec rude quid possit video ingenium.”

54. expositum, vulgar. deducere, generally a metaphor from spinning, here from beating out metal. Conf. Hor. Ep. i. 225, deducta poemata filo."

55. carmen triviale, a hackneyed song.

communi ... moneta, with the current stamp; a metaphor from coining. Conf. Hor. Ars Poct. 59.

feriat, conf. the “III viri aere argento auro flando feriundo.”

moneta. Originally the Roman mint was in the temple of Juno Moneta on the Capitol. Hence moneta came to mean mint,” and so our word money is derived. 58. impatiens, not impatient of, but untouched bytrelpos.

59. Aonidum, the Muses, Aonia being an old name for Boeotia ; see note on Aganippes,” line 6.

60. thyrsum contingere. The thyrsus was a staff wreathed in vine-leaves, and carried by the Bacchanals. The Bacchic furor was sometimes identified with poetic inspiration, and so here the thyrsus is mentioned in connection with the Muses.

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Conf. Hor. Ep. ii. 2, 77, “Scriptorum chorus . . . rite cliens Bacchi.”

62. cum dicit Horatius “Euhoe.” Conf. Hor. Car. iii. 19, 8, “Euhoe parce, Liber! Parce gravi metuende thyrso !” Euhoe was the exclamation used by the Bacchanals. Horace himself, however, says, Ep. ii. 2, 51, "paupertas impulit audax ut versus facerem.

64. dominis Cirrhae Nysaeque. Cirrha, a port on the Corinthian Gulf, not far from Crissa, the ancient seat of Apollo's worship. Martial says, i. 76, “ quid tibi cum Cirrha ? quid cum Permesside nympha ?” Conf. Sat. xiii. 79. Nysa was where Bacchus (Dionysus) was brought up; its locality is uncertain, possibly in India, possibly in Arabia, or it may have been in the range of Parnassus, as Strabo says. dominis, without the preposition, because it is not so much the persons as the influences they represent which are intended. Conf. Sat. xiii. 124, and vi. 29, “ dic qua Tisiphone, quibus exagitare colubris ?"

67. attonitae, perplexed. Conf. Sat. xiii. 194.

68. qualis Rutulum confundat Erinys, "the sort of Erinys to confound.” The allusion is to Verg. Aen. vii. 445 seq., where Alecto is sent by Juno to inflame the jealousy of Turnus.

Erinys. The Greek 'Epívves, originally nature-divinities, connected with the dawn (the Sanscrit word for dawn is Saranyu), developed into furies, whose particular function it was to punish crimes against the family ; hence the part they play in the story of Orestes. At Athens they were called the Etmevides, and also ai oeuval. Vergil calls them “Dirae sorores,” and “Furiae,” but they have lost their peculiar function of tracking out crime, and become merely the instruments or agents of the malignant gods.

69. Nam si Vergilio, etc. Horace, Ep. ii. 1, 246, speaks of the “Munera quae multa dantis cum laude tulerunt Vergilius Variusque poetae.' Conf. Mart. viii. 56, “Sint Maecenates, non derunt, Flacce, Marones.”

70. caderent omnes a crinibus hydri. Conf. Verg. loc. cit. geminos erexit crinibus angues.” The imperf., as if Vergil was still alive.

71. Conf. id. 513, cornuque recurvo Tartaream intendit vocem.”

surda. Conf. Sat. xiv. 194, “surdo verbere."

72. antiquo cothurno, ancient tragedy. Conf. Hor. Car. ii. 1, 12, “grande munus Cecropio repetes cothurno.” For person compared with thing, conf. Sat. iii. 72, “Isaeo torrentior," etc.

Rubrenus Lappa, some tragic writer of the day, so poor

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that while he was writing his Atreus he was obliged to pawn his trays and cloak.

73. laenam. See note on Sat. iii. 283. pignerat, causes to be pawned.

74. infelix Numitor ; ironical. Numitor — probably the man mentioned in Sat. viii. 93—was a patron who was "dives sibi, pauper amicis.”

76. leonem iam domitum, a tame lion. An immense number of lions were imported into Rome, as well as other animals, and many private persons kept them. We read in the Philippics, ii. 24, that Antony and Cytheris rode in a chariot drawn by lions.

79. Lucanus. M. Annaeus Lucanus, a nephew of Seneca, was a native of Corduba in Spain, where he was born 39 A.D. He inherited much wealth from his father, Annaeus Mela, who had been a procurator of the emperor; and for that reason, added to his literary renown, he incurred the jealousy of Nero, and was induced to join the conspiracy of Piso, which led to his death, as well as that of his uncle. His great work is the Pharsalia. See Tac. Ann. xvi. 17.

in hortis marmoreis. The pleasure-gardens of the rich were furnished with marble statues ranged along the walks and drives. See note on Sat. i. 12, and iv. 112.

80. Serrano, an epic poet mentioned by Quintilian, x. 1, 89, as dying young, but showing much promise. Martial, iv. 37, mentions his heavy debts.

Saleio. Saleius Bassus, an epic poet described by Tacitus, de Orat. 5, perhaps with friendly exaggeration, as “poeta absolutissimus. Vespasian gave him “quingenta sestertia.” See also Quint. x. 1, 90.

81. si gloria tantum est, if it is glory without reward.

83. Thebaidos. The Thebais, in twelve books, was the work of P. Papinius Statius, who lived and wrote under Domitian (45-96 A.D.) He was born of noble parents at Neapolis, and though favoured by Domitian, we must infer from Juvenal's words that he remained poor. His mixed poems, the Silvae in five books, throw much light on various events in Domitian's reign. After a defeat in the agon Capitolinus, he retired from Rome and lived at Naples.

84. promisitque diem, i.e. for a recitation of his work.

86. fregit subsellia versu. Conf. line 45, and Sat. i. 12, “convulsa marmora.

87. intactam Paridi nisi vendat Agaven. Paris was an Egyptian pantomimist who lived under Domitian, by whom he



was executed in 83 A. D. on account of a suspected intrigue with Domitia, Dio Cass. 67, 3. Martial, xi. 13, has an epitaph on him, which ends “atque omnes Veneres Cupidinesque hoc sunt condita, quo Paris, sepulchro.” It was the usual custom in theatrical circles for the same names to be handed down among the leading actors. Thus this Paris only assumed the name of the famous pantomimist of that name under Nero, and after him three others followed, bearing the same name. Roman tragedy never won its way into the favour of the people, and, as Friedländer describes it, tended to be resolved into its elements. One of these elements was dancing and gesticulation, either accompanied or not with words. Out of this grew, under the reign of Augustus, the pantomime. The subjects were chosen generally from tragedy, but sometimes also from comedy, and the pantomime represented the various characters as well as the plot by his dancing and gestures, while the libretto of the piece was usually sung by a chorus. The subjects were sometimes historical, but more often mythological ; e.g. Turnus, Dido, Hector, Niobe, Philomela, etc. The skill with which the characters, whether male or female, were represented was extraordinary. The librettos, fabulae salticae, were usually quite subordinate to the dancing, and no literary value, but we hear occasionally of good poets writing them. Lucan wrote fourteen, and Statius is here described as starving for all his Thebais can do for him, but getting a good price by selling his unpublished pantomime, the Agave, to Paris, who would dance it.

88. Ille et militiae, etc. The Scholiast and the Lives say that these lines were the cause of Juvenal's banishment. On the subject of the banishment, see Introduction. If it took place under Hadrian, as is probable, these lines, published under Trajan, may very likely have been repeated in the circus by the crowd in allusion to some unpopular favourite of Hadrian, and so have caused Juvenal's exile.

89. semenstri . . . auro, “the ring won by six months' service.” Young men about to enter on the senatorial career were obliged to serve first as military tribunes in a legion. After Claudius, however (Suet. Claud. 25), this became in many cases a mere formality, and six months' service, often only nominal (as in Pliny's case, who was a tribune of the legio iii. Gallica, employed in clerical work), became a sufficient qualification, and ipso facto conferred equestrian rank; hence the term “semenstre aurum” with reference to the knight's ring. Similarly we find in inscriptions “tribunus semenstris,” Orell. 3442; and Pliny, Ep. iv. 4, 2, uses the phrase "tribunatu semenstri.” Those tribuni militum who were passing through the senatorial cursus honorum were tribuni laticlavii ; those


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