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guests, bursts, lands, accounts, torment,
receptacle, peremptorily, acceptableness, disinterestedness.†
A great deal better.
For truth's sake.
The sophist's subtle argument.
III. Another fault of articulation, is the running of words into one another, in such a manner, that the termination of the one, and the beginning of the next, cannot be distinguished by the ear.
The culprits ought to make The culprit sought to make amends.
He will earn neither.
That lasts till night.
He will learn either.
A most humbling fall.
A most tumbling fall.
The beast's tongue.
The bee stung.
A nice house.
IV. A bad articulation sometimes confounds the vowel sounds. Thus, event, uvvent, correct, currect, wholly, hully, peaceably, peaceubbly, opinion, uppinion, popular, popelar, omnipotent, omnipetent, educate, edecate, and, und, wicked, wickud, gospel, gospul.
V. In aiming at distinctness of articulation, some persons fall into the opposite error of protracting, and giving prominence to, the unaccented vowels and syllables. This gives an air of stiffness and pedantry to their enunciation. The fault alluded to, divides off the several syllables in the
*The letter r, is often pronounced indistinctly, especially when it occurs in unaccented syllables; thus, instead of stormy we sometimes hear stawmy.
+ Hundreds of other words might be selected. These are designed merely as examples.
manner of a spelling-book, making a sensible pause at each division thus, mul-ti-pli-ca-tion, an-ni-ver-sa-ry, dis-tinguish, lan-guage, lan-guish, sug-ges-tion.
Particles, and unaccented syllables, should at once be spoken distinctly, and "trippingly on the tongue;" which, with a little pains and practice, may be done by any one, who has not some defect in the organs of speech.
By making a list of such words as are found most difficult of utterance, and practising upon them frequently, any person may, in a short time, acquire a correct and graceful articulation.
MODIFICATIONS OF THE VOICE.
WHEN the voice proceeds through a succession of words in the same key or pitch, this unvaried sameness of sound is called the Monotone. A repetition of strokes on a bell, or of touches on the same key of a piano, will exemplify it. Although irksome and disagreeable to the ear in ordinary reading and speaking, the monotone is both natural and impressive, when employed in passages of sublime description, or expressing deep reverence and awe.
High on a throne of royal state, which far
Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand,
(m) And the heaven departed as a scroll, when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.
(m) In thoughts from the visions of the night, when deep sleep falleth on men, fear came upon me, and trembling
which made all my bones to shake. Then a spirit passed before my face: the hair of my flesh stood up. It stood still, but I could not discern the form thereof: an image was before mine eyes, there was silence, and I heard a voice, saying-Shall mortal man be more just than God? Shall a man be more puré than his Maker?
Every person, in animated conversation, or in public speaking, assumes a certain pitch of voice, or general keynote, varying from low to high with the distance of his auditors, and affected likewise by the degree of earnestness with which he speaks. If we wish to make ourselves heard by one at a considerable distance, the voice instinctively strikes a high pitch; whereas, in addressing a person near at hand, it takes a lower one. Although this general key-note predominates, yet, if we observe persons while speaking, we shall perceive-if our ear is discriminatingconstant variations or undulations of the voice, above and below the general key-note. An accomplished speaker, possessing a well-trained and well-modulated voice, will, in the progress of a discourse, shift the key-note, in the transition from one division to another, and in accordance with the greater or less degree of animation in his subject.
But, besides the general current of sound running through a discourse, and rising or sinking as above described, there are many minor, and sudden turnings of the voice upward and downward, to which writers on this subject have given the name of slides or inflections. These inflections are the life and spirit of elocution, and it is essential to know them well, in order to read or speak with taste or effect.
I. "The Rising Inflection turns the voice upward, or ends higher than it begins." It is indicated by the acute accent () placed above the inflected syllable
II. Questions requiring the direct answer, yes or no, gen-
Did he prevaricáte?
Was that Henrý?
Am I not ríght? said hé.*
This slide ranges through a greater or less interval, according to the degree of earnestness and feeling in the speaker. In highly impassioned language, the voice rises to the octave ; but ordinarily, not more than a third. The rising slide may be represented to the eye thus:
If this be uttered as a mere inquiry, without any emotion, the voice rises through a small interval on the last word. If, however, it express strong surprise, the slide will become intensive, and rise perceptibly higher, thus:
III. The direct question‡ does not invariably take the rising slide.
Is not that a beautiful flower?
So, in Hamlet, Bernardo, seeing the ghost of the mur-
"Bernardo. In the same figure like the king that's dead.
* The inflection frequently affects several words in a sentence.
This is a musical term, which will not be understood by some, although it will be by most persons. Considerable advantage in acquiring the art of reading, will result from a knowledge of the elementary principles of music, and from the possession of a musical voice and ear.
* Requiring the answer yes or no.
Oh, full of all subtlety, and all mischief, thou child of the devil, thou enemy of all righteousness, wilt thou not cease to pervert the right ways of the Lord ?
So, likewise, when a question is an appeal to a person, as Did I strike William ? Is he not ungrateful? Have I told a wrong story?
Again, when a question is repeated in a louder voice, the slide is changed:
Are you going to Salém ?
Are you going to Salèm?
IN calling to one at a distance by name, I say, in a mod. erate pitch and with the rising slide, Williám! If I am -not heard, I raise the pitch, and change the slide as I repeat, William! This turning of the voice downward, generally heard in the answer to a question, is called the falling inflection. It is marked by the grave accent (-). A few examples will exhibit the difference between it, and the rising inflection.
Are you going to Trenton?
Ans. To Princeton.
Did he say flower-or flowers?
Study not for amusement--but for improvemènt.
I. By the foregoing examples it will be perceived, that the rising slide ends higher, and the falling slide ends lower than it begins.
This may be represented
He came on