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the vast familia of the Caesars themselves; and we find in the freedmen of the palace-men like Pallas, Narcissus, and Epaphroditus-the most significant feature of the new régime, under which the rule of the bedchamber was superseding that of the senate.

62. Conf. Sat. vi. 295, "hinc fluxit ad istos et Sybaris colles, hinc et Rhodos et Miletos." The number of slaves from Syria was very large. Conf. Tac. Ann. xv. 44.

67. Rusticus ille tuus, etc. "That rustic people of thine, O Romulus, now assumes the Greek shoes," etc. For the apostrophe to Romulus, conf. Sat. ii. 126, "O pater urbis, unde nefas tantum Latiis pastoribus?"

sumit trechedipna, "puts on his run-to-dinner shoes." Trechedipna (Tpéxw deîπvov) is neuter plural, and probably refers to the shoes worn by Greek parasites (see note on Sat. i. 139), whom the Romans were now imitating. Plutarch, as Prof. Mayor points out, uses Tpexédeɩπvos as a name for a parasite in Sympos. viii. 6, 1.

68. et ceromatico fert niceteria collo, "and wears prizes of victory on his wax-anointed neck," i.e. he practises the gymnastic contests usual among the Greeks. The ceroma was a mixture of wax, oil, and clay, used by athletes. Greek words are used intentionally. Participation in the Greek gymnastic contests was long considered unbecoming by men who had no hesitation in appearing in the arena and the circus. Conf. Sat. iv 246, "femineum ceroma.

69. Hic .

hic. This has no reference to the rusticus ille tuus. Lines 67 and 68 relate to Romans who imitate Greek ways; line 69 to Greek slaves, brought from various parts, and rising to a position of importance in Rome.

Sicyone, in Argolis; Amydon was in Macedonia.

70. Andros and Samos, in the Aegean; Tralles and Alabanda, in Caria.

71. Esquilias. Esquiliae or Mons Esquilinus was a hill on the east side of Rome, separated from the Collis Viminalis, on the north, by a continuation of the Via Tiburtina, which, passing along to the low ground to the west, led to the Subura ; see Sat. iii. line 5. Both the Esquiline and the Viminal hills were the quarters of the better classes, into whose families those Greek slaves insinuated themselves. See Sat. v. 78, and xi. 50.

dictum... a vimine. The Viminal was said to be so called from the twigs which sprang up round the altar of Jupiter placed there.

72. viscera. Prof. Mayor translates, "bosom friends."

73. sermo promptus et Isaeo torrentior. Isaeus is not the Athenian orator, but a well-known rhetorician of Juvenal's own time, who came to Rome in 97 A.D. Conf. Plin. Ep. ii. 3,

Magna Isaeum fama praecesserat, maior inventus est. Summa est facultas, copia, ubertas," etc. For the construction Isaco torrentior instead of Isaei sermone, conf. kóμaι Xapíтeσσiv öμoiai, "hair like that of the Graces." Conf. also "Dis aequa potestas," Sat. iv. 71, and vii. 72.

75. quem vis hominem, "any character you like."

76. grammaticus, rhetor. notes on Sat. i. 15 and 16.

For these two professions, see

aliptes, probably iatraliptes, a kind of medical rubber. Conf. Plin. ad Trai. 5.

schoenobates. Conf. Sat. xiv. 265.

77. magus. The Magi were the same as the Astrologi, Mathematici, and Chaldaei, mentioned so often in Tacitus and other writers of the time.


78. Graeculus, contemptuous use of the diminutive. Trajan says to Pliny (Ep. ad Trai. 40), "gymnasiis indulgent Graeculi. Hadrian was himself nicknamed "Graeculus." Spart. vit. Hadr. 1, 5.

iusseris, "if you shall have bidden him." Conf. Verg. Aen. vi. 31, “sineret dolor," did grief allow; and Sat. vi. 526, "si candida iusserit Io, ibit ad Aegypti finem."

79. Sarmata. The Sarmatians, or Sauromatae, lived between the Borysthenes and Tanais in Scythia. For the nom. Sarmata, representing Zapμáτns, conf. poeta, πoinτýs, nauta, vaúrŋs, and ἱππότα, the Aeolic form of ἱππότης, found in Homer.

80. qui sumpsit pinnas, conf. line 25. Daedalus was an Athenian.

81. conchylia (Koyxúλov), lit. a kind of shell-fish; then the purple dye extracted from it; and lastly, purple robes. Conf. Cic. Phil. ii. 27, "conchyliata peristromata. Conf. Sat.

viii. 101.

me, than I, the faithful client.

84. caelum hausit, breathed in the air. Conf. Verg. Aen.. x. 899.

85. Aventini. The Mons Aventinus is the most southerly of the seven hills, immediately south of the Circus Maximus. bacca, the olive-berry.


86. adulandi . . prudentissima, objective genitive. See Latin Primer, § 132.

88. cervicibus. The word is always used in the plural by the writers of the Golden Age.

89. Herculis, Antaeum, etc. Juvenal probably had in his mind some well-known statue in which Hercules was represented in this position. Antaeus, a famous wrestler, son of Neptunus and Terra; when lifted from the earth, his mother, he lost his strength.

90. qua deterius nec ille... marito, "than which not even the cock by whom the hen is pecked makes a more unpleasant sound." marito is attracted out of the nom, through being inside the relative clause; conf. Hor. Sat. i. 10, 16; nec = οὐδέ, not even. Notice the omission of the prep. a before quo, because the cock is an irrational being. Possibly there may be an allusion to Nero's voice, which was weak and cracked, although he thought it divine.

92. sed illis creditur, they do it in a way to be believed.

93. An melior, etc., "or is he better, when as an actor," etc., i.e. it is hard to say whether the Greek is a better actor on the stage, or in real life. Notice the difference between comoedus and comicus.

agit, acts the part of.

Dorida. Doris is probably here meant to represent any woman of the lower classes.

Thaida, uxorem, Dorida, represent the three stock female parts of the palliatae, viz. courtesan, matron, servant.

nullo cultam palliolo, without her outer garment. 95. nempe, it is true that.

98. Antiochus, Stratocles, and Demetrius were Greek actors at Rome, of whom Quintilian, xi. 3, says that Demetrius took the parts of gods, and good old men and matrons ; Stratocles those of hot-tempered old fathers, abandoned slaves, and parasites.

illic, in Greece; wonderful as they seem to us, there are many as good in Greece.

100. natio comoeda est, it is a nation of actors.

maiore cachinno concutitur, he is convulsed with still more violent laughter.

102. nec dolet, without real grief.

brumae, mid-winter; by syncope from brevima; lit. the shortest day.

103. endromidem, a thick woollen cloak, properly worn by runners after their exercise. Notice the exaggeration in each case, maiore, endromydem, sudat. Martial has an epigram (iv.

19) on the endromys, in which he calls it the work “Sequanicae textricis," of a Gallic weaver.

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114. transi gymnasia, "pass over the evils of the gymnasia,' which have been partly alluded to in lines 67 and 68. By the better classes at Rome the Greek gymnastics were always disliked. Conf. Plin. Ep. iv. 22, who describes a discussion before Trajan as to whether Greek games shall be allowed at Vienna, "Placuit agona tolli qui mores Viennensium infecerat ut noster hic (i.e. the agon Capitolinus) omnium." Nero had first established Greek contests in Rome, and Domitian instituted the quinquennial agon Capitolinus, which included gymnastic as well as literary and musical contests.

115. audi facinus maioris abollae, "listen to a crime belonging to a severer garb." The scholiast takes this as a proverbial expression, maioris togae, i.e. potioris_sceleris. It is better to take it in close reference to the word Stoicus in the next line. The abolla was worn over the toga by senators (Sat. iv. 76), soldiers, kings, and philosophers. The context here, esp. gymnasia and Stoicus, limits it to the last of these. Mart. viii. 48.


116. Stoicus occidit Baream. Tacitus gives the story, Ann. xvi. 32, Hist. iv. 10. P. Egnatius Celer, a Stoic philosopher, accused his pupil, Barea Soranus, and his daughter, of treason against Nero. They escaped execution by suicide.

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delator. The delatores were first encouraged by Tiberius (24 A.D.) Tacitus says, Ann. iv. 30, they were " num publico exitio repertum. Under Domitian the system of espionage was perhaps at its worst. For famous informers see Sat. i. 33 seq., and note ad loc.

117. ripa, of the river Cydnus, on which Tarsus was built.

118. ad quam Gorgonei. . . caballi. Pegasus, the winged horse, sprang from the blood of Medusa, the Gorgon slain by Perseus. One of its hoofs (Tapoós)—not, as Juvenal says, a feather is said to have fallen and given its name to Tarsus. Egnatius was born at Berytus, and educated at Tarsus, where there was a famous philosophic school.

120. Protogenes, etc., Greek flatterers.

124. summoveor; summoveo was the word used of the lictor clearing the crowd.

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perierunt; perfect of instantaneous action, are forgotten in a moment.

125. iactura, loss; lit. throwing overboard of goods in a storm. Conf. Sat. xiii. 8.

126. officium, the duty of friend to friend, or client to patron. Pliny, Ep. i. 9, 2, has the phrase "officium togae."

127. hic, here at Rome.

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nocte togatus; see in Sat. i. 96, and conf. Mart. x. 82, "Mane vel e media nocte togatus ero.' He also uses the phrase (( opera togata."

128. cum praetor, etc. The sense is, What chance has a poor man, when a praetor is his rival, for the favour of these rich and childless ladies? Conf. Sat. i. 101.

129. dudum vigilantibus orbis, they had long since been up expecting their visitors. On the captatores, conf. Sat. iv. 19,

v. 137, xii. 99.

130. Albinam et Modiam, rich and childless ladies. Conf. Mart. ix. 100, "Deinde haerere tuo lateri, praecedere sellam, ad vetulas tecum plus minus ire decem.'

collega, one of his colleagues, as there were eighteen praetors at this time.

131. Divitis hic servo, etc., "here the son of free-born parents gives the wall to a rich man's slave." This is much better than the old reading servi, with which filius was generally taken. Conf. Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 19, where ". tegere latus" is equivalent to being comes exterior."


quantum in legione tribuni accipiunt, i.e. 25,000 sesterces. 137. Da, produce if you can. hospes numinis Idaei. In 205 B.C. the Sibylline books ordered the sacred stone which represented the Phrygian goddess Cybele to be brought to Rome from Pessinus and placed temporarily in the house of the most virtuous citizen. The senate chose P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica. Liv. xxix. 11. See also

the account given by Herodian, i. 11.

138. procedat, let him come forward, i.e. as a witness. qui servavit Minervam. In 241 B. C. L. Caecilius Metellus, while Pontifex Maximus, rescued the statue of Pallas from the burning temple of Vesta; he was blinded by the fire.

141. quot iugera? The large estates, so usual at this time, by which the small farmers were ousted, were called latifundia. On them the slaves, sometimes numbering thousands, worked in chains, and were herded together in the ergastula. See note on Sat. viii. 180, and conf. xiv. 305.

142. paropside, a small square dish or plate. See Mart. xi. 27, 18. It is used here collectively.


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143. arca. Conf. Sat. i. 90, and the phrase ex arca solvere " to pay in cash.

144. Samothracum ... aras. Certain deities, possibly of Phoenician origin, were worshipped in Samothrace, called the


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