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215. qui . . . donet.

Observe the final force of qui.

216. conferat impensas, to offer his contribution. signa, statues.

217. Euphranoris, a statuary and painter who lived in the time of Philip of Macedon. Polycliti, a sculptor who lived during the Peloponnesian War. See note on Sat. viii. 103.

218. phaecasiatorum. The packάolov was a white shoe worn by priests at Athens and Alexandria, as Appian (B. C. v. 11) tells us. The epithet is here transferred from the priests to the gods, after Juvenal's usual mocking style, "white-slippered gods." The busts or statues had been stolen from Greek temples, a practice very common among the provincial governors ever since the destruction of Corinth by Mummius (146 B. C.) The reading of P. is "haec Asianorum," which Bücheler adopts. haec would in this case seem to be nom. sing., a somewhat awkward and pointless transition from masc. to fem. Weidner, however, takes it as neut. plur., "these here in Rome."

219. mediamque Minervam, "and a Minerva in the midst of them." It is more generally, though perhaps less rightly, taken as a bust of Minerva; lit. down to the middle.' Minerva, as the goddess of wisdom, was appropriately placed among books.

220. argenti, silver plate.

meliora et plura, i.e. than he had before the fire.

221. orborum lautissimus. This explains why every one was so anxious to make up his losses. He had no children, and would be able therefore to give rich legacies to his friends. Legacy-hunting was almost a profession at Rome in this period. It was caused by the growing disinclination for marriage among the higher classes, an evil which Augustus had in vain attempted to remedy; but the effect reacted on the cause, as the attentions, flatteries, and presents which the orbi received acted as a strong inducement to many to remain unmarried and childless. On both sides it was an organised system of hypocrisy. The legacy-hunter omitted no flattery, however abject; on the other hand, the orbus sometimes made his will thirty times in a year, feigned illness in order to stimulate the efforts of his friends, and altogether made a very good thing out of them, though sometimes he might fall a victim to poison.

222. suspectus tamquam, a common construction after verbs of accusing or suspecting in Tacitus and other writers of the Silver Age. Conf. Mart. iii. 52, "Empta domus fuerat tibi, Tongiliane, ducentis: abstulit hanc nimium casus in urbe frequens. Collatum est decies. Rogo, non potes ipse videri incendisse tuam, Tongiliane, domum?"

223. Circensibus. The regular games were the ludi Romani, lasting for 15 days, the ludi plebeii for 14, the Megalesia for 8, the ludi Apollinares for 8, the Cerealia for 8, and the Floralia for 6. In all these festivals some of the days were devoted to the ludi Circenses, i.e. chariot-racing, etc., the rest being occupied in ludi scenici, or gladiatorial combats. Under the emperors a number of extraordinary festivals were given, so that there were probably few months in any year without them. In Sat. x. 81, Juvenal says that the city mob desires only two things, "panem et Circenses"-the distribution of corn and the spectacles in the circus. Conf. Sat. xi. 53.

Sorae. This and the other towns mentioned are all in Latium.

224. paratur, is bought; the word is in contrast with conducis. Conf. Sat. iv. 131; v. 56; xiv. 140, 200, etc.

225. tenebras, a dark hovel.

229. centum

Pythagoreis. The Pythagoreans were vegetarians as a consequence of their belief that after death the souls of men passed into the lower animals, which therefore ought not to be killed and eaten. Conf. Sat. xv. 173.

231. unius

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lacertae, of a single lizard, which could be kept in a very minute garden.

232. Plurimus . . . aeger, conf. "densissima lectica," supra, Sut. i. 120.

vigilando. For the quantity of the final "o," see note on Sat. i. 79.

illum languorem, the very illness from which they suffer. 233. imperfectus, undigested; conf. "crudum pavonem," Sat. i. 143.

234. meritoria, lodgings.


235. Magnis opibus dormitur, it costs a great deal to sleep ; abl. of price. Conf. Mart. xii. 57, nec quiescendi in urbe locus est pauperi."

236. redarum transitus. The lex Iulia municipalis (45 B.C.) prohibited the passage of waggons or carriages through the streets until after four o'clock in the afternoon, with certain exceptions. Accordingly heavy loads were conveyed through at night-time. Conf. also Plin. Paneg. 51.


237. stantis convicia mandrae, "the confused noises of the loitering herd." Conf. Ov. Met. v. 676, nemorum convicia picae."

238. Druso, the Emperor Claudius, who used to sleep over the lawsuits at which he presided. Suet. Claud. 33.

vitulis marinis. An allusion to Homer's picture, Od. iv. 404 seq., of Proteus and his phocae sleeping at mid-day on the shore. Conf. also Verg. Georg. iv. 432.

239. officium, duty to a friend, such as making a call, or attending a recitation.

240. ingenti... Liburno, on an immense Liburnian carrier. Conf. Sat. vi. 477, "tarde venisse Liburnus dicitur." The Liburnians from Illyria were employed as carriers for the lecticae, as also were Cappadocians, Celts, and Germans. For the abl. case conf. note on Sat. i. 13, see also Sat. ix. 250, "effugit remige surdo." The scholiast reads liburna, a Liburnian vessel, a huge litter."

and so 66

242. clausa... fenestra. The lecticae had windows of talc, -specularia. See Sat. iv. 21.

243. Ante tamen veniet, nevertheless he will get there before the poor client.

244. prior, in front of us.

246. metretam, a nine-gallon cask, probably of oil.

248. clavus militis. Conf. Sat. xvi. 24. Military boots were called caligae; C. Caesar, son of Germanicus, was called Caligula, because he was born in the camp. They were studded with hobnails (clavi).

249. quanto celebretur sportula fumo. This picture is either taken from the period of Domitian's reign in which food was given instead of the 100 quadrantes, or points to the fact that both practices were still in existence side by side.

250. convivae, viz. the clients who came to fetch their food. sequitur sua quemque culina. Each was followed by a slave carrying a brazier to keep the portion hot.

251. Corbulo, type of a strong man. Cn. Domitius Corbulo was legatus of Germania Inferior under Claudius, and legatus of Syria and Cappadocia under Nero. Tacitus calls him "ingens corpore," Ann. xiii. 8.

254. tunicae, not of the clients, who must appear togati, see note on Sat. i. 96, but of the passers-by generally, of the "tunicatus popellus." Conf. Plin. Ep. iv. 16, "scissis tunicis ut in frequentia solet."

255. altera

plaustra, a second waggon. For this description, conf. Hor. Ep. ii. 2, 72.

257. saxa Ligustica, blocks of marble from Luna (the modern Carrara), on the borders of Etruria and Liguria. Conf. Martial, v. 22, 8, "Quaeque trahi multo marmora fune vides."

Trajan put a limit to this heavy traffic through the streets. Conf. Plin. Paneg. 51, "non ut ante immanium transvectione saxorum nobis tecta quatiuntur."

procubuit, has once fallen over; the perfect is used like the aorist of momentary action.

261. more animae, “like a vanishing soul." Conf. Hom. Od. xi. 232.


Domus, i.e. the familia, or household of slaves. Even a poor client like the one supposed to be killed would have several slaves. Conf. Hor. Sat. i. 6, 116, cena ministratur pueris tribus," who speaks of being waited upon at his frugal supper by three slaves.

263. striglibus, for strigilibus. The strigil was an instrument for scraping the skin after the bath. It was perhaps of

metal, which would explain sonat.

componit, gets ready for.

gutto, an oil-cruet (dat. case). The towels were anointed with aromatic oils.

264. at ille, but their master, who had been killed by the falling waggon. Conf. the use of ipse, "the master." Catullus has suam norat ipsam" of a bird knowing its own mistress. 265. novicius, newly arrived. Conf. Verg. Aen. vi. 325 seq. taetrum porthmea, conf. Vergil's "terribili squalore Charon." Aen. vi. 297.

266. alnum, the boat. Verg. Georg. i. 136, speaks of "alnos cavatas.'

267. trientem, the third part of an as; the smallest Roman coin was the quadrans. It was customary among the Greeks of comparatively late days to put an obol into the mouth of the dead to pay Charon's fare. ~Juvenal of course only refers to the superstition jokingly. There is no proof that the Romans adopted the custom. Vergil does not mention it, but see Propert. iv. 11, 7.

quem porrigat, final force of the relative.

269. quod spatium, etc. As land was dear in Rome, the houses were built to a great height, limited, however, by Augustus to seventy feet. Conf. also Tac. Ann. xv. 43.

272. silicem, the pavement.

274. intestatus, see note on "intestata senectus," Sat. i. 144. 277. defundere pelves, to empty the contents of their pans. Prof. Mayor compares Vergil's pateram fundere, Aen. iv. 60.

278. Ebrius ac petulans, etc. See the account in Tac. Ann. xiii. 25 of Nero's nocturnal frolics in the streets.

279. dat poenas, suffers torture; conf. the Greek dikas didóvai and λαμβάνειν.

280. cubat in faciem. The description is taken from Homer, 77. xxiv. 10—ἄλλοτε δ ̓ αὖτε | ὕπτιος, ἄλλοτε δὲ πρηνής.

281. Ergo non aliter, etc. "Otherwise (i.e. if he has not killed his man) he will really not be able to sleep," etc. This seems better than supposing the words to be a question put by Umbricius, to be answered by himself. The final syllable of ergo is almost invariably short in Juvenal. There is only one other exception in Sat. ix. 82.

282. quamvis improbus. For quamvis see note on Sat. iii. 1. Improbus is a word with many meanings, the root idea being "beyond measure." A few examples are-improbum patibulum, a very high gallows; improbus labor, excessive labour; improbus anser, a voracious goose; here it is "

ing, insolent."


283. cavet; notice the meanings of caveo with accus. and dative, and compare it with consulo and vaco.

laena, probably the same as the lacerna, which was worn over the toga.

284. comitum longissimus ordo. Perhaps some rich man might be escorted (deductus) home from supper by his friends. 285. multum . . . flammarum, a quantity of torches. 287. filum, wick.

288. prooemia, the prelude (πpooíμov). The word, properly applied to music, often means the preface of a book or speech. Plato describes the discussion in the First Book of the Republic as the poolμov of what was to follow. Conf. Sat. v. 26 and

xv. 51.

290. stari iubet, orders a halt.

291. cum ... cogat. cum (when) takes a subjunctive because it is a hypothetical case.

idem fortior, one too who is stronger.

292. aceto, sour wine.

293. conche. For the vegetable diet of the poor, conf. Sat. i. 134, and Horace's apostrophe to the bean-"faba Pythagorae cognata," Sat. ii. 6, 63.

sectile porrum. The leek was either sectile or sectivum, i.e. cut when young, or capitatum, allowed to grow to a head. Conf. Sat. xiv. 133.

296. ubi consistas, where you take your stand, i.e. for begging.

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