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Years.

No.

1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1815 1846

Skins, Beaver.
Imported. Home consumption.

No.
12,180 12,104
15,250 14,971
12,881 9,751
8,913 10,333
5,601 6,355
4,471 Free.
577

Free.

Skins, Deer. Imported. Home consump. No.

No. 409,208

90,149 126,970 82,406 155,176

39,177 161,014

55,945 107,643

30,893 171,813

Free. 152,988

Free.

Years.

1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846

Wool, Cotton.

Wool, Sheep and Lambs'.
Imported. Home consumption. Imported. Home consumption.
Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.

Lbs.
437,856,504 452,990,122 115,095

235,967 358,240,964 353,353,509 58,791

42,500 414,030,779 386,107,190 561,028

287,626 574,626,510 509,475,209 126,615

212,577 517,218,622 454,967,749 29,355

Free. 626,650,412 Free.

835,418

Free. 401,953,804 Free,

901,024

Free.

The following extract from a speech recently made by Mr. Niles, in the Sen. ate of the United States, is credited by the St. Louis Republican to the Richmond Whig.

We commend it to the attentive consideration of our readers, and more especially to the provision and grain growers of the west.

The opinion has generally been entertained in this country that the British Corn Laws were the only obstacle to the consumption of American breadstuffs in Great Britain; and it was pretty generally believed that when the poorer classes of that country learned to cook and eat Indian corn, the people of the west would find a market for all they could grow. Let us observe how this matter stands after the experience of two years.

The recent famine caused a suspension of the Corn Laws, and necessity compelled the poorer classes to use Indian corn to a very considerable extent; and for a time this article appeared to be in great favor, there being a less difference between the price of corn and wheat in Great Britain than in this country. But as soon as a favorable crop is gathered, neither the suspension of the Corn Laws nor the acquired fondness for Indian corn can induce the people of Great Britain to purchase more of our breadstuffs than formerly; and we find the quantity of corn exported to Great Britain, which was 6,931,640 bushels for the six months ending on the 4th of March, 1847, reduced to 1,337,204 bushels for the six months ending on the 4th of March, 1848, and even a large part of this was shipped before the effects of the famine had passed away. These facts ought to convince the American people of the folly of looking abroad for a market for

their grain.

Statement of the exports of Breadstuffs from this country to Great Britain, from

September 1, 1847, to March 4, 1848.
FLOUR.

MEAL.
WHEAT.

CORN. From

Barrels.

Barrels. Bushels. Bushels. New York,

137,082 30,913 177,934 751,170 New Orleans to Feb. 26, 13,554

20,656

33,195 322,830 Philadelphia,

1,435
19,639

76,049 Baltimore,

770
1,796

4,000 88,478 Boston,

504
3,100

77,494 Other ports to February 26,

21,184

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Decrease,

1,105,431 173,748 1,068,743 5,594,436 “I have computed the value of these exports for each period in New York, assuming for last year's prices $8 50 for flour, $2 25 for wheat, $5 50 for meal and $1 12} for corn, and for the last period the prices ruling at the present time. The total value of the exports for the first period exceeds $22.000,000, and those of the last period a little more than $2,000, and showing a difference of over $20,000,000. The freights for the first period exceeds three millions of dollars, and for the last are less than two hundred thousand ; so that the loss on freights, had it all gone to American citizens, exceeds the whole amount of exports and freights for the last six months. The facts in this statement were taken from the Commercial Shipping List, and are presumed to be substantially correct.”

MANUFACTURE OF BELLOWS IN ST. LOUIS. We were much pleased a few days since with a visit to the Bellows Factory of J. B. M’Kown, on Tenth Street, between Locust and Olive streets. The enterprize and industry of the proprietor of this establishment, commend him to the consideration and patronage of the citizens of the west, generally. Commencing what was at that time a new branch of business in St. Louis, he met with but little encouragement in the beginning. But by firmness and perseverance he has succeeded not only in building up a manufacturing establishment which yields him a handsome revenue, but by its superior quality and cheapness, his article has driven the eastern bellows from the market, and he can, in fact, manufacture the article cheaper here than can the eastern manufacturer. This is an additional fact in support of our oft-repeated proposition, that the Valley of the Mississippi contains all the elements necessary for manufacturing purposes; and at no distant day must become the great manufacturing district of the United States-while St. Louns must become the great central mart of concentration and distribution; and let none be surprised if in a few years hence the tail roads, canals, &c., which the east with such eagerness and energy is extending through the heart of the west for the purpose of drawing to themselves the raw material to be manufactured at their own establishments, should carry back to the shores of the Atlantic manufactured fabrics from the work shops of the west, for the eastern and European markets. All of this and more will come to pass. Let him, therefore, who would not be behind the march of events, look and observe, and shape his business to meet this inevitable destiny of the west, arising from imperious and uncontrollable circumstances.

This establishment manufactures about six hundred pair of bellows per annum, of very superior quality, both in material and workmanship, consisting of the common blacksmith bellows, a very superior article of furnace bellows used in the different mining regions of the west in smelting; also a cylinder bellows which is used for the same purpose.

This establishment uses about 1,200 sides of leather per annum, at a cost of about $3,000, about 50,000 feet of lumber, about 7,000 pounds of iron, 400 pounds of glue, $100 worth of paint, $200 in binges, screws, tacks, &c.

MINES AND MINING.

MISSOURI COPPER. We were highly gratified yesterday to see, at the store of Messrs. Poindexter & Wilson, corner of Main and Market streets, a sample of copper from the mines in Franklin county, in this State. The lot consisted of about 700 weight of pig metal, pure and free from foreign particles. This copper, we learned, was produced by Mr. Philips, who has no experience in the process of smelting copper ore, and knows but little of its properties or characteristics Induced by curiosity, he took a quantity of ore, which he says they call the green carbonate, and in a common blacksmith's hearth, with the ordinary bellows of a blacksmith's shop, he produced the above stated amount of pure metal. He says that, weighing the ore and the pig metal, he ascertained, that the ore yielded rising of thirty per cent. The purity of the metal may be estimated from the fact, that it was sold in this market at from sixteen to eighteen cents per pound, and promptly taken. An experiment was made yesterday, at the extensive Foundry of Messrs. Burd, Rucker & Co., by casting a portion of it into a bell, which is said to be the proper test of its purity. The result of the experiment we have not yet ascertained, but the melting and process of casting was highly satisfactory to the workmen.

The mine from which this ore was taken is known as Hurst's Mine, is about sixty miles from this city, in Franklin county, and in the vicinity of several large deposits of similar ores. There are, in that vicinity and in all the country round about, indications of rich deposite of this mineral. It is in the centre of an excellent agricultural country, capable of subsisting any amount of labor, and within a convenient distance to this market, with a natural road that requires but little expenditure to render it available the year round. The seasons here are such that the mines may be worked the whole year, and the requisite timber, &c., are abundant.

In these copper mines, the State of Missouri has a greater amount of wealth than has yet been discovered in the famous copper mines on Lake Superior, or in the numerous lead discoveries of this and other Western States. Gentlemen of science and information, who have visited and critically examined the mines, say, that the amount of ore is without limit, and that all the tests which have been made show, that it is of a very rich kind. The only drawback thus far has been the want of a proper mode of smelting the ore. That it is practicable, by the application of proper means, this experiment proves beyond a doubt; and that the ore is extraordinarily rich, is shown by the fact that by a very imperfect manner of smelting, it has been made to yield thirty per cent.

A great drawback to the development of these mines is to be found in the fact, that a large portion of the lands in that vicinity are yet held by the Government, and whenever an important discovery is made, the discoverers endeavor to conceal their information, lest some one else should come in and purchase some other lands desired by them. We have regretted this selfish spirit, because it serves to prevent the introduction of capital into the country, and of course pre. vents any extension of mining operations.--St. Louis Republican.

IRON: A SHORT SKETCH OF ITS PRODUCTION.

BY DR. L. FEUCHTWANGER. To the Editor of the Merchants Magazine, 8c.

This metal occupies at the present day a more important rank than any other metal. While we can exist without the use of the precious metals, iron is as in. dispensable to the comforts of man, as nourishment is to the support of life. With the increase of the population, and civilization of the inbabitants of the world, the consumption and application of iron must increase in proportion ; so also its uses will be more accessible, according to the advancement of science and improved knowledge of simplifying the process of its easy and economical extraction from the ore. Already the quantity of iron which is annually consumed in the United States, goes beyond conception. The quantity of pig iron produced in the United States, in 1810, was 53,908 lons; while, in 1847, the quantity of pig iron made here exceeds 500,000 tons. The latest improvements, by the hot blast and other contrivances, have increased the product of pig metal fifty per cent., so that may reasonably expect the product of iron to be about 700,000 tons, which, at the average price of $35 per ton of No. 1 pig iron, would be a revenue to the States where it is produced of $24,500,000, the principal part of which goes to the States of Pennsylvania, New York, and Tennessee. The State of Missouri, with its inexhaustible deposits of superior iron, has not until lately, produced any pig iron, although the city of St. Louis, containing twelve of the largest foundries in the western country, for the construction of machinery, steamboats, &c., has been obliged to import its pig iron from great distances on the Ohio, Tennessee, and Cumberland Rivers. The Iron Mountain, which is supposed capable of furnishing 600,000,000 tons, is beginning to supply, in a small measure, the demand; but the cost of transportation from the interior, nearly fifty miles, enhances its expense. Within a few months, however, a company of some enterprising St. Louis merchants have opened an immense deposit of rich iron ore, contiguous to the Mississippi River, which bids fair to supply the demands for pig iron in St. Louis, and the Missouri and Upper Mississippi Valleys. I allude to the St. Louis and Birmingham Iron Company, a distance of two miles from the town of Birmingham, and 120 miles below St. Louis. The iron ore which I have seen, and of which I possess specimens, is, I should judge, sixty per centa, and is easy to flux. The coal-beds on the opposite shore, in Illinois, yield the most inexhaustible supply of superior bituminous coal. Charcoal, as well as stone coal, can be had at the furnace for about three cents per bushel; and there is no reason why the company should not produce 100 tons of pig iron per week, by each furnace, and why they cannot erect four furnaces, so as to produce 400 tons of pig iron, worth in St. Louis $40 per ton.

The location of the town of Birmingham offers, perhaps, the most encouraging - inducements for the establishment of a United States armory, which will sooner or later be required by the government in the western country, for the manufacture of ammunition and other war implements. The Mississippi River offers there the best channel for the landing of steamboats, at all seasons; and the St. Louis and Birmingham Iron Company will, I trust, be capable of furnishing all the varieties of iron required in the western country, such as bar, bloom, and rail road iron.

We have received from Frederick Woolford, Esq., of Caledonia, Missouri, quite an extensive collection of specimens of clay, kaolin and ores; also, specimens of several varieties of ware, manufactured at his establishment. Among the latter are some very fair specimens of queensware. We have not as yet had time to analyze and class the specimens of ores, &c., but hope that we shall be able to give an account of them in our next number. The specimens may be seen at the office of Dr. H. A. PROUT, on Pine street in this city.

TO AGENTS. Such individuals as have been ted to act as agents, will please to let us hear from them at an early day.

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