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vivo patre datur : nam, quae sunt parta labore militiae, placuit non esse in corpore census, omne tenet cuius regimen pater. Ergo Coranum signorum comitem, castrorumque aera merentem, quamvis iam tremulus, captat pater. Hunc favor aequus provehit, et pulchro reddit sua dona labori. Ipsius certe ducis hoc referre videtur, ut, qui fortis erit, sit felicissimus idem, ut laeti phaleris omnes et torquibus omnes

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56 labor P. w. favor coni. Ruperti. 60 in P. extremi quaternionis cetera desunt,

NOTES

SATIRE I

66

1. auditor, here "a listener to recitations." Conf. Plin. Ep. i. 13, “ne videar quorum recitationibus adfui, non auditor fuisse sed creditor.” Elsewhere it means a pupil. Conf. the phrase audire magistrum.

reponam, "retaliate," "give tit for tat.” Weidner quotes Sen. Ep. 81, 9, non dicimus ' reposuit' beneficium aut 'solvit,' nullum enim nobis placuit quod aeri alieno convenit verbum.”

2. totiens. The recitation was not repeated, but continued from day to day, until the play was finished. Conf. Plin. Ep. iii. 18, 4, and iv. 27, 1; “tertius dies est, quod audivi recitantem Sentium Augurinum.”

Cordi. Cordus was a third-rate poet of the time. Martial describes him as something of a fop," alpha paenulatorum,” ii. 57, 4.

3. togatas (fabulas). These were comedies in which the scene was at Rome, and the characters appeared in the toga. On the other hand, plays like those of Plautus and Terence were adaptations from Greek originals, and in them Athens was the place of action. These latter were palliatae (pallium). More serious plays, dealing with Roman historical subjects, were called praetextae (see Hor. A. P. 288), while the tragoediae of writers like Accius and Pacuvius dealt generally with Greek mythology Afranius was a writer of togatae. Conf. Hor. A. P. 57.,

4. elegos. Horace, A. P. 75, says that elegiacs were originally confined to plaintive subjects, but were afterwards used for love-poetry as well.

These recitations Juvenal considers (iii. 9) one of the most serious evils of city life. They frequently took place in private as an after-dinner entertainment, when the host would inflict his own compositions on his guests ; but it is the public recitations to which Juvenal here specially refers. These were held in the porticoes of temples (vii. 37), or the reciter would hire a house and fit it up with benches, etc. (vii. 40); or he might borrow a room, or (as in line 12) an avenue of plane-trees, from some rich friend. Frequently freedmen were hired to applaud at the proper places (vii. 43). At these recitations not only were the unfortunate clients compelled to be present, but also all the friends and acquaintances of the poet, who no doubt hoped to secure an audience for themselves on a similar occasion. Conf. Plin. Ep. i. 13.

5. Telephus (see Class. Dict.) He is mentioned in Hor. A. P. 96, as a typical character in tragedy.

summi plena iam margine libri, “when the margin at the border of the roll is filled.” summi, its extremity in each direction. Notice the gender of margo.

6. in tergo. Conf. Mart. viii. 62, 1, "scribit in aversa Picens epigrammata charta.”

The Orestes, by some unknown writer, was written on the margin and on the back of the papyrus. Rolls written on both sides were called opisthographi. Conf. Plin. Ep. iii. 5, 17.

7. lucus Martis, the grove where Romulus and Remus were born, or that among the Colchi where the Golden Fleece was hung

8. Aeoliis rupibus, the Lipari Islands, visited by the Argonauts. Lipara is described by Vergil (Aen. viii. 422) as “ Vulcani domus."

9. torqueat, tortures. Aeacus was a judge in Hades. Conf. Hor. Od. ii. 13, 22. The subjunctives agant, torqueat, etc., belong to substantival clauses after clamant.

10. alius, another mythical hero, i.e. Jason. For the story of the Golden Fleece, see Class. Dict. For “alius” in this sense, conf. Sat. x. 257.

11. Monychus, by syncope for Mononychus, single-hoofed. He was one of the centaurs who fought against the Lapithae.

12. Frontonis platani. Plane - trees were favourites on account of their shade. Horace complains (Od. ii. 15, 4) that the plane-trees were thrusting out the elms, which were useful for training vines on-“Platanusque caelebs evincet ulmos." Fronto, perhaps T. Catius Fronto, consul in 96 A.D., lends his gardens for recitations, as Pliny (Ep. viii. 12) says of Titinius Capito, “domum suam recitantibus praebet.”

marmora, marble statues, perhaps on pedestals along the avenue.

13. adsiduo ruptae lectore. Conf. Sat. vii. 86. Notice the absence of the preposition ab. It is not really an ablative

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of agent, but an instance of the concrete put for the abstract, adsiduitate lectoris. So Sat. ix. 150, “effugit remige surdo see also Sat. iii. 240; Hor. Ep. i. 1, 94, “inaequali tonsore.”

14. a 'summo minimoque. Conf. Hor. Ep. ii. 1, 117, “Scribimus indocti doctique poemata passim.”

15. ergo, the Greek čpyu. In later writers the o becomes short; see note on line 79.

manum ferulae subduximus, i.e. we have undergone the usual training of the grammar schools, at which the poets were especially studied. That this training was often assisted by the rod we know from Horace, Ep. ii. 1, 70, who describes his old schoolmaster Orbilius as plagosus. Martial, x. 62, 10, speaks of “ferulae tristes, sceptra paedagogorum.”

16. consilium dedimus Sullae. This refers to the schools of rhetoric, where various theses were given for declamation. These theses were divided into suasoriae and controversiae, Tac. Dial. 35. The subject in this case belongs to the former class. Advice is to be offered to Sulla that he should lay aside the cares of his dictatorship. This, as a matter of history, he did, spending the last year of his life in retirement near Cumae. Another thesis belonging to the same class is mentioned by Quintilian as an imaginary speech of Priam before Achilles. See also Sat. vii. 162, where Hannibal's proper course after the battle of Cannae is the subject for deliberation. Tacitus severely criticises these schools, and says it is difficult to decide “utrum locus ipse an condiscipuli an genus studiorum plus mali ingeniis adferant." 17. altum dormiret; cognate accus.

Conf. Sat. xiv. 295. 18. periturae . chartae, the papyrus that is sure to be wasted. Conf. Sat. xi. 17.

19. decurrere, a term specially applicable to the circus. Conf. Ovid, Met. x. 597,

“decursa novissima meta est.” 20. magnus Auruncae alumnus, i.e. Lucilius, the founder of Roman satire. Conf. Mart. xii. 95, 7, audemus saturas; Lucilius esse laboras.” He lived 148-103 B.C., and was a member of the literary circle that clustered round the younger Scipio. He showed up the vices of his time in a most uncompromising way, and though his composition was careless and his language rude, he is spoken of in high terms by Horace, Sat. ii. 1, 62 foll., etc.; Juvenal, i. 165 ; and Quintilian, x. 1, 93. Suessa Aurunca was a town in Latium once belonging to the Aurunci. See Liv, viii. 15.

alumnus was originally aluminus, an old participial form from alo, corresponding to the Greek part. in uevos, and which also survives in the 2d pers. plur. of passive verbs, as amamini, to which estis was originally the auxiliary.

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21. rationem=my account of myself.

23. figat aprum, i.e. in the amphitheatre, where Tacitus, Ann. xv. 32, relates that in Nero's reign senators, and even women, fought with wild beasts. Conf. Sat. iv. 99, and viii. 193.

nuda mamma, i.e. dressed like an Amazon. Conf. Verg. Aen. i. 492. The subjunctives with cum are potential, not causal.

25. quo tondente," under whose razor.” Probably Cinnamus is intended, to whom Martial says, Ep. vii. 64, 1-2, “Qui tonsor fueras tota notissimus urbe, et post haec dominae munere factus eques.” The same poet mentions an upstart cobbler who gained similar wealth, Ep. ix. 74. Conf. Sat. x. 226. The line is a parody of Verg. Ecl. i. 29.

26. pars. Conf. Sat. viii. 44, “vulgi pars ultima nostri.”

verna Canopi, a noted seaport near Alexandria inhabited by Greeks (see Sat. xv. 46), and distant about fifteen miles. verna was a slave born in the house of his master. So here “ born and bred at.” Martial, i. 76, calls a thoroughbred Roman “Numae verna. Conf. also “vernula riparum,” Sat. v. 105.

27. Crispinus, spoken of again in the beginning of Satire iv., was made an eques, possibly even praetorian praefect, by Domitian. Once a seller of salt fish in Egypt, he was now a court favourite whom Martial thought it advisable to propitiate by a compliment in Ep. vii. 99, 2, “Nec te Roma minus quam tua Memphis amet.

revocante, hitching up.

lacernas, a cloak, often of purple, worn by the rich over the toga. When worn at the games it was white. Conf. Martial, Ep. xiv. 137, “Cum tegit algentes alba lacerna togas.” See note on lacernatae, infra, 62. Martial, viii. 48, 1, speaks of Crispinus having “Tyriam abollam.” Juvenal, ix. 28, calls the lacernae “munimenta togae.

28. aestivum . aurum, the summer ring. It was apparently usual for the rich and luxurious to have different rings for summer and winter. So gemmae maioris is the winter ring.

29. saturam. The term satura has passed through several meanings. At first it was a sort of impromptu dramatic performance, or exordium following more regular dramatic pieces. Conf. Liv. vii. 2, 7. Then it came to be a miscellaneous poem dealing with everything. Of this kind were the Satires of Ennius, and to some extent also those of Lucilius, in whom however satire, in its modern sense, became so prominent that it came to be the distinguishing point of saturae. However, both in Horace and Juvenal (Sat. i. 85), the old meaning of

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