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medley still has some force, while even its dramatic origin is visible in the frequent dialogues contained in the Horatian Satires. Four derivations are given—(1“a Satyris quod in hoc carmine ridiculae res dicuntur”; (2) satura=“full,” with lanx understood, a dish made up of all kinds of ingredients ; (3) a kind of sausage made up of all kinds of things, which Varro says was called satura ; (4) the frolicsome song of those saturi : conf. Sat. vii. 62, satur est, cum dicit Horatius, Euhoe!”

32. causidici, a petty pleader, as opposed to “orator.” See Cic. de Orat. i. 46, 202.

Mathonis. Matho ultimately became bankrupt, as we learn from Sat. vii. 129. Conf. also xi. 34.

33. plena ipso ; occasionally the lectica carried two. Suet. Ner. 9.

magni delator amici. This arch-informer, at whom all the rest tremble, is in all probability M. Aquilius Regulus, of whom Pliny says (Ep. i. 5, 14), “Regulus omnium bipedum nequissi

nec me praeterit esse Regulum δυσκαθαίρετον : est enim locuples, factiosus, curatur a multis, timetur a pluribus,” etc. Others say it was P. Egnatius Celer, the Stoic who betrayed his pupil, Sat. iii. 116, and Tac. Ann. xvi. 30; or Heliodorus who accused his pupil, L. Junius Silanus, ib. xv. 32.

In former days it had been considered a good entrance into public life for young nobles to impeach some flagrant offender before the jury courts, while the profession of advocatus, as we see in the case of Cicero and Hortensius and many others, was one of honour and wealth. Under the Empire, on the other hand, freedom of speech was more and more curtailed, not only in the senate, but also in law courts, until the practice of the law ceased to hold out attractions to the higher classes sufficient to counterbalance its dangers. But the place thus vacated was soon occupied by a new class of men—the delatores. These were among the instrumenta imperii, men whom emperors like Tiberius, Nero, and Domitian found useful in nipping the first bud of open discontent, in getting rid of too powerful citizens, and in replenishing the fiscus with their confiscated property. That men like Massa and Carus and Latinus and this archdelator should rise to influence and power excites Juvenal's bitterest indignation. Tacitus looks at this class of men from the point of view of the nobility, and calls them "genus hominum publico exitio repertum.

Juvenal detests them more as a crying shame to the state, and the oppressors of poorer but better men.

34. de nobilitate comesa. It was the nobility on whom emperors like Nero and Domitian chiefly practised their cruelty,


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and the principal means of destruction was the delatio, which had become so systematic. See note on Sat. iii. 117.

35. Massa. Baebius Massa was originally a freedman, but became procurator Africae, Tac. Hist. iv. 50. He ingratiated himself with the emperor by acting as a delator, and as Tacitus (loc. cit.) says, was optimo cuique exitiosus." He was subsequently promoted from the equestrian to the senatorial career, as we find him proconsul of Baetica in 93 A.D., in the name of which province he was accused of repetundae by Pliny and Herennius Senecio, Tac. Agric. 45, and Plin. Ep. vii. 33, 4 foll.

36. Carus. Mettius Carus was another informer, who began his career about 93 A.D. (Tac. Agric. 45). He accused and caused the condemnation of Herennius Senecio for writing a life of Helvidius Priscus (Plin. Ep. vii. 19, 5). Conf. Mart. xii. 25, 5, “Ecce reum Carus te detulit," and see the story of Carus and Regulus in Plin. Ep. i. 5, 3.

Thymele, an actress sent by her husband Latinus, who united the callings of mime and informer, to propitiate the anger of this arch-informer. Suetonius (Dom. 15) says that Latinus used to tell Domitian the day's gossip. Conf. Sat. viii. 197, and Mart. i. 5, 5.

43. ut nudis qui pressit, etc. Conf. Verg. Aen. ii. 379.

44. aut Lugudunensem rhetor, etc. When Gaul was organised by Augustus, he distributed it into sixty-four cantons or civitates, which sent deputies once a year, on 1st August, to Lugdunum, where an altar and temple were erected to Rome and Augustus.

This meeting was the concilium provinciae. Its duties were mainly to celebrate a religious anniversary in honour of Augustus, but the deputies could also make complaints or institute accusations against corrupt governors. Similar concilia existed in all the provinces. Caligula took advantage of the annual festival, and added a contest for rhetoricians. The successful had prizes, the unsuccessful punishments—the latter consisting in composing panegyrics on their successful rivals, while the very bad ones had the choice between expunging their productions with their tongues, being flogged, or being ducked in the Rhone. See Suet. Calig. 20.

45. iecur, the seat of the passions. It is the same word as ήπαρ. Conf. equus and ίππος : πέντε and quinque.

siccum, because heated with anger. 46. premit, hustles, i.e. in the streets. Conf. Sat. iii. 244.

47. pupilli. A pupillus was a ward under the charge of a tutor, from whom he was freed at the age of fourteen, to pass into the care of a curator till his twenty-fifth year.

48. infamia årquia, loss of civic rights.

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49. Marius Priscus, a native of Baetica, was accused in 100 A.D. of extortion in his proconsulship of Africa. He was condemned, ordered to refund 700,000 sesterces, and banished from Italy. His accusers were the younger Pliny and Tacitus. This condemnation of Marius probably took place a few years before Juvenal began to publish his Satires. It is again referred to in Sat. viii. 120 : “cum tenues nuper Marius discinxerit Afros.” The sentence is called “inane,” because the unfortunate province was not benefited by it, while Marius was hardly injured. See Plin. Ep. ii. 11.

Exul (ex solum). Conf. vertere solum, “to be banished”; or from root sal found in consul, etc.

ab octava (hora). The ninth was the usual hour for dining. So Martial, iv. 8, 6, says, “imperat exstructos frangere nona toros.' To dine before this was a mark of luxury, because it trenched upon the working hours. Conf. Hor. Od. i. 1, 20,

partem solido demere de die,” and the phrase “tempestiva convivia."

50. victrix, i.e. in the impeachment. 51. credam, deliberative conjunctive.

Venusina digna lucerna. Horace was born at Venusia in Apulia (B.C. 65). lucerna, i.e. the lamp by which he exposed vice.

52. agitem ; perhaps a metaphor from hunting, “make my quarry.

Heracleas aut Diomedeas, an epic about Heracles or Diomede. Notice the generalising force of the plural. For a striking parallel, conf. Mart. x. 4, Qui legis Oedipodem, caligantemque Thyestem, Colchidas et Scyllas, quid nisi monstra legis?” etc.

53. mugitum Labyrinthi, i.e. the story of the Cretan Minotaur.

54. mare percussum puero. The boy is Icarus. See Class. Dict. “Puero ” is not the agent, but the instrument, because the boy was a dead weight falling, not a voluntary agent at all.

Conf. Hor. Od. iv. 2, 3-4. i fabrum volantem. Daedalus, a name derived from the Greek Saidalos, which means skilful. See Sat. iii. 25, and note ad loc.

58. curam sperare cohortis, i.e. to be appointed praefect of a cohort of auxiliaries. Young men entering on the equestrián cursus honorum first joined the army as centurions (Sat. xiv. 193), rising through the primipilatus to the praefecture of

hort, the military tribuneship in a legion, and praefecture of a cavalry ala, Suet. Claud. 35.




stly the

These posts were granted by the emperor's favour, who often allowed the patronage to be exercised by his courtiers. See Sat. vii. 89 foll.

60. censu, first the rating, then the income, at which a person was rated.

axe citato. Conf. the expressions “gradu citato,” “equo citato.'

61. Flaminiam (viam), the road leading north up to Ariminum, as the Appia Via led south to Capua.

puer Automedon, “a youthful Automedon.” Automedon was armour-bearer to Achilles, and is used for a charioteer generally. Conf. Verg. Aen. ii. 477.

62. ipse refers to “puer Automedon.” Others, however, take it as referring to Domitian in the sense of “the great man,' “the master,” a sense which ipse often bears. If so, the young favourite would be holding the reins while the emperor showed himself off (se iactaret).

lacernatae, “ dressed in manly garb.” The lacerna was especially used at the amphitheatre and the Campus Martius.

64. iam sexta cervice. The “iam” implies that the number of bearers would probably be increased. At present he used a hexaphoros. Cicero speaks of Verres being carried in an octo. phoros.

65. nuda . cathedra, the curtains being drawn back. The cathedra, unlike the sella, was large enough to loll in. It was generally used by women.

66. multum referens de Maecenate supino, “strongly reminding one of the lolling Maecenas.” Conf. Sat. xii. 39, “vestem teneris Maecenatibus aptam.” Prof. Mayor quotes a number of passages from Seneca, Pliny, Tacitus, Dio Cassius, to show that Maecenas was a fop, an epicure, a hard drinker, etc.

67. signator, falso qui. If a comma is placed after signator, falso is ablative, and exiguis tabulis and gemma uda in apposition to it: “by forgery, i.e. by etc.” Without the comma, falso might be dat. closely joining with signator : falsi (sc. testamenti) has also been conjectured.

68. exiguis tabulis, with a short concise will, because the whole estate was left to him ; there were no divisions and no legacies, conf. Sat. xii. 125, “atque omnia soli forsan Pacuvio breviter dabit.”

gemma . uda. The seal was moistened before being used.

69. Calenum, a wine from Cales in Campania, a district rich in vineyards.

70. rubeta, a poison extracted from frogs called rubetae, because they are only found among bushes, according to Pliny,

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who says they are “plenae veneficiorum,” H. N. xxxii. $ 50. The abl. with miscet is a better reading than the accus. of the old editions.

71. instituit. Suetonius (Ner. 33) says that Nero actually sent pupils to Locusta, “ sed et discipulos dedit.”

melior Locusta, "a nobler born Locusta”; she was inatrona potens. Locusta was a Gallic woman whose aid Nero used in poisoning Britannicus, and Agrippina in poisoning the Emperor Claudius. See Tac. Ann. xiii. 15. Prof. Mayor gives an interesting account of the prevalence of poisoning at Rome in this period.

72. per famam et populum, hendiadys.

efferre, the ordinary word for “to carry out a corpse. Conf. Mart. viii. 43, 1, “effert uxores Fabius, Chrestilla maritos.”

73. brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum. Gyaros was a barren island in the Aegean, much used by the emperors for banishing state offenders, Tac. Ann. iii. 69. Under the empire the old igni et aquae interdictio had given place to two kinds of exile. (1) Exilium, properly so called, or deportatio in insulam. — The prisoner was conveyed, often in chains, to some definite spot, and he lost his civitas, and probably his property. (2) Relegatio in insulam.Under this the exile went into banishment without guards, was not so closely confined to one spot, and did not lose his civitas. The word carcere implies that deportatio is here meant. Conf. Sat. xiii. 245.

75. Criminibus debent, etc. Conf. Sat. xiii. 24.

hortos. The pleasure-gardens of the rich nobles occupied much space in and around Rome; they were usually adorned with porticoes and colonnades, and avenues of plane - trees. Among the most celebrated were the horti Maecenatis, beyond the Esquiline, and the horti Sallustii.

praetoria. The praetorium was first the general's tent in camp, then a provincial governor's palace, and lastly, any grand house or villa.

mensas. The tables most valued were made of citrus wood, being made of single sections of the tree. Conf. the expression “latis orbibus," infra, 137. One of the largest of these, as we learn from Pliny, was owned by Nomius, a freedman of Tiberius. Seneca owned as many as 500. One formerly belonging to Cicero fetched 500,000 sesterces. 76. stantem extra pocula caprum,

a goat embossed outside the cup,” an allusion to a celebrated bowl belonging to Instantius Rufus, on which Martial writes an epigram (viii. 51). Conf. line 9, "stat caper Aeolio Thebani vellere Phryxi,” etc. The goat was sacred to Bacchus, Verg. Georg. ii. 380.


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