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in qua te quaero proseucha? For the ind. quaero, Prof. Mayor quotes Madvig, Opusc. ii. 40, who says that in Latin, where a question is asked of one's self, the indic. is frequently used instead of the deliberative conjunctive. Conf. Sat. iv. 130, "conciditur?" Cic. ad Att. xiii. 40, "advolone an maneo?"

The proseucha was a house for prayer outside a city, and usually near a river, which, in places where there was no synagogue, the Jews were allowed to build. Conf. Acts xiv. 13. Here the rich bully pretends to think that the poor man is a Jew.

298. vadimonia . . . faciunt.


301. paucis cum dentibus.

Conf. note on line 213 above. Conf. Sat. xvi. 10.

302. qui spoliet; for subj. conf. "quem porrigat," line 267. 304. compago, joint. siluit, has ceased creaking, i.e. in being fastened up.

catenatae tabernae.

Becker supposes that catenatae refers to the custom at wine-shops of chaining the bottles to the pillars. Conf. Mart. vii. 61, "catenatis lagonis."

305. grassator, highwayman.


agit rem, goes to work," or perhaps, "does your business for you. Conf. Cic. Phil. ii. 21, "negotium transegisses." I think that subitus shows that the phrase must be taken in this sense rather than in that of "carries on his trade."

307. Pomptina palus, etc. The Pomptine marsh in Latium had been partially, but not completely, drained by Augustus. It was, like the Gallinarian wood near Cumae, infested with brigands, who, when soldiers were sent to these places, flocked to Rome, and added to the dangers of the poor man's life there. 312. proavorum atavos. The order of ascent is avus, proavus, abavus, atavus.

313. sub regibus atque tribunis, i.e. under the Monarchy and the Republic, of which the tribuni plebis were the most characteristic representatives.

314. uno... carcere, the carcer Mamertinus, built by Ancus Martius. This was the only prison for centuries, but before 210 B.C. (Liv. xxxii. 27) another, the carcer Lautumiarum, was added.


315. poteram. The imperfect tense implies that something which might have been fulfilled is actually unfulfilled. Possum "I can and perhaps will": poteram "I could, but won't": potui "I could, and did or did not," as the case may be. Conf. Verg. Ec. i. 79, Hor. Sat. ii. 1, 16. Similarly, in Greek edel and xp imply some state of things which might conceivably have been other than it is.

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319. tuo.. Aquino. colonia on the Via Latina. See Introd. p. xviii.

Juvenal was born at Aquinum, a

refici is of course governed by properantem, not, as Mr Macleane supposes, by reddet, which would require reficiendum.

320. Helvinam Cererem. Aquinum had temples to Ceres and Diana. The former may possibly have been erected by a member of the gens Helvia, which is known by inscriptions to have belonged to the neighbourhood.

322. caligatus, with thick country boots on; or possibly there is a military metaphor involved. auditor, the reading of P. for the old adiutor, is a decided improvement.


1. Crispinus. Conf. Sat. i. 27.

2. ad partes, to play his part. 3. aegrae = feeble.

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4. deliciae, a fop. Conf. Mart. viii. 48, 6, nec nisi deliciis

convenit iste color.

viduas, unmarried women.

5. refert; see note on Sat. i. 154.

6. porticibus. Conf. Sat. vii. 178, "porticus, in qua gestetur dominus quotiens pluit."

Each large villa was provided with a hippodrome and a gestatio. The former was a broad pathway lined with planetrees, which were clad with ivy climbing from tree to tree. The gestatio, in which the lord was carried in his lectica, was an oval walk also shaded by trees. The porticus here mentioned can be neither of these, because (1) the passage in Satire vii. 178 shows that it was covered in; (2) Martial, i. 12, speaks of a portico nearly killing its owner by falling in. There was probably in many villas a kind of arcade or colonnade round a portion of the house in which the owner might either drive or be carried. Conf. also Mart. xii. 50.

vectetur, i.e. in the lectica.

in umbra, probably of plane-trees. See note on Sat. i. 12. In the pleasure-gardens of the rich there were usually extensive


7. vicina foro. Prof. Mayor quotes Tac. Ann. iii. 9, ""fuit inter irritamenta invidiae domus foro imminens."

9. incestus (in-castus), an incestuous wretch. The word is often used of sacrilege, as here.

cum quo, etc. The name of the person who in the account of Suetonius was found guilty of an intrigue with Cornelia, a Vestal virgin, was Licinianus. Whether Crispinus was the real culprit, or whether Juvenal refers here to another case, is uncertain. See Suet. Dom. 8.

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vittata... sacerdos, a Vestal virgin.

10. terram subitura. The ancient punishment, revived by Domitian, for unchastity on the part of a Vestal was starvation in an underground chamber outside the Colline Gate. Suet. Dom. 8, and Plin. Ep. iv. 11.

12. si fecisset

caderet, the imperfect in the apodosis, because the result, the ignominia, would be lasting. Sat. vii. 13. fecisset, if he had been guilty: "fecisse videtur” is the technical term for a verdict of guilty.

sub iudice morum, i.e. Domitian, who assumed the title of censor perpetuus. The censor would punish any violation of the sumptuary laws. Martial addresses Domitian as Censor maxime, principumque princeps."


13. Titio Seioque. Lucius Titius and Gaius Seius are names to represent ordinary citizens. They are frequently used in the Digest for the parties in a lawsuit. Conf. Sat. viii. 182.

14. foedior omni crimine, "too disgraceful for any accusation." Conf. infra, "privatis maiora focis." "Procula minor."

Sat. iii. 203,

15. persona, the character you are dealing with.

sex milibus, sc. sestertium. The high price was caused by its unusual size, as mullets rarely exceeded two pounds. In Tiberius's reign three mullets were sold for 30,000 sesterces. Suet. Tib. 34. If the denarius or 4 sesterces are reckoned at 7 d., 6000 sesterces would amount to £46: 17: 6. Conf. Mart. x. 31, 4, and 37, 7.

16. aequantem, as a neuter verb in the sense of " 'coming up to," often takes an accus.; conf. Sallust, Jugurtha, cap. 3. paribus libris is ablative.

18. Consilium laudo artificis, "I praise it as a masterpiece of skill," i.e. in the craft of legacy-hunting; see note on Sat. iii. 221, and conf. xii. 121.

19. praecipuam in tabulis ceram. A will usually consisted of two wax tablets (tabulae or cerae); if there were a considerable number of heirs or legatees, the principal heirs would be mentioned on the second side of the first, those receiving less on the second, and so on. If any one were made heres ex asse,

heir to the whole estate," one tablet would be enough ;

see Sat. i. 68.

Here praecipuam ceram is by hypallage equiv

alent to praecipui heredis ceram, i.e. primam ceram; conf. Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 52.

21. antro, the lectica. The litter was closed against wind or rain, but had large windows, made not of glass but of the lapis specularis (talc or mica).

23. miser et frugi, i.e. in comparison with Crispinus.

Apicius lived under Tiberius, was notorious for gluttony and extravagance, is said to have spent 100,000,000 sesterces on his kitchen, and finally to have poisoned himself from fear of poverty; see Mart. iii. 22, who tells the story. Conf. also Sat. xi. 3.

24. patria... papyro, with an apron made of his country's papyrus. He is called in Sat. i. 26 "pars Niliacae plebis." 25. hoc pretio squamam, i.e. emisti. The first hoc may possibly be governed by (fecisti), but probably also goes with pretio. squama is used for the whole fish, as carina is used for the whole ship, and axis for the whole chariot.

26. Provincia tanti. It would be a very small estate, for we find Domitian paying 100,000 sesterces for an estate in Bithynia which he gave to a rhetorician. See Plin. ad Trai. 58.

27. maiores Apulia vendit. The land in Apulia was cheap and unfruitful, owing to the hot wind called atabulus, which was prevalent there at certain seasons; conf. Hor. Sat. i. 5, 77-8, "Incipit ex illo montes Apulia notos ostentare mihi, quos torret Atabulus." Conf. Sen. Ep. 87, 6, "tantum suburbani agri possidet, quantum invidiose in desertis Apuliae possideret."

28. Quales tunc epulas, etc. This is a very awkward transition from the preface of the satire dealing with Crispinus to the main episode in it. The first 28 lines may perhaps be a fragment of an uncompleted satire, which Juvenal afterwards pieced on to the story of the turbot.


putamus; for the ind. mood, see note on Sat. iii. 296. 29. induperatorem or endoperatorem = imperatorem. old Latin endo is found for the prep. in. Even in Lucretius, who has endogredior, such forms are archaisms, and Juvenal is purposely using epic language and style in this satire. 30. modicae, i.e. for Crispinus.

31. purpureus; conf. "Tyrias lacernas" in Sat. i. 27. scurra, a buffoon.

magni. Palati. The Domus Augusti was at the back of the Palatine Hill. Under Augustus and Tiberius the emperor's abode was like that of an ordinary citizen, but Caligula, Nero,

and Domitian constructed spacious buildings until practically the whole hill was covered with them.

32. princeps equitum princeps equestris ordinis, or the praefectus praetorio. Conf. Suet. Galb. 14. Whether Crispinus actually was one of the praefecti praetorio under Domitian is uncertain; if so, he must have been the colleague of Cornelius Fuscus, killed in the Dacian war (Sat. iv. 111). The fact that Crispinus is one of those summoned to the council (see line 108) seems to favour this view, though the manner in which Martial speaks of him (vii. 99) is somewhat against it.

33. municipes... siluros, "the shads from his own country." Conf. "lagonae municipes Iovis," Cretan wine-jars, Sat. xiv. 271; and "Cadmi municipes lacernas," Mart. x. 87, 10. municeps (munia-capio) was one who undertook public duties in his city.

fracta de merce,

"from his damaged wares." 34. Calliope, the Epic muse. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 4, 1-2, "Descende caelo, et dic age tibia regina longum Calliope


37. Flavius

ultimus. Domitian was the last of the Flavian dynasty. He was preceded by his brother Titus and his father Vespasian. He came to the throne in 81, and died. in 96 A.D.

38. calvo... Neroni, a bald edition of Nero, whose character Domitian's resembled. Conf. Mart. xi. 33, and Suet. Dom. 18. 39. spatium admirabile rhombi, a turbot of wonderful size. Conf. "Crispi iucunda senectus, violentia Turni," "Bin Αχίλλεως, etc. Pliny, H. N. ix. 169, mentions the turbots of Ravenna.

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40. Dorica. Ancona was founded by some refugees from Syracuse, which was itself a colony from Corinth, and therefore Dorian, sent out in 734 B.C. There was a famous temple of Venus Marina there.

41. neque enim, nor indeed; see note on Sat. i. 89.

42. glacies Maeotica, the ice on the Palus Maeotis, or Sea of Azov. The turbots were blocked up here in inactivity during the winter, and when the ice broke up in the spring, they passed through the Cimmerian Bosporus into the Pontus, and through the straits at Byzantium (ad ostia Ponti), which had a great trade in fish.

46. pontifici summo. After the death of Lepidus, the third member of the second triumvirate, Augustus assumed the pontificatus maximus, and the office was held by all the emperors who succeeded him. The duties of the pontifices consisted in superintending all matters of religion, regulating the calendar,

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