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guests, bursts, lands, accounts, torment, receptacle, tempests, beasts, blindfold, chapel, water, peremptorily, sixth, bands, thousand, rebel, warmth, 'acceptableness, posts, vastly, stormy,* northern, never, disinterestedness. Now is the best time to do it. A great deal better. For Christ's sake.
For truth's sake. The sophist's subtle argument. III. Another fault of articulation, is the running of words into one another, in such a manner, that the termination of the one, and the beginning of the next, cannot be distinguished by the ear. The culprits ought to make The culprit sought to make amends.
amends. He will earn neither.
He will learn either. That lasts till night.
That last still night.
The bee stung. An ice-house.
A nice house. IV. A bad articulation sometimes confounds the vowel sounds. Thus, event, uvvent, correct, currect, wholly, hully, peaceably, peaceubbly, opinion, uppinion, popular, popelar, omnipotent, omnipetent, educate, edecate, and, und, wicked, wickud, gospel, gospul.
V. In aiming at distinctness of articulation, some persons fall into the opposite error of protracting, and giving prominence to, the unaccented vowels and syllables. This gives an air of stiffness and pedantry to their enunciation. The fault alluded to, divides off the several syllables in the
* The letter r, is often pronounced indistinctly, especially when it occurs in unaccented syllables; thus, instead of stormy we sometimes hear stawmy.
+ Hundreds of other words might be selected. These are designed merely as examples.
manner of a spelling-book, making a sensible pause at each division : thus, mul-ti-pli-ca-tion, an-ni-ver-sa-ry, dis-tinguish, lan-guage, lan-guish, sug-ges-tion.
Particles, and unaccented syllables, should at once be spoken distinctly, and “trippingly on the tongue;" which, with a little pains and practice, may be done by any one, who has not some defect in the
organs of speech. By making a list of such words as are found most difficult of utterance, and practising upon them frequently, any person may, in a short time, acquire a correct and graceful articulation.
MODIFICATIONS OF THE VOICE.
The Monotone. When the voice proceeds through a succession of words in the same key or pitch, this unvaried sameness of sound is called the Monotone. A repetition of strokes on a bell, or of touches on the same key of a piano, will exemplify it. Although irksome and disagreeable to the ear in ordinary reading and speaking, the monotone is both natural and impressive, when employed in passages of sublime description, or expressing deep reverence and awe. (m) High on a throne of royal state, which far
Outshone the wealth of Ormus or of Ind;
Satan exalted sat. (m) And the heaven departed as a scroll, when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.
(m) In thoughts from the visions of the night, when deep sleep falleth on men, fear came upon me, and trembling which made all my bones to shake. Then a spirit passed before my face: the hair of my flesh stood up. It stood still, but I could not discern the form thereof: an image was before mine eyes, there was silence, and I heard a voice, saying--Shall mortal man be more just than God? Shall a man be more pure than his Maker ?
General Pitch. Every person, in animated conversation, or in public speaking, assumes a certain pitch of voice, or general keynote, varying from low to high with the distance of his auditors, and affected likewise by the degree of earnestness with which he speaks. If we wish to make ourselves heard by one at a considerable distance, the voice instinctively strikes a high pitch ; whereas, in addressing a person near at hand, it takes a lower one. Although this general key-note predominates, yet, if we observe persons while speaking, we shall perceive—if our ear is discriminatingconstant variations or undulations of the voice, above and below the general key-note. An accomplished speaker, possessing a well-trained and well-modulated voice, will, in the progress of a discourse, shift the key-note, in the transition from one division to another, and in accordance with the greater or less degree of animation in his subject.
But, besides the general current of sound running through a discourse, and rising or sinking as above described, there are many minor, and sudden turnings of the voice upward and downward, to which writers on this subject have given the name of slides or inflections. These inflections are the life and spirit of elocution, and it is essential to know them well, in order to read or speak with taste or effect.
Rising Inflection. I. "The ng Inflection turns the voice upward ends higher than it begins." It is indicated by the acute accent (-) placed above the inflected syllable
II. Questions requiring the direct answer, yes or no, generally take the rising slide : as, Am I ungratefúl ?
Was that Henrý? Did he prevaricáte? Lord, is it I'?
Am I not right ? said hé.* This slide ranges through a greater or less interval, according to the degree of earnestness and feeling in the speaker. In highly impassioned language, the voice rises to the octave ;t but ordinarily, not more than a third. The rising slide may be represented to the eye thus:
If this be uttered as a mere inquiry, without any emotion, the voice rises through a small interval on the last word. If, however, it express strong surprise, the slide will become intensive, and rise perceptibly higher, thus :
you III. The direct questioni does not invariably take the rising slide.
Is not that a beautiful flower?
So, in Hamlet, Bernardo, seeing the ghost of the murdered king, says: “ Bernardo. In the same figure like the king that's dead. “ Marcellus. Thou art a scholar, speak to it, Horatio. “ Bernardo. Looks it not like the king ? Mark it, Horatio.”
* The inflection frequently affects several words in a sentence.
+ This is a musical term, which will not be understood by some, although it will be by most persons. Considerable advantage in acquiring the art of reading, will result from a knowledge of the elementary principles of music, and from the possession of a musical voice and ear. # Requiring the answer yes or no.
Oh, full of all subtlety, and all mischief, thou child of the devil, thou enemy of all righteousness, wilt thou not cease to pervert the right ways of the Lord ?
So, likewise, when a question is an appeal to a person, as Did I strike William ? Is he not ungrateful ?
Have I told a wrong story? Again, when a question is repeated in a louder voice, the slide is changed :
Are you going to Salém? Are you going to Salem?
Are you going to Trenton ?
Where did you say?
Did he say flower-or flowers ?
This may be represented to the eye by a diagram.
Did he come in his
He came on