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tors read—winding brooks. The old copy- | Id. c.2, 1. 4. For stale to catch these thieves.) windring. STEEVENS.
Stale is a word in fowling, and is used to mean P. 15, c. 1,ʻl. 11. Leave your crisp channels,] a bait or decoy to catch birds. STEEVENS.
Crisp, 1. e. curling, winding. Crisp, however, Id. l.7. Nurture can never stick ;] Nurture is allude may to the little wave or curl (as it is education. commonly called) that the gentlest wind occa- Id. I. 8. - all, all lost,] The first of these words
sions on the surface of waters. STEEVENS. was probably introduced by the carelessness of Id. l. 31. This is most strange :) Malone reads: the transcriber or compositor. We might
“ 'This is strange:” I have introduced the safely read-are all lost. MALONE. word—most, on account of the metre, which Id. 1. 9. And as, with age, his body uglier grows, otherwise is defective.-In the first line of So his mind cankers :) Shakspeare, when Prospero's next speech there is likewise an he wrote this description, perhaps recollected omission, but I have not ventured to supply what his patron's most intimate friend, the it. STEEVENS.
great lord Essex, in an hour of discontent, said Id. I. 43. all which it inherit) i. e, all who of queen Elizabeth :-“that she grew old, and possess, who dwell upon it. MALONE.
cankered, and that her mind was become as Id. I 44. And, like this insubstantial pageant crooked as her carcase :"-a speech, which,
faded,] Faded means here-having vanished; according to sir Walter Raleigh, cost him his from the Latin, vado. To feel the justice of head, and which, we may therefore suppose, this comparison, and the propriety of the was at that time much talked of. This play epithet, the nature of these exhibitions should being written in the time of king James, these be remembered. The ancient English pageants obnoxious words might be safely repeated. were shows exhibited on the reception of a MALONE. prince, or any other solemnity of a similar kind. Id. I. 16. - the blind mole may not They were presented on occasional stages Hear a foot fall :) This quality of hearing, erected in the streets. Originally they appear which the mole is supposed to possess in so to have been nothing more than dumb shows; high a degree, is mentioned in Euphues, 4to. but before the time of our author, they had 1581, p. 64: “ Doth not the lion for strength, been enlivened by the introduction of speaking the turtle for love, the ant for labour, excel personages, who were characteristically ha- man ? Doth not the eagle see clearer, the bited. The speeches were sometimes in verse ; vulture smell better, the moale heare lightand as the procession moved forward, the lier?" speakers, who constantly bore some allusion to Id. I. 21. — has done little better than played the ceremony, either conversed together in the the Jack with us ) i. e. he has played Jack form of a dialogue, or addressed the noble per- with a lantern; has led us about like an son whose presence occasioned the celebrity. ignis fatuus, by which travellers are decoyed On these allegorical spectacles very costly or- into the mire. naments were bestowed.
Id. l. 46. Trin. O king Stephano ! O peer! Id. l. 45. Leave not a rack behind :) “The winds
worthy Stephano! look, what a wardrobe (says lord Bacon) which move the clouds here is for thee!) An allusion to an old celeabove, which we call the rack, and are not per- brated ballad, which begins thus : "King ceived below, pass without noise.” Mr. Stee- Stephan was a worthy peer" —; and cele vens would explain the word rack somewhat brates that king's parsimony with regard to differently, by calling it the last fleeting vestige his wardrobe. of the highest clouds, scarce perceptible on Id. I. 48. we know what belongs to a frip: account of their distance and tenuity. What
pery :) A frippery was a shop where old was anciently called the rack, is now termed clothes were sold. Fripperie, Fr.' The persoa by sailors-the scud. The word is common who kept one of these shops was called a to many authors contemporary with Shak- fripper.' Strype, in his life of Stowe, says, speare. But sir Thomas Hanmer reads tract,
that these frippers lived in Birchin-lane and for which there are some authorities; and Mr. Cornhill. Malone wrack, a misspelling for wreck; and Id. l. 53. “Let it alone,”_MALONE. after producing authorities, says, it has been Id. l. 59. under the line :) An allusion to urged, that "objects which have only a vision- what often happens to people who pass the ary and insubstantial existence, can, when the line. The violent fevers which they contract vision is faded, leave nothing real, and con- in that hot climate, make them lose their hair. sequently no wreck behind them." But the 1d. 1.68.---put some lime,&o.] That is, bird-line
. objection is founded on misapprehension. The Id. 1.71. to barnacles, or to apes-)
Skinner words--"Leave not a rack (or wreck) behind," says, barnacle is Anser Scoticus. The bar relate not to “the baseless fabrick of this vi- nacle is a kind of shell-fish growing on the sion,” but to the final destruction of the world, bottoms of ships, and which was anciently sup, of which the towers, temples, and palaces, posed, when 'broken off, to become one of shall (like a vision, or a pageant), be dissolved, ihese geese. and leave no vestige behind.
Id. 1.72 With foreheads villainous low.] Low Id. l. 58. Thy thoughts I cleave to:) To cleave foreheads were anciently reckoned among deto, is to unite with closely.
formities. Id. l. 60. - - to meet with Caliban.) To meet Id. l. 78. A noise of Hunters heard. Shaxspeare
with is to counteract; to play stratagem might have had in view Arthur's Chase, which against stratagem.
many believe to be in France, and think that Id. 1.74. pricking goss,] I know not how it is a kennel of black dogs followed by us
Shakspeare distinguished goss from furze ; for known huntsmen with an exceeding great what he calls furze is called goss or gorse in sound of horns, as if it was a very hunting of the midland counties. STEEVENS.
some wild beast. By the latter, Shakspeare means the low sort of gorse that only grows upon wet ground,
ACT V. and which is well described by the name of
SCENE I. whims in Markham's Farewell to Husbandry. It has prickles like those of a rose-tree or a P. 16, c. 1, 1.20. ---- and time gooseberry. TOLLET.
Goes upright with his carriage.) Alluding
to one carrying a burthen. This critical period | Id. l. 42. Mr. Malone reads, “ There I couch of my life proceeds as I could wish. Time When owls do cry," brings forward all the expected events, with- la. I. 42 when owls do cry ) i. e. at night.
out faltering under his burthen. STEEVENS. Id. I. 44 After summer. merrily :) This is the P. 16, c. 1, 1. 25. “his followers."- MALONE.
reading of all the editions. Yet Mr. Theo
bald has substituted sun-set, because Ariel Id 1 30. - till your release.) i. e. till you release them.
talks of riding on the bat in this expedition.
Id. I. 46. shall I live now, 111.22. a louch, a feeling - ) A touch, is a
Under the blosson that hangs on the sensalion.
bough.] This thought is not thrown out at ILI. H. that relish all as sharply,
random. It composed a part of the magical Passion as they.) I feel every thing with
system of these days. The idea was probably the same quick sensibility, and am moved by
first suggested by the description of the venethe same passions as they are.
rable elm which Virgil planted at the entrance Id. 2.55. Ye elres of hills, brooks, standing of the infernal shades.
lakes, and groves ;] This speech Dr. War- | Id. 1. 54. -- I drink the air -] To drink the burton rightly observes to be borrowed from
air- is an expression of swiftness of the same Medea's in Ovid.
kind as to devour the way in K. Henry IV. 12.7.63. (W'eak masters though ye be.)], The Id. l. 65 Whe's thou beest he, or no,] meaning of this passage may be, Though you
Whe'r für whether. are but inferior masters of these superna- | Id. 1. 72. Thy dukedom I resign;] The duchy of tural powers – though you possess them but Milan bemg through the treachery of Antonio ir a low degree ; or, . ye are powerful auxi- made feudatory to the crown of Naples, Alonliaries, but weak if left to yourselves;. - your so promises to resign his claim of sovereignty employment is then to make green ringlets, and for the future. widunght mushrooms, and to play the idle P. 17, c. 1,1. I. -- You do yel taste pranks mentioned by Ariel in his next song; Some subtilties o'the islej This is a phrase het by your aid I have been enabled to invert adopted from ancient cookery and confectiothe course of nature."
nary. When a dish was so contrived as to 11.1.72. — But this rough magic, &c.] This appear unlike what it really was, they called
speech of Prospero sets out with a long and it a subtilty. Dragons, castles, trees, &c. distinct invocation to the various ministers of made out of sugar, had the like denomination, his art : yet to what purpose they were in- Id. l. 18 who three hours since -) The voked does not very distinctly appear. Had unity of time is most rigidly observed in this our author written - "All this," &c. instead piece. The fable scarcely takes up a greater of — " But this,” &c. the conclusion of the number of hours than are employed in the readdress would have been more pertinent to its presentation; and from the very particular care bezinning. STEEVENS.
which our author takes to point out this cir11. c. 2, 1. 9. — A solemn air, and the best cumstance in so many other passages, as well comforter
as here, it should seem as if it were not acciTo an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains, &c.] dental, but purposely designed to shew the Prospero does not desire them to cure their cavillers of the time that he could write a play brains. His expression is optative, not im- within all the strictest laws of regularity, when Lrains and means - May music cure thy he chose to load himself with the critic's fetters. i. e. settle thein,
Id. l. 22. I am woe fort, sir.) i. e. I am 14. ! .. - build within thy skull!] So, in A sorry for it. To be woe, is often used by old Midsummer Night's Dream, seething writers to signify, to be sorry. brains," &c. occur : and in The Winter's Id. l. 30. As great to me, as late ;) My loss is as Tale, we have “ boild brains."
great as yours, and has as lately happened to II15.
-fellowly drops. ] I would read, fel. me. JOHNSON low drops. The additional syllable only in- | Id. l. 43.
their words jures the metre, without enforcing the sense.
Are natural breath :) An anonymous corFellowly, however, is an adjective used by respondent thinks that their is a corruption, Tusser. STEEVENS.
and that we should read these words. His Id 1. 18.
the ignorant fumes - ) i. e. the conjecture appears not improbable. The lords fumes of ignorance.
had no doubi concerning themselves. Their Id. I. 25. Thou'rt pinch'd for't now, Sebastian. doubts related only to Prospero.
Flesh and blood,] Thus the old copy : Id. I. 63. Yes, for a score of kingdoms, &c.] I Theobald points the passage in a different take the sense to be only this : Ferdinand manner, and perhaps rightly :
would not, he says, play her false for the ** Thou'rt pinch'd for'i now, Sebastian, flesh world : Yea, answers she, I would allow you and blood.”
to do it for something less than the world, for Id. 7.27. — remorse and nature ;] Remorse is by twenty kingdoms, and I wish you well
our author and the contemporary writers ge- enough to allow you, after a little wrangle, nerally used for pity, or tenderness of heart. that your play was fair So, likewise, Dr. Nature is natural affection. Malone.
Grey JOHNSON. 1.1.41. —- In a cowslips bell I lie :] So, in Id. c. 2, 1 52. My tricksy spirit!) is, my clever, Drayton's Nymphidia :
adroit spirit. Shakspeare uses the same word " At midnight, the appointed hour;
in The Merchant of Venice.
on sleep” as the ancient English The date of this poem not being ascertained, we know not whether our author was Id.
conduct of:] Conduct for conindebted to it, or was himself copied by Dray- ductor 10. I believe, the latter was the imitator Conduct is yet used in the same sense : the Nymphidia was not written, I imagine, till person at Cambridge who reads prayers in after the English Don Quixote had appeared King's and in Trinity college chapels, is still in 1612 MALONE.
so styled. HENLEY.
P. 17, c. 2, 1.76. -— with beating on
Id. 1. 35. And Trinculo is reeling ripe : Where The strangeness, &c.) Beating may mean
should they hammering, working in the mind, dwelling Find this grand LIQUOR that hath gilded long upon.
them?] Warburton thinks that Shakspeare, to Id. l. 78. (Which to you shall seem probable,)] be sure, wrote-grand 'LIXIR, alluding to the
I will inform you how all these wonderful ac- grand elixir of the alchymists, which they cidents have happened ; which, though they pretend would restore youth and confer imnow appear to you strange, will then seem
mortality. But Mr. Steevens says that, as the probable. MALONE.
alchymist's elixir was supposed to be a liquor, P. 18, c. 1, l. 10. Coragio!] An exclamation the old reading may stand.
of encouragement. Id. 1. 20. Is a plain fish,3 That is, plainly, evidently Id. 1.,39: fly-blowing.) This pickle alludes to
their plunge into the stinking pool : and picka fish; but it is not easy to determine the shape which our author designed to bestow on his
ling preserves meat from fly-blowing.
Id. l. 4L monster. That he has hands, &c. we gather
but a cramp,] i. e. I am all over a from circumstances in the play. Perhaps
cramp. Prospero had ordered Ariel to shorten Shakspeare himself had no settled ideas con
up their sinews with aged cramps. Touch cerning the form of Caliban.
me not alludes to the soreness occasioned by
them. Id. l. 22.- true : ) that is, honest. A true man is, in the language of that tiine, opposed to a
Id. 1. 43. I should have been a sore one then.) thief.
The same quibble occurs afterwards in the Id 1. 24. His mother was a witch; and one so
Second Part of King Henry VI. : “ Mass, strong
'twill be sore law then, for he was thrust in That could control the moon, &c.) This
the mouth with a spear, and 'tis not whole was the phraseology of the times. After the yet.” Stephano also alludes to the sores about statute against witches, revenge or ignorance
him. STEEVENS. frequently induced people to eharge those Id. c.2, l. 39. With the help of your good hands.] against whom they harboured resentment, or By your applause, by clapping hands. Johnentertained prejudices, with the crime of witchcraft, which had just then been declared Id. I. 45. And my ending is despair, a capital offence.
Unless I be reliev'd by pray'r;) . This alId. I. 25. And deal in her command, without ludes to the old stories told of the despair of
her power :) I suppose Prospero means, that necromancers in their last moments, and of the Sycorax, with less general power than the efficacy of the prayers of their friends for them moon, could produce the same effects on the
SOME of the incidents in this play may be sup- and more natural and unaffected, than the great. posed to have been taken from The Arcadia, er part of this author's, though supposed to be book i chap. vi., where Pyrocies consents to one of the first he wrote. Pope. head the Helots. (The Arcadia was entered on It may very well be doubted whether Shakthe books of the Stationers' Company, Aug. 23, speare had any other hand in this play than the 1588.) The love adventure of Julia resembles enlivening it with some speeches and lines that of Viola in Twelfth Night, and is, indeed, thrown in here and there, which are easily discommon to many of the ancient novels. Stee- tinguished, as being of a different stamp from VENS.
the rest. HANMER. Mrs. Lenox observes, and I think not im- To this observation of Mr. Pope, which is probably, that the story of Proteus and Julia very just, Mr Theobald bas added, that this is might be taken from a similar one in the Diana one of Sbakspeare's worst plays, and is less of George of Montemayor.—“This pastoral ro-corrupted than any other. Mr Upton peremptomance," says she, “was translated from the rily determines, that if any proof can be drawn Spanish in Shakspeare's time." I have seen no from manner and style, this play must be sent earlier translation than that of Bartholomew packing, and seek for its parent elsewhere. Yong, who dates his dedication in November, How otherwise, says he, do painters distinguish 1598; and Meres, in his Wit's Treasury, printed copies from originals? and have not authors the same year, expressly mentions the Two their peculiar style and manner, from which a Gentlemen of Verona. Indeed, Montemayor true critic can form as unerring judgment as a was translated two or three years before, by painter? I am afraid this illustration of a cri. one Thomas Wilson; but this work, I am per- tic's science will not prove what is desired. A suaded, was never published entirely; perhaps painter knows a copy from an original by rules some parts of it were, or the tale might have somewhat resembling those by which critics been translated by others. However, Mr Stee- know a translation, which, if it be literal, and vens says, very truly, that this kind of love- literal it must be to resemble the copy of a picadventure is frequent in the old novelists. FAR- ture, will be easily distinguished. Copies are MER.
known from originals, even when the painter There is no earlier translation of the Diana copies his own picture; so, if an author should entered on the books of the Stationers' Com- literally translate his work, he would lose the pany, than that of B. Younge, Sept. 1598. Many manner of an original. translations, however, after they were licensed, Mr Upton confounds the copy of a picture were capriciously suppressed. Among others, with the imitation of a painter's manner. Co" The Decameron of Mr. John Boccace, Floren- pies are easily known, but good imitations are tine," was “recalled by my lord of Canterbury's not detected with equal certainty, and are, ty commands.” STEEVENS.
the best judges, often mistaken. Nor is it true It is observable (I know not for wbat cause) that the writer has always peculiarities equally that the style of this comedy is less figurative, distinguishable with those of the painter. The peculiar manner of each arises from the desire, I cannot but think that I find, both in the senatural to every performer, of facilitating his rious and ludicrous scenes, the language and subsequent work by recurrence to his former sentiments of Shakspeare. It is not, indeed, ideas ; this recurrence produces that repetition one of his most powerful effusions; it has neiwhich is called habit. The painter, whose work ther many diversities of character, nor striking is partly intellectual and partly manual, has delineations of life; but it abounds in your habits of the mind, the eye, and the hand; the beyond most of his plays, and few have more writer has only habits of the mind. Yet, some lines or passages, which, singly considered, are painters have differed as much from themselves eminently beautiful. I am yet inclined to beas from any other ; and I have been told that lieve that it was not very successful, and suspect there is little resemblance between the first that it has escaped corruption, only because works of Raphael and the last. The same va- being seldom played, it was less exposed to the riation may be expected in writers; and if it be bazards of transcription. JOHNSON. true, as it seems, that they are less subject to This comedy was written in 1591, according babit, the difference between their works may to Mr Malone, who supposes it to have been be yet greater.