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time as they may determine. Special meetings may be called by the superintendent whenever, in his judgment, the exigencies of the schools may require them to be held. Upon the request of any three members, in writing, the superintendent shall call a special meeting. Notice of all semi-annual meetings shall be given by the secretary at least ten days prior to the time of meeting; and no busi. Dess shall be transacted at a special meeting, except as provided in subdivision second of this section, other than such as may be specified in the call of the secretary.

Serond. Examination of applicants for teachers' certificates shall be held only at the semi-annual meetings of the board. Certificates upon credentials may be granted, and certificates may be renewed, at any meeting of the board.

Third. The board of supervisors shall allow to each member of the county board of education a compensation of five dollars per day for his services, and the same rate of mileage as is allowed to the members of the board of supervisors of the county. The secretary shall be allowed the sum of five dollars per day for the actual time that the board may be in session; said compensation of the members of the board, and of the superintendent, shall be payable out of the saine fund and in the same manner as the salary of the superintendent of schools is paid.

Fourth. All expenses for printing required by the county board of education, and all incidental expenses incurred for stationery or other purposes in the performance of their duties, shall be audited and paid as other claims against the general fund of the county are paid. (Amendment approved March 23, 1893; Stats. 1893, p. 258; in effect immediately.]

1771. Powers of county boards of education. County boards of education have power,

First. To adopt rules and regulations, not inconsistent with the laws of this state, for their own government.

Second. To prescribe and enforce rules for the examination of teachers.

Third. To examine applicants, and to prescribe a standard of proficiency which will entitle the person examined to a certificate, and to grant certificates of three grades, valid throughout the county, except as provided in section seventeen hundred and seventy-five, as follows:

1. High school; valid for six years, authorizing the holder to teach in any high school, grammar grade, or primary school; provided, that holders of grammar school course certificates shall be entitled to receive high school certificates in lieu thereof.

2. Grammar grade; valid for six years, authorizing the holder to teach in any grammar grade or primary school

3. Primary; valid for two years, authorizing the holder to teach in any primary school; also, to grant special certificates, valid for six years, which shall entitle the holder to teach such special branches as may be required by city or county boards of education.

Fourth. To prescribe and enforce the use of a uniform series of text-books, and a course of study in the public schools, and to adopt a list of books and apparatus for district school libraries.

Fifth. To revoke or suspend, for immoral or unprofessional conduct, or evident unfitness for teaching, the certificates granted by them.

Sixth. To keep a record of its proceedings.

Seventh. To issue diplomas of graduation from any of the public schools of the county, except in incorporated cities having boards of education, which diplomas shall be designed by the superintendent of public instruction, and distributed as other blanks from his office. Diplomas shall be issued only to pupils who have passed an examination prescribed by the county board of education. Such diplomas shall be signed by the president and secretary of the county board, and by the principal of the school.

Eighth. To adopt and use, in authentication of its acts, an official seal; and to have such printing done as may be necessary in the discharge of their duties.

Ninth. All examination papers for teachers' certificates shall be kept on file in the office of the superintendent of schools for at least one year, and shall be open for the inspection of applicants or their authorized agents. (Amendment approved March 23, 1893; Stats. 1893, p. 259; in effect immediately.)

This section was also amended in 1891: Stats. 1891, p. 162.

1772. In what branches examinations must be made. Except as provided in section seventeen hundred and seventy-five, certificates shall be granted only to those who have passed a satisfactory examination in all the studies prescribed by the county board of education; prorided, that applicants for primary county certificates shall be required to pass an examination only in arithmetic, grammar, geography, composition, history of the United States, orthography, defining, penmanship, reading, methods of teaching, school law, industrial drawing, physiol. ogy, civil government, elementary book-keeping, and vocal music. (Amendment approved March 23, 1893; Stats. 1893, p. 260; in effect immediately.]

1775. Certificates without examination. First. The board may also, without examination, grant county certificates of either the gramınar or the primary grade to the holders of life diplomas of other states, Nevada, Ore. gon, and Washington state educational diplomas; San Francisco normal class diplomas, when recommended by the superintendent of public schools of said city: California State University diplomas, when recommended by the faculty of the university; state normal school diplomas of other states; grammar grade certificates of any county, city, or city and county of California; and county certifi. cates of the high school grade to holders of California State University diplomas, when recommended by the faculty of the university, and to graduates of any other institution in the United States which the state board of education of this state shall have recommended as being of the same rank as the State University of California, when the diploma of graduation from said institution shall be accompanied by a recommendation from the faculty thereof, showing that the holder of the diploma has had academic and professional training equivalent to that required by the State University. The general conditions on which such recommendations may be accepted by the county boards of education as fulfilling these require. ments shall be prescribed by the state board of education.

Second. Whenever any holder of a diploma from a State University shall present to the state board of education satisfactory evidence of having had two years' successful experience as a teacher subsequent to graduation, accompanied by a recommendation froin the faculty of the State University, showing that said graduate has completed the prescribed course in the pedagogical department of the State University, the state board of education shall grant to the holder of said university diploma a document, signed by the president and secretary of the state board, showing such fact, and the said diploma, accompanied by said document of the state board attached thereto, shall become a permanent certificate of qualification to teach in any primary, grammar, or high school in the state, valid until such time as the said document shall be revoked by said state board of education for any of the causes shown in subdivision four of section one thousand seven hundred and ninety.one.

Third. The board may, without examination, renew unexpired certificates previously granted by said board, such renewed certificates to remain valid for the saine length of time for which new certificates may be granted; and the grammar grade and primary certificates issued or renewed by the county board of education shall entitle the holders thereof to teach iu any city or district school in the county, in grades corresponding to the grades of their certificates; provided, that in cities having special departments in their schools, holders of credentials mentioned above may be examined by the city board of examination in the special studies of such departments. County boards of education may issue, upon proper examination or credentials, special certificates in any special branches taught in the schools of the county. All certificates must be issued upon the blank forms prepared for the purpose by the superintendent of public instruction. [ Amendment approved March 23, 1893; Stats. 1893, p. 260; in effect immediately.)

This section was also amended at the session of 1891: Stats, 1891, p. 163.

1776. Members of boards prohibited from preparing any one for e.camination. Any member of a county board of education or of a city board of examination who shall, except in the regular course of study in the public schools, teach any classes where pupils are given special instruction to prepare them for passing examination to obtain teachers' certificates, or who shall give special instruction to any person preparing for examination to obtain a teacher's cer. tificate, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, his office shall be declared vacant. No certificate shall be issued to any applicant who has received special instructions, when preparing for examination, from any member of a county board of education, or of a city board of examination. (Amendment approved Varch 23, 1893; Stats. 1893, p. 261; in effect immediately.)

1787. City board of examination. In every city or city and county of the first, second, or third class, having a board of education, there may be a city board of examina. tion. (Amendment approved March 23, 1893; Stats. 1893, p. 261; in effect immediately.]

1788. Hovo selected. Each city board of examination shall consist of the city superintendent of schools, and four other members, residents of such city, all of whom shall be experienced teachers, elected by the city board of education, and holding office for two years. (Amend. sent approved March 23, 1893; Stats. 1893, p. 1; in effect immediately.]

1790. Meetings. The city board of examination must meet and hold examinations for the granting of teachers' certificates semi-annually, at such times as they may determine. They may also hold monthly meetings for the transaction of such business as may come before them. Special meetings may be called by the city superintendent then, in his judgment, the same are necessary; and on the request, in writing, of any three members of the board, the city superintendent shall call a special meeting. No basiness shall be transacted at any special meeting except such as is indicated in the call therefor; and of all special meetings due notice shall be given to each meinber of the board. The place of meeting shall be designated by the ehairman. All meetings of the city board of examination shall be public, and the record of their proceedings shall be kept in the office of the city superintendent of schools. (Amendment approved March 23, 1893; Stuts. 1893, p. 261; in effect immediately.]

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