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MILLS. Oil, linseed and corn, 12 Seeds,
10 Tallow, Oil, lard, 10 Salæratus, | 10 Tar,
10 Ore, 8 Salts of ley,
10 Tomb-stones, not marPeas, 10 Soap, 10 ble,
6 Provisions, salt & fresh,10 Sumach,
10 Trees,shrubs and plants, 6 Pork,
74 Skins, animal, 10 Tobacco, not manufacPot and Pearl Ashes, 10 Sleds and Sleighs, 10 tured, Porter, 10 Saddle-trees,
10 Tobacco, manufac'd, 15 Palm Leaf, 10 Shorts and screenings, 5 Veneering,
10 Potter's ware, 10 Strip stuff,
10 Pitch, 10 Spikes,
15 Wheat, Potatoes and other ve- Starch,
10 Whisky & high wines, 10 getables, 6 Shot, 20 Wool,
10 Paper, 15 Sieel,
20 Wooden ware, . 10 Powder,
15 Spirits, except whisky, 25 Wagons and other veRags, 9 Straw, 4 hicles,
10 Rosin, 9 Staves, 3 White Lead,
6 Sand, and other earths, 2, Salt,
8 Stone, cut and sawed, 3 4. On the following named articles toll, per mile, will be computed by number of measure :
MILLS. On each 1000 feet (board measure) of lumber, per mile,
1 On each 100 cubic feet of timber, hewed or round, if transported in boats,
1 On same, if transported in rafts,
2 On each 1000 brick, On each 1000 laths or shingles,
21 On each 100 split posts or rails, for sencing,
1 On each cord of wood for fuel,
2 On each cubic yard (27 cubic feet) dressed stone,
5 On each cubic yard (27 cubic feet) undressed stone,
2 In ascertaining the amount of toll chargeable on any article, the weight of the cask, box, bag, crate, vessel or thing, in which said article is contained, shall be added to the weight of the article itself, and the toll computed accordingly.
If two or more articles, chargeable with different rates of toll, shall be contained in the same cask, box, or vessel, the whole shall be charged with the highest rates of toll chargeable on any article so contained.
The rafting of timber on the Canal or the Feeders is prohibited, unless by written special agreement with the Superintendent of the Canal. Any violation of this order will subject the person violating it, to a penalty of ten dollars for every such offence.
W. H. SWIFT, [Signed]
CHARLES OAKLEY. Office of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, !
February 21, 1848.
The following is a rough estimate of the probable rates of freight on leading articles, from Peru, Illinois, to Albany, New York, on the Illinois and Michigan Canal :
Toll op ni.
15 37% 30 10 15 20 20 20 4.5 2.8
88 & Canal freight.
4 6 1 5 6 5
65 $1 06 Spring and Fall averagé.
By vessel on the Lakes.
(known. Rate on Erie Canal not
BEAR OR BIGG.
THE NEW CORN LAW OF GREAT BRITAIN.
FLOUR AND WHEAT MEAL.
l'er Cwt. of 195 lbs. under 48s
3s 5 1-2d 6s 0-6-32 48s and under 49s
38 17-8d 55 4.31 49s 50s
4s 9-24 50s do 515
28 4 1-8d 4s 2-27 51s do 52s
2s 0 3-40 3s 7-10 52s do 538
18 8 5-8d 3s 0-3 53s and upwards,
18 41-4d 28 4-28 RYE, PEAS, BEANS, BARLEY,
4$ od 26s and under 275
4s 60 18s and uuder 198 275 do 283 4s od 195 do
35 od 285 do 295 38 60 208
2s 64 29s do 305 35 od 218 do 228
28 od 308 do 318 2s 6d 22s and upwards,
is 60 319 and upwards,
28 od Barley meal, for every 2171 lbs. the duty to be equal to that payable on one quarter barley
Rye meal and flour, for every 196 lbs. the duty to be equal to that payable on five-eights of a quarter barley.
Pea meal and bean meal, for every 272 lbs. the duty to be equal to that payable on one quarter barley.
Oat meal, for every 1811 lbs. the duty to be equal to that payable on one qua;ter barley.
If the produce of, or imported from any British possession out of Europe :
Wheat, barley, bear, or bigg, oats, rye, peas and beans, the duty shall be for every quarter, 1s.
Wheat meal, barley meal, oat mea), rye meal, pea meal, and bean meal, the duty shall be for every cwt., 4!d. : : On and after the 1st of February, 1849, the duties hereafter named shall be paid, viz:
Upon all wheat, barley, bear, or bigg, oats, rye, peas, beans, for every quar., 1s.
Upon all wheat meal and flour, barley meal, oat meal, rye meal and flour, pea meal and bean meal, for every cwt, 41, and in proportion for a less quantity.
WEIGHTS OF PRODUCE, AS ESTABLISHED BY LAW OR CUSTOM IN
ST. LOUIS. -Wheat, bush 60 lbs. Hempseed,
bush. 44 lbs. Curn,
Castor Beans, Oats,
Blue grass seed,
48 " Dried Peaches, Potatoes, 60 “ Dried Apples,
“" 24 * Beans,
60 W Onions, Bran,
20 “ Sall, Cloverseed,
60 « Coal, Timothy seed,
45 “ Honey, per gallon, Flaxseed
56 « 56" 35 “
57 " 50 «, 80 66 12 «
FOREIGN GRAIN MEASURES. The following is a correct statement, in American bushels, of the various European measures of grain : American Bushels.
American Bushels. English Quarter, 8 28-100 Leghorn Sack,
2 English Imperial Bushel, 1 4-100 Genoa Emine,
3 34-100 Dantzic Last, 87 15-100 Spanish Fanegue,
1 62-100 Amsterdam Last, 83 37-100 Lisbon Alquiere,
*. 41-100 Hamburg Last, 91 43-100 Copenhagen Tonne,
4 74-100 Rostock's Last, 105 71-100 Swedish Tonne,
3 97-100 St. Petersburg Tehctwert, 5 49-100 Mayence Mattu,
3 37-100 Odessa Tchctwert, 6 6-100 French Hectoliire,
2 85-100 Naples Tomolo,
TIE EFFECTS OF FROST ON VEGETATION. In a climate like that of Missouri, where vegetation is so liable to be injured by frost during the spring season, it is important to inquire whether any method can -be devised 10 guard against this injury. It is known to those who have been in the habit of observing the effects of frost upon vegetation, that the injury produced does not always correspond with the apparent quantity that has been formed upon the tender plants. Sometimes a white frost will pass off with little injury, and again much harm is done when there was but little frost to be observed. By carefully noting the condition of the atmosphere, and the changes of temperature
which take place from sunrise until the frost shall have been melted, the causes why the effects produced are not in accordance with the apparent quantity might be ascertained with some degree of certainty. It has been frequently observed, that if the morning becomes cloudy, so as to prevent the sun from shining on the plants before the frost has melted, it passes off with but little injury. If this fact be well established, it naturally suggests the inquiry whether vegetation can not be preserved from injury by artificial means ?
It is established, beyond question, as we believe, that the vitality of a plant is not necessarily destroyed by freezing. Turnips, parsnips, and other plants, freeze in the earth, and still retain their vitality, and vegetate in the spring. This is doubtless owing to the gradual thaw which takes place in the earth; but if a frozen potatoe is exposed to the atmosphere, to thaw, its vitality is destroyed. If the hand, or other part of the body, should freeze, and he suddenly thawed by the fire, the vitality of the part is destroyed, and it mortifies ; but if immersed in a vessel of water, just drawn from the well, the thaw will take place slowly, and but little injury will ensue.
From these facts, we are led to conclude, that the injury to plants is induced by the sudden thaw, and not by freezing. Hence, if they should be protected from the rays of the sun, or wet with water from the well or spring, before they are effected by the rays of the sun, they would escape from harm." If these conclusions be correct, fruit and other tender vegetables may be preserved, with but very little labor, at least to an extent sufficient to preserve enough of the former for family purposes, and of the latter, for early use.
The following theory, in regard to the effects produced on frozen plants, by sudden exposure to the rays of the sun, is submitted by Johnson, in his Agricultural Chemistry, and appear to us to be a philosophical explanation of the phe
10. When the leaf, fruit, or tuber freezes, the fluid portions slightly expand in becoming solid, but the air in the air vessels contracts in at least an equal degree, and thus allows a lateral expression of the sap vessels sufficient to prevent lesion. When the temperature is slightly raised, the air expands but slightly, and ice is melted long before the gaseous substances reach their original bulk.
20. But if the rays of the sun strike suddenly upon the leaf or fruit, the surface may at once be raised in temperature 30° or 400 F. The air will consequently expand suddenly, and before the sap is thawed may have distended and torn the vessels, and caused sap and air to be mutually intermingled.
30. But the moment the sun's rays strike upon the green leaf, its chemical functions commence. It begins to absorb and decompose carbonic acid : and as in the frozen part of the leaf the circulation is not, and in consequence of the lesion cannot be established, the chemical action of the sun's rays must be expended upon the stagnant sap; and hence those changes not only in the sap itself, but even in the solid parts, which are seen to take place in the withered leaf.
40. Though not in a state of growth, the tuber of the potatoe contains the living principle, and there must be such a circulation going on in its interior as to maintain an approximate equilibrium of temperature throughout its substance. A sudden thawing of the exterior, will, as in the leaf, expand the air before the circulation can be established throughout the frozen mass. The solid, fluid, and æriform substances which nature has separated and set apart from each other, will thus all be intermingled, and from their mutual action, those chemical changes of which we know the starch of the potatoe to be susceptible, will speedily ensue;—in other words, the potatoe will rot.
We should be much pleased, in case a proper opportunity should occur, if some of our readers would make a practical application of these principles, and advise us of the result. The vegetable should be protected, as much as practicable, from light and air, as well as from the direct rays of the sun ; and if water is used, it should be fresh from the spring or well—though cold water might be tried as an experiment.
HISTORY OF THE CULTIVATION OF THE POTATOE. In an article on the “economy and habits of plants,” published in the first number of the WESTERN JOURNAL, we suggested the opinion that the potatoe rot was induced by violence done to the economy of the plant, in propagating it for too long a time from the tubers This article was written perhaps a year ago, at a time when the publication of the WESTERN JOURNAL had not been thought of; and not being designed for publication, we had not examined the history of the cultivated plant farther than our own observation extended in the Southern States.
Desiring to ascertain whether we had been misled by a false theory, we have since inquired into the history of the cultivation of the potatoe, and are happy to find that our views are iully sustained by practical experience.
The following paper from H. A. Parsons, of Buffalo, published in the Cultivator, of arch, 1848, we think will be found interesting and profitable to every farmer.
We have appended the advertisement of N. S. Smith, of Buffalo, who offers many varieties of seedling potatoes for sale. In this advertisement will also be found an interesting account of his mode of producing them.
While the subject is before us, we will use the occasion to briefly notice a paper recently read before the St. Louis Horticultural Society, by Emil Mallinckrodt, from which we are happy to find that he sustains our opinion, that the potatoe is a native of the tropics. We must admit, however, that we were somewhat startled at the quotation from Preston's History of the civil]zation of the Incas, in the beginning of the article ; but we think friend Mallinckrodt has most trium