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0-5 per cent 24 hours abstraction acid agin April artificially added Average number bacilli per c.c. bile-salt bile-salt-agar c.c. cultures c.c. of water cane-sugar chemical cholera vibrios cities coagulant coli test colonies column containing dose dulcite enteric fever experiments faeces filtered filtered water filtration Gartner Gartner's bacillus gas formation gelatine glucose hard waters hypochlorite improved indol Infected Sample inoculated isolated June label lactose lime London Water medium method Metropolitan Water Board microbes microbes per c.c. milk million gallons negative neutral red Nitrogen number of bacteria number of typhoid Peptone peptone water period plates pollution purification raw river water raw Thames water reduced River Lee River Thames saccharose sagin salicin samples of raw sewage Sodium Chloride sterilisation streptococci Table Thames water tinted with litmus tube typhoid bacillus typhoid death rate typhoid fever typhoid fever rates Typhoid rate typical water supply water-borne disease White wool plug
Page 109 - American cities, and even hi entire states, where the public water-supplies are well guarded from pollution, infection by water has come to be a secondary cause of the disease. In a general sort of way it may be said that in the cities of the United States, at the present time, about 40 per cent of the typhoid fever is due to water, 25 per cent to milk, 30 per cent to ordinary contagion (including fly transmission), and only about 5 per cent to all other causes. In cities supplied with pure well...
Page 126 - ... reduced prevalence of typhoid fever and other recognized typical water-borne diseases. A study of the vital statistics of numerous places where the quality of the public water supply has suddenly been changed from bad to excellent, as for instance, by the construction and proper operation of adequate purification works, has shown that for every person thus saved from death from typhoid fever approximately three other persons are saved from death from other causes many of which have probably never...
Page 204 - It is a goodly story that Dr. Tutton has to tell, and well is it told : without wearying the reader with an unwieldy mass of details, he presents in all essential completeness a vivid picture of an unusually coherent series of investigations. . . . The book is one that should be read and studied by all interested in crystals, their properties, and their formation.
Page 129 - Each million gallons of polluted Allegheny River water pumped to Pittsburg has, therefore, reduced the vital assets of the community by $110. This, for a population of 350,000, amounts to $3,850,000 per year — a sum enormously greater than the cost of making the water pure.
Page 96 - An adequately stored water is to be regarded as a ' safe ' water, and the ' safety change ' which has occurred in a stored water can be recognised by appropriate tests.
Page 191 - HOUSTON, AC 1908. The Vitality of the Typhoid Bacillus in Artificially Infected Samples of Raw Thames, Lee, and New River Waters, with Special Reference to the Question of Storage. First Report on Research Work, Metropolitan Water Board, London. HOUSTON, AC 1909.
Page 94 - ... results improve relatively to a greater extent than those yielded by the permanganate test. (3) Storage, if sufficiently prolonged, devitalises the microbes of water-borne disease, eg, the typhoid bacillus and the cholera vibrio. (4) Storage produces a marked " levelling " or " equalising " effect. ;;- •• 5 IB 1 ill ill • (5) An adequately stored water is to be regarded as a
Page 64 - ... the true import of these facts has only been realized within the last four years. As a practical process it dates from 1908, when Mr. GA Johnson of New York City was called in to remedy some serious trouble in the water purification at the Chicago Stock Yards. The filtered water of Bubbly Creek182 contains a large amount of sewage and it had been purified by a process of filtration in conjunction with copper sulphate, but it was the complaint of the large stock shippers that animals drinking...
Page 96 - The use of stored water goes far to wipe out the gravity of the charge that the chief sources of London's water supply are from sewage-polluted rivers.
Page 126 - ... a considerably greater degree than would be accounted for by the reduced prevalence of typhoid fever and other recognized typical water-borne diseases. A study of the vital statistics of numerous places where the quality of the public water supply has suddenly been changed from bad to excellent...