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these contains the royal residence. These towns is used fora state prison. But the most remarkable are surrounded with high mud walls; the houses monument of Segovia is the Roman aqueduct, being of clay, of a square form, with fat roofs; of great boldness and grandeur. It is built of some of them have two stories. Moorish mosques freestone without cement, begins about fifty paces also are seen in every qnarter. According to from the town, and after extending in a directhe information of Mr. Park, Sego may contain tion at first from north to south, and afteraltogether about 30,000 inhabitants. There is a wards from east to west, and distributing a copious constant thoroughfare of boats upon the river, supply of water to every part of the town, terthe boatmen employed upon which are slaves to minates at the alcazar. It contains in all 159 the king. Their canoes are singularly con- arches, supported on pillars, some of which are structed, being each formed of the trunks of two eighty feet in height. The town has long been trees joined end-ways together. The Moors are noted for its woollen manufactures. powerful here, and influenced the king in Park's tity of cloth made at present is about 4000 first visit to send him away; and even hastened pieces, coarse and fine, and it probably never 10 forbid his entrance into the city. Long. 2° was greater.

The other branches of industry 30' W., lat. 14° 10' N.

are dyeing and the making of pottery, paper, SEGORBE, a town of Spain, in Valencia, on and lead. The town contains several hospitals the Murviedro, which takes here the name of and an artillery school. Inhabitants 10,000. Segorbe. It stands in a fertile valley, surrounded Forty-seven miles N. N.W. of Madrid. by gardens, and has a number of squares, SEGRAIS (John Renaud de), a celebrated churches, and fountains. It is a bishop's see, French poet, born at Caen in 1624. He studied and the cathedral has some good paintings; but in the college of the Jesuits at Caen. Being left the best are to be found in the church of the by his parents, he raised himself by his talents nunnery, which is the most elegant building in to comparatively easy circumstances. He was the town. Here are manufactures of paper, not, however, without his patrons, the chief of starch, and pottery. The chief natural curiosity whom were Madame Montpensier, and Madame is a fountain near the town, so copious as to de La Fayette. After spending many years with turn two mill wheels at its source. Inhabitants these ladies, as their gentleman in ordinary, he 15,000. It lies thirty-four miles north-west of married a rich heiress in 1679. He was admitted Valencia.

a member of the French Academy in 1662, and SEGOVIA, an inland province of Spain, in modelled that of Caen on the same plan. His Old Castile, situated between the provinces of Nouvelles Françoises, La Princesse de Cleves, Madrid and Valladolid. Its territorial extent is and Zaide, in prose, were admired for their 3650 square miles, intersected by the mountain style: but he was chiefly admired for his poems, ranges of the Sierra de Guadarama and de Ayl- viz. Diverses Poesies, 4to., Paris, 1658 : Athis, it lon. The soil is in many parts sandy or stony pastoral ; and his translation of Virgil's Georgies though there are some rich tracts well watered, and Eneid. He died of a dropsy at Caen in and of considerable fertility. The rivers are the 1701. Ebro, the Eresma, the Xarama, and the Duraton. SEGREGA'TION, n. s. Fr. segregation, The climate in the plains is mild, and in the from segregate. Separation from others. hills the sky is generally clear, and the air What shall we hear of this? healthy. The principal products are corn, wine, -A segregation of the Turkish Aeet, hemp, and flax. In the mountains are copper, For do but stand upon the foaming shore, iron, antimony; marble and porcelain earth. The chiding billows seem to pelt the clouds. Sheep, however form the staple commodity,

Shakspeare. Othello. and wool the great article of export.

The ma

SEGUE, in the Italian music, is often founa nufactures are of little account. Population before aria, alleluja, amen, &c., to show that 171,000.

these portions or parts are to be sung immeSegovia, a considerable town of Old Castile, diately after the last note of that part over which is situated on a rocky eminence, between two it is written; but if these words, si placet, or ad deep valleys. Its form has been compared to libitum, are joined therewith, it signifies that these that of a ship with the stern towards the east. portions may be sung or not at pleasure. One of the valleys is watered by the river Eres- SEGUIERIA, in botany, a plant belonging ma, the other by a brook. Segovia is surrounded to the class of polyandria, and the order of mowith a wall in the Moorish style, crowned at nogynia : CAL. pentaphyllous : PHYLLA oblong, intervals with turrets; its circumference is be- concave, colored, and permanent : cor. none. tween three and four miles ; the streets are nar- The capsule is oblong and monospermous, the row, crooked, and in several parts very steep. large ala terminating in small lateral alæ. There Segovia is the see of a bishop, and contains a is only one species, viz. S. Americana. number of convents and churches, of which the SEGUR (Joseph Alexander, viscount de) most remarkable is the cathedral, a large pile second son of the marshal de Segur, engaged partly Grecian, partly Gothic, erected in the when young in military service, and was successixteenth century.

Among the other public sively colonel of the regiments of Noailles, of buildings are the convent of the Carmelites, and royal Lorraine, and of the dragoons of his own that of the Capuchins, with a subterraneous Having attained the post of mareschal chapel : the alcazar or ancient palace, the apart- de camp in 1790, he gave up his time to literaments of which are incrusted with mosaic and ture. His first production was a romance, enother ornaments, and contain the statues of the titled Correspondence Secrète entre Ninon de princes who reigned in Asturias, Leon, and Cas. l'Enclos, le Marquis de Villarceaux, et Madame tile, from the eighth to the sixteenth century. It de Maintenon. In 1791 he published another



romance, La Femme Jalouse; and between 1789 power. The senate was summoned to meet in and 1804 a number of dramatic pieces. His the temple of Apollo, near the imperial palace. last work, which has been translated into Eng- Sejanus attended. A party of the prætorians lish, is entitled Les Femmes, leur Condition, et followed him. Macro met him in the vestibule leur Influence dans l'Ordre Social, 1802, 3 vols. of the temple, and, with all demonstrations of 8vo. He died at Bagnieres, July 27th, 1805. profound respect, said, “ Be not surprised that

SEJANT, in heraldry, is used when a lion, or you have no letter from the prince: it is his other beast, is drawn in an escutcheon, sitting pleasure to declare you his colleague in the trilike a cat, with his fore-feet straight.

bunitian power; I am going to deliver the emSEJANUS (Ælius), a native of Vulsinum in peror's orders.' Sejanus, flushed with his new Tuscany, who distinguished himself in the court dignity, entered the senate house; Macro folof Tiberius. His father was Seius Strabo; a lowed him. As soon as the consuls arrived, he Roman kinght, commander of the prætorian delivered the letter from Tiberius, and immeguards. His mother was descended from the diately went forth to the prætorian guards. He Junian family. Sejanus first gained the favor of informed them that, by order of the prince, a Caius Cæsar, the grandson of Augustus, but large donative was to be distributed among the afterwards attached himself to the interest and soldiers; adding that, by a new commission, he views of Tiberius. The emperor, who was natu- himself was appointed their commander; and, rally suspicious of every other person, was free if they followed him to the camp, they would and open with Sejanus, and communicated his there receive the promised bounty. The prætogreatest secrets to this fawning favorite. Sejanus rian guards followed, and Laco immediately improved this confidence; and ingratiated him- surrounded the senate-house with a body of the self with the soldiers and the senate. As com- city cohorts. Tiberius's letter to the consuls mander of the pretorian guards he became the was confused, obscure, and tedious, only glancing second man in Rome; and, by appointing his at Sejanus; till at last the language of invective own adherents to places of trust and honor, all left no room for doubt. Sejanus sat benumbed, the officers and centurions became devoted to senseless, and stupid with astonishment. His his interest. Yet, however successful with the flatterers, who had just congratulated him on his best and noblest families in the empire, Sejanus new dignity, deserted him on every side. He had to combat many in the house of the empe- was commanded by the consul to rise and follow ror; but these seeming obstacles were soon re- him, and, being loaded with irons, was conducted moved. All the children and grandehildren of to prison. His downfall filled the city with exTiberius were sacrificed to the ambition of this ultation. The populace rejoiced at his sad cafavorite, under various pretences. Livia, the tastrophe, and followed in crowds, pouring forth wife of Drusus, the emperor's son, was corrupted a torrent of abuse. They reviled him for his acts by Sejanus; and this monster assisting her adul- of cruelty, and dashed his statues to pieces. He terer in the murder of her husband, consented to was doomed by Tiberius to suffer death, and marry him, when Drusus was poisoned. But was strangled in prison. His body was dragged the marriage was strongly opposed by Tiberius. to the Gemoniæ, and, after every species of When Sejanus could not gain the consent of the insult from the populace for three days, was emperor, he persuaded him to retire to solitude thrown into the Tiber. Such was the end of from the troubles of government. Tiberius, na- this unprincipled monster. He fell a terrible turally fond of ease, retired to Campania, leav, example to all who endeavour by their vices to ing Sejanus at the head of the empire. This rise above their fellow citizens. His cruelties was highly gratifying to the favorite. He called and his other crimes are related under the artogether his friends and followers; paid his court ticle Rome. to the disaffected; held forth rewards and pro- SEID MOUSTAPHA, a Turkish engineer, mises; and, having increased his partisans, re- employed by Selim III., in whose misfortunes solved to seize the sovereign power. A powerful he became involved, and perished in the insurleague was rapidly formed, and great numbers rection at Constantinople in 1808. He published of all descriptions, senators as well as military in 1803 a French work, entitled Diatribe sur men, entered into the plot. Among these, Sa- l'Etat actuel de l'Art Militaire, du Génie et des trius Secundus was the confidential friend and Sciences à Constantinople, 8vo. M. Langlès reprime agent of Sejanus. But he resolved to printed it in the Magasin Encyclopédique, 1809, betray the secret to Tiberius. For this purpose vol. v. he addressed himself to Antonia, the daughter of SE'IGNIOR, n. s. Pr. seigneur ; Lat. Marc Antony, the widow of Drusus, and the


senior. A lord. The mother of Germanicus. When this illustrious


title of honor given by woman, who was honored by the court and re

SEʻIGNIORIZE, v.a. Italians : seigniory is a vered by the people, heard the particulars, she lordship; seigniorage a tribute or acknowledgsent immediate information to the ensperor. Ti- ment due to lordship: seigniorize to play the berius was astonished but not dismayed : the lord. danger pressed ; the time called for vigorous and decisive measures. He sent Macro to Rome, O'Neil never had any seigniory over that country, with a commission to take the command of thé but what by encroachment he got upon the English. prætorian guards. In the morning, on the 15th

Spenser, day before the kalends of November, a report

Were you not restored was spread that the emperor intended to ass To all the duke of Norfolk's seigniories? ciate Sejanus with himself in the tribunitian

Shukspeare. Henry IV.

not avow.

Hosea, in the person of God, sayeth of the Jews, vers work much prejudice to the commonwealth of they have reigned, but not by me; they have set a fishermen, and reap small gain to themselves. seigniory over themselves : which place, proveth

Id. Survey of Cornwall. plainly, that there are governments which God doth

The SEINE is one of the four great rivers of Bacon.

France, and the only one of the four that flows William, earl of Pembroke, being lord of all Lein- into the English Channel. Rising in the mounster, had royal jurisdiction throughout that province, tains of Burgundy, it first flows northward and every one of his five sons enjoyed that seiyniory through Champagne to Troyes, receives the Aube, successively.


and, turning to the west, is joined by the Yonne As fair he was as Cytherea's make,

from the south, and before reaching Paris, by the As proud as he that seignioriseth hell. Fairfar.

Marne, from the west. At Paris, the Seine vaThose lands were seigneurial.

Temple. They brought work to the mint, and a part of the ries from 300 to 500 feet in width; and it soon

after receives the Oise, when, pursuing a winding money coined to the crown for seigniorage. Locke.

course to the north-west, it passes Rouen, and Seignior is particularly used for the lord of discharges itself into the sea at Havre de Grace. the fee as of a manor, as seigneur among the Its volume of water is less than that of the feudists is he who grants a fee or benefit out of Loire or Garonne, and far smaller than that of the land to another; the reason is, because, hav- the Rhone ; but, its course being in general ing granted away the use and profit of the land, through a flat country, it is of easy navigation, the property or dominion he still retains in him- and communicates by canals with several other self.

rivers to the north and south. It admits vessels Seignior, GRAND, a title given to the em- of considerable burden as far as Rouen, and peror of the Turks.

boats to Troyes. Its mouth, however, is of diffiSeignioRAGE is a prerogative of the king, cult navigation, from the accumulation of sand. whereby he claims an allowance of gold and sil- Its course exceeds 400 miles in length. ver bought in the mass to be exchanged for coin.

Seine, a department in the north of France, See Coining.

which, though the smallest in the kingdom, takes SEIKS, a numerous and powerful nation of the first rank in wealth and population as conHindostan Proper, consisting of several small in- taining the capital. It is in fact little more than dependent states, who have formed themselves the capital ; its district forming a tract nearly into a kind of federal union. They possess the square, of which the breadth is about sixteen whole country of Lahore, the principal part miles.' Its surface is in general level, the soil of Moultan, and the west part of Delhi. This fertile, and its product partly corn and vines, territory extends about 400 miles from north- but more fruit and vegetables. It is divided west to south-east, and in general is between into three arrondissements, viz. Paris, St. Denis 150 and 200 broad; although in the part be- to the north, and Sceaux, to the south of the catween Attock and Behker, along the banks of pital, subject in a judicial sense to the royal the Indus, the extent is not less than 320.

court of Paris; in an ecclesiastical, to the archTheir capital is Lahore. Their government is bishop of the city. The number of villas and said to be very mild, but in their mode of war- country seats, though great, is far less considerable fare they are cruel and barbarous. Their army than in the district of London. The population is consists almost entirely of cavalry, of which they about 70,000, exclusive of Paris, which contains can bring at least 100,000 into the field. Like the 713,000.' See Paris. uther Hindoos, they are very tolerant in matters Seine, LOWER, a department of the north of of religion, and require only a conformity in cer- France, bounded on the north and west by the tain signs and ceremonies; but they are more English Channel. Its extent is about 2500 square liberal than the other Hindoos, as they admit miles; in general level, or undulating, the hills proselytes; although those from the Mahometan seldom attaining the height of mountains. The system are not much esteemed.

coast is for the most part bounded with sandy SEIL, one of the Western Islands of Scotland, downs; the climate humid, and suitable to corn on the coast of Argylshire. It is about three and pasture, but by no means to the vine. The miles long, and two broad, and is separated from observations in our article NORMANDY, in regard the mainland by a narrow strait, over which there to soil, mode of culture, extent of pasturage, is a bridge. The surface is mostly level, but and state of the peasantry, are applicable to this has a few eminences, the tops of which afford a department. The principal fruits are pears and pleasant view of the numerous islands adjacent, apples; the drink cider; the exports horses, and of the distant mountains of Mull and Jura. black cattle, cheese, and butter. Hemp, flax, and The island abounds with basaltes, schistus, quartz, cole-seed, are cultivated to a great extent: the pyrites, slates, and other minerals.

only large river is the Seine. The fisheries at SEIN, an island of France, on the coast of Dieppe and other parts of the coast supply Brittany, and in the arrondissement of Quimper. fish for Paris. The department is divided into It is inhabited by fishermen, who have retained the five arrondissements of Rouen (the capital), the language and manners of ancient Brittany. Havre de Grace, Dieppe, Yvetol, and NeufchaIt lies in long. 4° 42' W., lat. 48° 2' N.

tel. Population about 660,000, of whom about SEINE, n. s.

Fr. seine, senne,

a twelfth part are Protestants. A net used in fishing.

SEINE AND MARNE, a department of France, They have cock-boats for passengers, and seine occupying the western part of Champagne. Its boats for taking of pilchards.


extent is about 2320 square miles ; consisting of Seiners complain, with open mouth, that these dro- gently undulating plains; its climate mild, and


Sax. segne.



SEI its soil fertile. The rivers are the Seine, the wards they were retained as a public and noMarne, the Great and Little Morin, and a num- torious act, that the country might testify the ber of lesser streams: the canal of Briare, which transfer of the estate; and that such as claimed connects the Seine with the Loire, traverses the title by other means might know against whom southern cantons. The products here, as in the to bring their actions. In all well governed north of France generally, are wheat, barley, nations, some notoriety of this kind has been oats, flax, hemp, and vines. Paris affords an held requisite, to acquire and ascertain the proample market for produce. This department is perty of lands. Even in ecclesiastical promosubject, in a judicial sense, to the royal court of tions, where the freehold passes to the person the capital; in an ecclesiastical, to the bishop of promoted, corporal possession is required at Meaux. It is divided into the arrondissements this day to vest the property completely in of Melun (the chief town), Coulommiers, Meaux, the new proprietor; who, according to the Fontainbleau, and Provins. Population about distinction of the canonists, acquires, the jus 310,000.

ad rem, or inchoate and imperfect right, by SEINE AND OISE, a department of France, ad- mination and institution; but not the jus in re, jacent to that of the Oise, and to that of the or complete and full right, unless by corporal Seine and Marne. It comprises in an interior possession. Therefore in dignities possession is circle the district of Paris, under the name of given by instalment; in rectories and vicarages department of the Seine, and has, exclusive of by indiction; without which no temporal rights that district, an extent of 2200 square miles, with accrue to the minister, though every ecclesiastical a population of 440,000. The surface is level, power is vested in him by institution. So also or gently undulating, the climate temperate, and even in descents of lands, by the English law, the soil good. Its chief rivers are the Seine, the which are cast on the heir by act of the law Marne, and the Oise. Its products are wheat, itself, the heir has not full and complete ownerbarley, oats, hemp, and flax; also fruit and ve- ship, till he has made an actual corporal entry getables. Vines are reared in small quantities, into the lands: for, if he dies before entry made, and the drink of the peasantry is cider. Paris is his heir shall not be entitled to take the possesthe great market. The chief manufactures are sion, but the heir of the person who was last those of printed calicoes at Jouy, of porcelain actually seized. It is not therefore only a mere at Sevres, of arms and clocks at Versailles. This right to enter, but the actual entry, that makes a department is subject to the royal court of Paris, man complete owner, so as to transmit the inand is divided into the six arrondissements of heritance to his own heirs : non jus, sed seisina, Versailles (the capital), Mantes, Pontoise, Çor- facit stipitem. Yet, the corporal tradition of beil, Etampes, and Rambouillet.

lands being sometimes inconvenient, a symboliSEIR, or Hor, a mountain of Asia, in Arabia cal delivery of possession was in many cases Petrea, which anciently bounded Judea on the anciently allowed; by transferring something south, and separated it from Idumea, or Edom.

near at hand, in the presence of credible witIt was so named from Seir, a chief of Edom the nesses, which by agreement sbould serve to progenitor of the Horites : Gen. xxxvi. 20.

It represent the thing designed to be conveyed ; and is now called Sardeny, and is 140 miles east of an occupancy of this sign or symbol was perCairo.

mitted as equivalent to occupancy of the land SEISIN, in English law, signifies possession, itself. Among the Jews we find the evidence of as premier seisin, for the first possession, &c. a purchase thus defined in the book of Ruth : See Serzin. A seisin in law is held to be suf- ch. iv. 7. With the Anglo-Saxons the delivery ficient to avow on; though, to the bringing of an of a turf was a necessary solemnity to establish assize, actual seisin is required ; and, where sei- the conveyance of lands. And, to this day, the sin is alleged, the person pleading it must show conveyance of copýhold estates is usually made of what estate he is seised, &c. Seisin of a su- from the seller to the lord or his steward by deperior service is deemed to be a seisin of all su- livery of a rod or verge, and then from the lord perior and casual services that are incident to the purchaser by re-delivery of the same in thereto; and seisin of a lessee for years is suffi- the presence of a jury of tenants. Conveyances cient for him in reversion.

in writing were the last and most refined imSeisin, Livery of, in English law, is an es- provement. The mere delivery of possession, sential ceremony in the conveyance of landed either actual or symbolical, depending on the property ; being the pure feudal investiture, or ocular testimony and remembrance of the witdelivery of corporeal possession of the land or nesses, was liable to be forgotten or misrepretenement. Nam feuda sine investitura nullo sented, and became frequently incapable of modo constitui potuit: an estate was then only proof. Besides, the new necessities introduced perfect when, as Fleta expresses it, fit juris et by commerce required means to be devised of seisinæ conjunctio. See FeCfMENT. Investi- charging estates, and of making them liable to tures, in their original rise, were intended to de- a multitude of minute designations, for the purmonstrate, in conquered countries, the actual pose of raising money, without an absolute sale possession of the lord ; and that he did not grant of the land; and sometimes the like proceedings å bare litigious right to the soldier, but a peace- were found useful to make a decent and compeable and firm possession. At a time when tent provision for the numerous branches of a writing was seldom practised, a mere oral gift, family; none of which could be effected by a at a distance from the spot that was given, was mere simple, corporal transfer of the soil from aot likely to be either long or accurately re- one man to another. Written deeds were theretained in the memory of by-standers. After- fore introduced, to specify and perpetuate the


peculiar purposes of the party who conveyed; And in all these cases it is usual to indorse the yet still, for a very long scries of years, they livery of seisin on the back of the deed, speciwere never made use of, but in company with fying the manner, place, and time of making it, the more ancient and notorious method of trans- together with the names of the witnesses. fer by delivery of corporal possession. Livery SEISE, LIVERY OF, in law, is where the same of seisin, by the common law, is necessary to is not made on the land, but in sight of it only, be made upon every grant of an estate of free- the feoffer saying to the feoffee ‘I give you yonder hold in hereditaments corporeal, whether of in- land; enter and take possession. Here, if the heritance or for life only. In hereditaments feoffee enters during the life of the feoffer, it is a incorporeal, it is impossible to be made ; for they good livery, but not otherwise, unless he dares are not the object of the senses; and in leases not enter through fear of his life or bodily harm; for years, or other chattel interests, it is not ne- and then his continual claim, made yearly in due cessary. In leases for years indeed an actual form of law, as near as possible to the lands, will entry is necessary, to vest the estate in the suffice without an entry. This livery in law canlessee; for a bare lease gives him only a right to not, however, be given or received by attorney, enter, which is called his interest in the term; but only by the parties themselves. and, when he enters in pursuance of that right, SEISTAN, or SEGESTAN, an extensive prohe is then, and not before, in possession of his vince of Persia, lying between Candahar and term, and complete tenant for years. This entry Korassan on the north, Mekran and Balouchisby the tenant himself serves the purpose of tan on the south; about 300 miles in length, and notoriety as well as livery of seisin from the 160 in breadth. It formed anciently part of granter could have done. And this is one reason Ariana, and Sarangea, and in modern times was why freeholds cannot be made to commence in flourishing. It was the country of Jumsheid and futuro, because they cannot be made but by Rustom, the heroes of the Shah Nama, or great livery of seisin ; which livery, being an actual Persian epic, and of Jacob Ben Leth, the conmanual tradition of the land, must take effect in queror of the caliph of Bagdad. In course of præsenti, or not at all. Livery of seisin is either time, however, the winds which blew from the in deed or in law.

great moving sands of Mekran and BalouchisSersin, LIVERY OF, IN DEED, is thus per- tan, have covered all its plains, and reduced it formed. The feoffer, lessor, or his attorney, almost to desolation. Its remaining fertility is come to the land or to the house; and there, in derived from the river Heermund, which, rising the presence of witnessess, declare the contents in Cabul, traverses a great part of it from east of the feoffment or lease on which livery is to to west. A recent account of this region is be made. And then the feoffer, if it be of land, given by captain Christie, who in 1810 traversed doth deliver to the feoffee, all other persons it on his route from Balouchistan to Herat. In being out of the ground, a clod or turf, or a the way from Nooshky, he did not see a single twig or bough there growing, with words to this town or even village; and the only inhabitants effect : 'I deliver these to you in the name of of this solitary wild were a few Balouche and seisin of all the lands and tenements contained Patan shepherds, who lived in tents pitched in in this deed.' But, if it be of a house, the the vicinity of the springs. The banks of the feoffer must take the ring or latch of the door, Heermund, however, consist of a valley, varying the house being quite empty, and deliver it tó from one to two miles in breadth; while the the feoffee in the same form; and then the fe- desert on each side rises in perpendicular cliffs. offee must enter alone, and shut the door, and This is irrigated by the waters of the river, then open it and let in the others. If the con- covered with verdure and brushwood. Along veyance or feoffment be of divers lands, lying this valley are found an astonishing number of scattered in one and the same county, then in ruined towns, villages, and forts, and at one, the feoffer's possession, livery of seisin of any Kulcauput, a noble pala.ce in a tolerable state of parcel, in the name of the rest, sufficeth for all; preservation. The remains of a city named but, if they be in several counties, there must be Poolkee are described as immense. The modern as many liveries as there are counties. For, if capital is Dooshah, forming a small and comthe title to these lands come to be disputed, pact town, in the neighbourhood of which are there must be as many trials as there are coun- immense ruins, situated in long. 63° 10' E., lat. ties, and the jury of one county are no judges in 31° 8' N., about eight or nine miles from the another. Besides, anciently, this seisin was river. The western part of the country, to which obliged to be delivered coram paribus de vicin- the waters of the Heermund do not reach, consists eto, before the peers or freeholders of the neigh- of a vast arid plain, intersected with one or two bourhood, who attested such delivery on the ranges of mountains, in the midst of which is back of the deed. And though afterwards the situated the city of Kubbees. There is a path ocular attestation of the pares was held unneces- through it, by which couriers can go from Kersary, and livery might be made before any cre- man to Herat in eighteen days; but the risk of dible witnesses, yet the trial, in case it was perishing is so great that a person of that descripdisputed, was still reserved to the pares or jury tion demanded 200 rupees to carry a letter.

Also, if the lands be but on Although Seistan forms nominally a province of lease, though all lie in the same county, there Persia, it is now entirely independent, and is must be as many liveries as there are tenants; divided into a number of small states, governed because no other livery can be made in this by chiefs who live in fortified villages, chiefly case but by the consent of the particular tenant, situated on the banks of the Heermund. Bahand the consent of one will not bind the rest. ram Khan Kyanee assumes the title of chief of

of the county.

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