Page images

The vacant culcita in this passage was therefore probably in the "lectus imus." Conf. Hor. Sat. ii. 8, 20 seq. See Becker's Gallus, pp. 472-4.

19. propter quod rumpere somnum debeat, conf. iii. 127, "si curet nocte togatus currere," and Mart. xii. 26; also Pliny's phrase, "officia antelucana. Conf. Martial's complaint, x. 74, 12, “Quid concupiscam quaeris ergo? dormire.'

20. ligulas dimittere, properly-lingulas, i.e. Yλúttas Tûv ὑποδημάτων. Conf. Mart. ii. 27, 7. The lingula was either a tongue-shaped buckle, or a leather thong passed down the front of the boot. Conf. Mart. xiv. 120.

21. peregerit orbem, should have finished their round of visits. The patrons vied with one another in getting a large number of clients to pay the morning salutatio. Conf. Mart. xi. 24, "ut tibi tuorum sit maior numerus togatulorum."

22. sideribus dubiis, when the stars are beginning to disappear, i.e. at early morning.

aut illo tempore, etc. This refers to an earlier time of the night, when the Great Bear or Charles's Wain (Bootes or Arctophylax) is still seen high in the sky. pigri because the constellation is nearly stationary.

24. quod sucida nolit lana pati. Pliny, H. N. xxix. 9, says that sucidae lanae, i.e. wool with the sheep's sweat still in it, was soaked in wine or oil or vinegar, and used for fomentations. This wine is too bad even for this purpose. On the treatment of clients, conf. Plin. Ep. ii. 6, who mentions a man who "sibi et paucis opima quaedam, ceteris vilia et minuta ponebat. Vinum etiam parvolis lagunculis in tria genera descripserat . . . aliud sibi et nobis, aliud minoribus amicis (nam gradatim amicos habet) aliud suis nostrisque libertis."

25. de conviva. Conf. vii. 197, "fies de rhetore consul." Corybanta, one of the priests of Cybele, whose worship was always violent and enthusiastic. See note on Sat. viii. 176.

26. Iurgia proludunt. Conf. "prooemia rixae,” iii. 288. iurgium iurigium (ius ago).


27. rubra. mappa, a blood-stained napkin. The host often provided the mappae. Martial has an epigram on a man who used to steal them when he dined out, xii. 29.

29. Saguntina . . . lagona. The Saguntine earthenware was famous. It is mentioned both by Pliny, H. N. xxxv. 160, and Martial, iv. 46. The parasites and freedmen are supposed here to fling the wine-jars at one another, as the result of this bad, heady wine. With lagona Greek Máyuvos, conf. ancora

ἀγχύρα, nox νύξ, mola μύλη, etc.


30. capillato diffusum consule. Diffundere vinum was to transfer it from the dolium, where it was put for the purpose of fermentation, into amphorae and cadi, the corks of which were covered with pitch or gypsum, and the title of the wine and the name of the consuls for the year marked on it or hung on labels. So Cagnat (Cours d'Epigraphie Latine, p. 308) gives an inscription found on an amphora, "Ti Claudio P. Quinctilio cos. a.d. xiii. K(alendas) Iun(ias) vinum diffusum quod natum est duobus Lentulis consulibus." Conf. Sat. xi. 159, and Hor. Ep. i. 5, 4. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 8, 10-12. See Becker's Gallus, pp. 487-9. For " 'capillato consule" conf. "barbato regi," iv. 103 and xvi. 31. Barbers were introduced into Rome 300 B.C.

31. bellis socialibus. The Social War was begun in 91 B.C. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 14, 18, "cadum Marsi memorem duelli." 32. cardiaco, "with a disordered stomach." Prof. Mayor quotes Pliny, H. N. xxiii. 25, "cardiacorum morbo unicam spem in vino esse certum est."

cyathum. The sextarius ( of a congius, and equal to about one pint) was divided, like the as, into multiples of The cyathus answered to the uncia, and was of a sextarius; for the other divisions the same names were employed as for the divisions of the as. So Martial has, ii. 1, 9, "mixto quincunce ; and vi. 78, 7, "misceri deunces."

33. Albanis de montibus. Conf. xiii. 214, "Albani veteris pretiosa senectus"; Hor. Od. iv. 11, 2; Sat. ii. 8, 16, where it is offered to Maecenas, the guest of the evening. This wine ranked after the Caecuban and Falernian.

34. Setinis. The wine from Setia in Campania was known for its digestive properties. Martial, vi. 86, 1, 2, "Setinum, dominaeque nives, densique trientes, quando ego vos, medico non prohibente, bibam ?" Augustus gave the palm to this wine, even over the Caecuban, which was usually considered the best.

35. multa veteris fuligine testae. The amphorae were placed in a chamber, usually above the bath, called the fumarium or apotheca, in order to be mellowed by the smoke. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 8, 10, "amphorae fumum bibere institutae," and Mart. x. 36, 1.

36. coronati, a usual custom at feasts. It was believed that certain flowers prevented intoxication. The chaplets were brought to the guests when the mensae secundae were served. Thrasea Helvidiusque. Fannius Thrasea Paetus was put to death by Nero in 66 A.D. (Tac. Ann. xvi. 21), his accuser being Cossutianus Capito, who said in his speech, "frustra Cassium amovisti, si gliscere et vigere Brutorum aemulos passurus es. Thrasea had written a life of Cato the younger.

[ocr errors]

Helvidius Priscus was the son-in-law of Thrasea, and like him belonged to the Stoic school, Tac. Hist. iv. 5. He was banished by Nero (Tac. Ann. xvi. 33), and executed by Vespasian (Dio Cass. 66, 12).

37. Brutorum, i.e. Marcus and Decimus, both among the murderers of Caesar. Prof. Mayor quotes Pliny, Ep. iii. 7, 8, and Mart. xii. 67, 3, to prove that the birthdays of the dead were often observed by their friends. See also Sen. Ep. 64, 8, 'Quidni ego magnorum virorum et imagines habeam incitamenta animi et natales celebrem ?"

[ocr errors]

Ipse, the patron Virro.

38. Heliadum crustas. The crustae were embossed figures fixed on to the metal. The Heliades were daughters of the sun, who, in grieving for their brother Phaethon, were changed into poplars from which amber exuded. Ov. Met. ii. 365.

inaequales berullos. berylli (a kind of emerald) were polished, Pliny tells us, into a hexagonal shape, in order that the colour might be brought out by the reflection from the angles. This possibly explains inaequales, which, however,

may only mean "rough."

39. phiala, on his goblet. aurum. Conf. Sat. x. 27.

40. custos adfixus ibidem. Conf. Mart. xiv. 108, "Quae non sollicitus teneat servetque minister, sume Saguntino pocula ficta luto." See the story of Vinius and Claudius in Tac. Hist. i. 48.

42. praeclara illi laudatur iaspis, "he has a splendid jasper, much praised." Conf. “ οὐ γὰρ βάναυσον τὴν τέχνην éктησάμην," Soph. Ai. 1121.

43. transfert a digitis. Conf. Mart. xiv. 109, ". 'Aspice! quot digitos exuit illa calix." Pliny, H. N. xxxiii. 5, says, "turba gemmarum potamus et smaragdis teximus calices."

45. zelotypo, jealous. Conf. " zelotypus Thymeles," Sat.

viii. 197.

iuvenis praelatus Iarbae. Aeneas, for whom Dido rejected Iarbas and her other African suitors. Juvenal has in his mind Aen. iv. 260, "illi stellatus iaspide fulva ensis erat."

46. Beneventani sutoris nomen habentem. Tacitus (Ann. xv. 34) mentions a cobbler of Beneventum, named Vatinius, as giving a gladiatorial show in 62 A.D. He was well known under Nero, with whom he was a favourite, and, having a remarkably long nose, gave his name to a jar with four noselike spouts. Conf. Mart. xiv. 96, "Vilia sutoris calicem monumenta Vatini accipe: sed nasus longior ille fuit;" also x. 3, 4, "Vatiniorum fractorum."

47. nasorum quatuor, genitive of quality.

48. rupto poscentem sulfura vitro, "demanding sulphur for its broken glass," i.e. only fit to be exchanged for sulphur matches, a kind of exchange alluded to in Mart. i. 41, 3, "Transtiberinus ambulator qui pallentia sulphurata fractis permutat vitreis"; and i. 10, 4. Conf. also Mart. xii. 57, 14, "sulphuratae lippus institor mercis." Or possibly an allusion is made to the use of sulphur as a cement for mending glass. Conf. Plin. Ep. viii. 20, 4, "sulphuris udor saporque medicatus, vis qua fracta solidantur."

50. decocta, sc. aqua. It was an invention of Nero to have water boiled and then put into a glass covered with snow, Plin. H. N. xxxi. 40. Conf. Mart. ii. 85, 1, "Vimine clausa levi niveae custodia coctae." The water is said sometimes to have cost more than the wine.

51. This is sometimes thought to be an interpolation. It seems, however, to me to be needed between 50 and 52, so as to give its proper force to aquam.

52. cursor Gaetulus. Africans, especially Numidians, were used both for drivers and outriders. The latter preceded sometimes a carriage, sometimes a litter. See Mart. iii. 47. would naturally be a rough waiter.


54. cui per mediam nolis noctem, etc. To meet an Ethiopian was considered an omen of impending evil. Conf. the story of the Ethiopian spectre which appeared to Brutus before Philippi, Plut. Brut. 48.

55. monumenta Latinae. See Sat. i. 171. The Via Latina left Rome at the Porta Capena, then left the Appia Via, with which it at first coincided, on the right, passed over the Tusculan Hill (whence the epithet clivosae), and joined the Appia Via again at Casilinum.

56. ante ipsum. The servants passed between the couches and the table.

flos Asiae; perhaps an Ionian slave. Pliny, H. N. vii. 56, says that Antonius gave 200,000 sesterces for two boys.

paratus. Conf. iii. 224.

57. Tulli

[ocr errors]

pugnacis. Tullus Hostilius fought against the Albans and Sabines. Conf. Verg. Aen. vi. 813, "movebit Tullus in arma viros." Hor. Od. iv. 7, 15.

59. frivola. Conf. iii. 198.

60. tot milibus emptus; see note on line 56.

61. miscere, to mix wine with water. The Roman wines were not usually drunk pure.

62. digna supercilio, justify his disdain. supercilium, lit. the eyebrow, then the movement of the eyebrow which signifies

disdain. Sat. vi. 169, "grande supercilium." Conf." naribus uti," to turn up the nose.

63. calidae; sc. aquae. A mixture of hot wine and water was a favourite beverage among the Romans. It was sold in places sometimes called "thermopolia.' Ammianus says that a governor of the city, named Ampelius, wishing to check gluttony and luxury, "statuerat ne taberna vinaria ante horam quartam aperiretur, neve aquam vulgarium calefaceret quisquam.” Conf. Mart. vi. 86, 5, 6, "possideat Libycas messes Hermumque Tagumque, et potet calidam, qui mihi livet, aquam." vessels in which the water was warmed were called ἐμπυριβῆται.


65. poscas... quod. The construction is virtually oblique, expressing the thought implied in indignatur. Contrast with this the account in Sat. xi. 145 seq., of the old-fashioned manner of attendance.

[ocr errors]

66. servis superbis. Conf. iii. 189, "cultis servis." superbus ὑπερφυής. For change of into B, conf. aμow, ambo. Some families had immense numbers of slaves. Even Horace, Sat. i. 3, 12, considers ten the minimum for a small household.

67. porrexit.

Conf. i. 70, "porrectura viro . . . rubeta.”

68. vix fractum, scarcely ground at all, or broken with difficulty.

solidae ... farinae. farina was the meal made from far. Conf. Mart. ix. 2, 4, "convivam pascit nigra farina tuum.'

69. quae genuinum agitent, "to exercise his grinders." Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 134, "eorum [dentium] adversi acuti morsu dividunt escas, intimi autem conficiunt" (work through) "qui genuini vocantur" (gena, cheek).

70. mollique siligine fictus, made of soft fine wheat. Seneca, Ep. 123, says that hunger will render even bad bread "tenerum et siligineum."

72. salva sit artoptae reverentia, "let the respect for the bread-pan be maintained." artopta (äртоs ỏπтάw) is used by Plautus, Aulul. ii. 9, 4, for a bread-pan- "ego hinc artoptam ex proximo utendam peto." It is sometimes taken to mean a baker, but this suits neither passage well. Notice Juvenal's contemptuous use of the Greek word.

73. improbulum, a little unscrupulous. See note on "improbus," iii. 282.

superest illic, there is still some one behind.

74. Vis tu, Will you please to, etc. Conf. Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 92. canistris, baskets in which the bread was handed round. 75. Scilicet, used ironically or bitterly-"it seems."

« PreviousContinue »