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for constructing ships. Various segments of the industry, such as ship owners, shipbuilders, design agents and manufacturers of major machinery and equipment have over the years reviewed these specifications and the present document reflects their input. The specifications are complete in all aspects of required contract work and accomplish the following pertinent objectives: establish levels of quality as a bench mark for Construction Differential Subsidy; identify current requirements of regulatory bodies; reflect latest technological developments; indicate measures of standardization to encourage mass production techniques; and include standard text to reflect legal aspects of contract work.

The development of guidance specifications for ship construction was first authorized on May 20, 1960 by the Federal Maritime Board. The first two formal editions were issued in November 1965 and March 1968 under the title Standard Specification for Cargo Ship Construction which applied mainly to general cargo ships. The latest edition entitled Standard Specifications for Merchant Ship Construction was issued December 1972 with broadened applicability to include other types of merchant ships such as container, Lighter Aboard Ship (Barge Carrying Ship) (LASH), Ore-Bulk-Oil (Supertanker) (OBO) and tanker vessels. It is intended to further update these standard specifications periodically to reflect continuing technological developments and pertinent results of research and development investigations. Future edi. tions may also include applicable text for LNG, tug. barge combinations and other specialized designs as well as other forms of propulsion machinery (diesel, gas-turbine, nuclear, etc.) in addition to the steam turbine already in the current text.

Distribution of the standard specifications is handled by the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia, 22151 (refer to Publication No. COM-7211469). Publicity concerning the availability of future editions will be provided through announcements by the National Technical Information Service, notices from the MarAd Office of Public Affairs, publications in the Federal Register and news releases to technical magazines.

and agencies of the Federal, state, and local governments in the establishment of standards for products; and administers the Department of Commerce's voluntary product standards program as is set forth in Part 10 of Title 15, Code of Federal Regulations, Procedures for the Development of Voluntary Product Standards.

The Department's voluntary product standards program supplements the activities of the private standardizing bodies by providing a mechanism for the development and publication of voluntary standards that are needed but are not being effectively developed by the private bodies. Standards published by this activity were previously called Simplified Practice Recommendations (SPR) and Commercial Standards (CS). As of December 1965, all publications including revisions of SPR's and CS's are called Voluntary Product Standards (VPS). Subsequent to the publication of a VPS it is submitted to the Amer. ican National Standards Institute (ANSI) for listing as an American National Standard.

There is no governmental regulation or control involved in the adoption and use of a Voluntary Product Standard. The documents are offered for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. A price list of the current standards and other information concerning this activity can be obtained by writing to the Standards Development Services Section.

Law Enforcement Standards Laboratory,

Institute for Applied Technology,

National Bureau of Standards

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce,

Washington, D.C. 20234

The Law Enforcement Standards

Standards Laboratory (LESL) was established at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in January 1971 by an interagency agreement with the National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (NILECJ), Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), U. S. Department of Justice, in accordance with Title 1, Section 402(b) of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, P.L. 90-351.

In accordance with priorities established by NILECJ, LESL (1) conducts state-of-the-art surveys; (2) performs laboratory testing and evaluation of commercially available equipment; (3) develops test methods; and (4) develops several series of documents including national voluntary equipment standards, user guidelines, and miscellaneous reports.

The standards developed by LESL are performance oriented insofar as possible. They are not consensus standards, but are subjected to extensive technical and editorial review within NBS as well as by other Government agencies, manufacturers, users and independent experts. The standards are given a final review by NILECJ and are then promulgated by them. They are widely distributed to law enforcement agencies and made available to others through the National Technical Information Service of the Depart. ment of Commerce and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service of LEAA.

Institute for Applied Technology, Standards Development Services Section, Law Enforcement Standards Laboratory,

Standards Information Services

Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology,

Office of ADP Standards Management

Office of Engineering Standards Services,

Institute for Applied Technology,

National Bureau of Standards

The Standards Development Services Section assists producers, distributors, users and consumers,

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As of this date, standards have been developed for: (1) the Ballistic Resistance of Police Body Armor; (2) Hearing Protectors for Use on Firing Ranges; (3) Magnetic Switches for Burglar Alarm Systems; (4) Mechanically Actuated Switches for Burglar Alarm Systems; (5) Walk-Through Metal Detectors for Use in Weapon Detection; and (6) Mobile Antennas. Many additional standards are under development in the areas of protective equipment, communications equipment, security systems, weapons, emergency equip. ment, investigative aids, vehicles and clothing.

While the great bulk of LESL's effort is in behalf of LEAA, some work is also done to develop standards for other Government agencies. A standard for Evidential Breath Alcohol Testers has been developed for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and a small continuing program has been established to develop additional standards and perform related tasks of interest to the Research Institute and to the Office of Alcohol Countermeasures of NHTSA.

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articles, reports, pamphlets, and handbooks on standardization.

Publications—NBS-SIS compiles computer-produced indexes designed to assist all who interested in information on standards. Among these Indexes are National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 329, An Index of U.S. Voluntary Engineering Standards issued in March 1971 listing titles of standards published through 1969, and Supplement No. 1, issued in December 1972, listing titles issued in 1970 and 1971. These two indexes together list the titles of more than 23,000 standards issued by over 380 U.S. private organizations. Supplement No. 2 is in preparation and, when published in mid-1974, will cover the years 1972-1973. NBS Special Publication 352, World Index of Plastics Standards appeared in December 1971. Technical Note 762, Tabulation of Voluntary Standards and Certification Programs for Consumer Products was issued in March 1973. NBS Special Publication 375, An Index of State Specifications and Standards appeared in September 1973 while NBS Special Publication 390, An Index of International Standards appeared in March 1974. Compilation has already begun on an index of foreign Englishlanguage standards. All of these publications are available from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20406.

Form of Requests-Requests for information may be made by personal visit, telephone (Area code 301: 921-2587), or a letter addressed to: Standards Information Services, Building 225, Room B-162, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. 20234.

Since NBS-SIS conducts its search by using key word indexes, all requests should be as specific as possible, and include all words and terms necessary to identify a standard, e.g. X-ray machines rather than medical electronic equipment.

A brochure describing the office and services, and lists of the organizations whose standards are represented in the collection, are available upon request to NBS-SIS.

Standards Information Services, Institute for Applied Technology,

National Bureau of Standards

The Standards Information Services Section of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS-SIS) maintains the largest reference collection of engineering and related standards, specifications, test methods, codes and recommended practices in the United States. Established in 1965 as the Standards Communication Center, NBS-SIS has expanded its original holdings of several thousand standards to an extensive reference collection of over 200,000 standards issued by U.S. trade, professional and technical associations, Federal and state governmental organizations, foreign national, and international and regional standardizing bodies.

Referral Services-- NBS-SIS serves primarily as a referral activity by identifying sources of standards, and directing inquirers to the respective standardsissuing organizations to obtain copies of standards. By means of computer-produced Key-Word-In-Context (KWIC) Indexes, NBS-SIS answers more than 4,000 inquiries each year.

The Standards Collection—The NBS-SIS reference collection, located in Room B151, Building 225 at the NBS site in Gaithersburg, Maryland about 25 miles northwest of Washington, D. C., is open to the public Monday through Friday from 8:30 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Of the 200,000 standards now housed in this collection, over 23,000 are industry and national standards issued by more than 400 U.S. technical societies, professional organizations and trade associations; 6.000 standards of 35 state purchasing offices; 8,500 standards and specifications of Federal civilian agencies; 163,000 foreign national standards of some 57 countries; and 3,000 standards of international and regional standardization groups. The resources of the collection also include over 100 technical reference books, directories, encyclopedias, guides and manuals; over 125 periodicals and newsletters; and many

Office of ADP Standards Management,
Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology,

National Bureau of Standards The Office of ADP Standards Management provides overall policy guidance, long range planning and detail management of the data processing standards mission of the National Bureau of Standards. This mission is carried out in accordance with the legislative authorities of Public Law 89-306, dated October 30, 1965 and Executive Order 11717, dated May 9, 1973.

The Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology (formerly the Center for Computer Sciences and Technology) was organized in November 1965.

The primary mission of the Institute is to provide agencies and the Administrator of General Services with scientific and technological advisory services relating to automatic data processing (ADP) and related systems, and to make appropriate recommendations to the Secretary of Commerce, who on behalf

being used and evaluated for eventual woluntary acceptance by the scientific, academic, and industrial community.

The program conducts an interlaboratory calibration effort with various activities involved in marine instrumentation, their development, testing, and calibration. It continuously evaluates the measurement performances of the participating laboratories and provides methods for reducing data variances. Also, it offers a mechanism to exchange measurement ideas, evaluate and promote acceptances of calibration procedures, techniques, and equipment and provide standard test specifications for inclusion to any marine instrument purchases.

of the President, establishes uniform Federal automatic data processing standards.

The Office of ADP Standards Management also monitors Federal participation on related voluntary industry standards organizations. Management direction is provided so that government participants are cognizant of overall government objectives and are therefore able to adequately represent government requirements in the development of voluntary standards.

Adherence to standards adopted as Federal ADP standards is through validation testing against fixed criteria. Tests are developed in accordance with the specifications of the standards and products are measured against these specifications.

Federal ADP standards are promulgated by NBS as Federal Information Processing Standards Publications (FIPS PUBS). FIPS PUBS are available by subject title from the Government Printing Office for a nominal charge. There are 28 FIPS PUBS of which 21 are mandatory standards, two are guidelines and four provide general information concerning the FIPS program. The List of Publications in the Federal Information Processing Standards Series (LP-58) provides a complete index and abstract of the current standards. The activities and committees in which the FIPS program is involved are described in FIPS PUB 12-1, FIPS Index.

The principal method used in implementing the FIPS is through the issuance of Federal Property Management Regulations by the General Services Administration. These regulations make the FIPS applicable to the procurement of ADP products and services.

Office of Telecommunications, U.S. Department of Commerce,

132 G Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20005

Marine Environmental Metrology, National Oceanographic Instrumentation Center,

National Ocean Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,

U.S. Department of Commerce,

Rockville, Maryland 20852

The Office of Telecommunications as authorized by Section 2(12) and (13), 15 U.S.C. (12) and (13) and by procedures of 15 C.F.R. (200) as applicable is active in standardization related to telecommunications. Operating under the authority of the National Bureau of Standards, units of the Office have been engaged in standardization for transmission of radio waves since about 1911. The Office of Telecommunications was established as a primary operating unit in 1970.

The principal activities of the Office are investigating conditions affecting the transmission of radio waves and compiling and distributing information regarding the transmission of radio waves. Standards are established by: cooperation with other govern. mental agencies and with private organizations; by invention and development of devices and testing methods to serve the needs of Government agencies, scientific institutions and industrial enterprises; and by providing scientific and technical advisory services to Government agencies.

The Office chairs the Standards Working Group of the Technical Subcommittee of the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee which provides standards required for managing government use of radio frequencies. The Office serves on the Federal Telecommunication Standards Committee of the National Communication System to develop telecommunication standards for the interoperability of government data communication systems and for computer-communication interfaces. The Office also works with other Federal agencies in the development of standards and standards policy for other areas of voice, data, and radio wave transmission and has under consideration projects for broadband (video, data, facsimile, and voice) networks.

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The Marine Environmental Metrology program at the National Oceanographic Instrumentation Center (NOIC) is active in providing specialized operational standards and techniques required to

assure that marine instruments give meaningful and quality data, traceable to recognized defining standards at the national and international levels. The program maintains a liaison with the National Bureau of Standards and other nationally known measurement experts and funds for their services when expertise is required in relationship to a primary level of measurement.

A large portion of the standards development is generated from the products of it's calibration and testing services to the scientific community. It involves the creation of calibration procedures, measurement techniques, and test methods as well as the in-house or contractural development of laboratory and field physical transfer standards. The program has developed 19 calibration procedures for oceanographic and marine meteorlogical instruments, avail. able through NOIC's Documentation Group, that are

CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY

COMMISSION,
Washington, D.C. 20207

The Consumer Product Safety Commission, an independent Federal regulatory agency, was officially activated on May 14, 1973, to implement the Consumer Product Safety Act., PL 92-573. The Commission's primary goal is to substantially reduce injuries associated with consumer products. The Act granted broad authority to issue and enforce safety standards for more than 10,000 consumer products. The administration of four acts previously handled by other agencies was transferred to the Commission; they include the Flammable Fabrics Act, the Federal Hazardous Substances Act, the Poison Prevention Packaging Act, and the Refrigerator Door Safety Act.

Under the requirements of the Consumer Product Safety Act, the Commission may adopt standards issued by qualified agencies or organizations, or issue standards independently. The Commission may ban hazardous substances presenting an unreasonable risk of injury. The development of standards by other agencies is encouraged and the Consumer Product Safety Commission participates in the development of international product safety standards. The Office of Standards Coordination and Appraisal serves as the focal point for standards development within the Consumer Product Safety Commission; the Bureau of Compliance is responsible for standards enforcement.

Product certification is specifically mentioned by the Act. Manufacturers or private labelers must issue certificates stating that their product meets a specified standard. The Commission may prescribe testing and labeling.

To date (August 1, 1973), the Commission has issued an amended Standard for the Flammability of Mattresses. Some proposed regulations currently under consideration include bicycles and baby cribs. Proposed and final standards issued by the Commission are published in the Federal Register upon approval. Final regulations will be published in Title 16, Chapter 2 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The Office of Standards Coordination and Appraisal may be contacted for a complete list of standards issued by the Consumer Product Safety Commission.

1916-1921 through the cooperative efforts of the War and Navy Departments via the Army-Navy Aeronautical Standards Board.

The Defense Materiel Specifications and Standards Board was established under the provisions of the revised DoD Directive 4120.3, dated 6 June 1973. The Standards Board is comprised of flag rank personnel, one engineering and one logistic member from the Office of the Secretary of Defense and corre. sponding members from each of the military departments. In addition, the Defense Supply Agency provides one logistic member. The chairman of the nine member Standards Board is appointed by the Assistant Secretary for Installations and Logistics with the concurrence of the Director, Defense Research and Engineering.

The Defense Standardization Program spans the range of materials, parts and equipments as well as the engineering practices and processes used in the development, test and evaluation, production and logistic support of the material used by the military services. The intent of the program is to control the proliferation of items and practices through the development and use of specifications, engineering standards, handbooks and engineering drawings; thereby achieving greater economy and effectiveness of resources through better reliability and maintainability and lower costs over the entire life cycle.

The Standards Board will be augmented by panels of experts from the military departments and DoD agencies to provide expertise necessary to cope with the engineering, scientific and industry related problems. The panels will have cognizance over the studies, plans and implementation of efforts devoted to the areas under the scope of their respective charters.

In addition to the 25,000 active military series specifications and more than 10,000 military standards listed in the Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards which is available from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, there are additional quantities of documents which have been retired from active use but are still available (at a fee) through our archival service. Current military specifications and standards are furnished without charge. The entire DoD Standardization Program represents the integration of actions accomplished by the commodity structure of the DoD components. The Standardization Directory, SD-1, which is available from the Naval Publications and Forms Center, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19120, lists the addresses and scopes of interest of the 68 offices in the Department of Defense to which various standards functions have been assigned.

It is DoD policy to cooperate with the standards organizations operating in the other Government departments and agencies as well as those in the private sector. There are procedures in the Defense Standardization Manual for adopting industry standards so as to avoid the preparation of duplicative or overlapping military documents. The DoD Index of

DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Installations and Logistics,

Pentagon,
Washington, D.C. 20301

The Defense Standardization Program under the aegis of the Office of the Secretary of Defense is managed by the Defense Materiel Specifications and Standards Board.

The Defense Standardization Program was established in 1953 under the authority of Title 10, U.S. Code, Sections 2451-2456. The statute has been implemented by DOD Directive 4120.3 and the associated DoD Standardization Manual 4120.3-M providing policies, procedures and instructions for direct use by the military departments and DoD agencies. The current program is a continuation of work started in

Specifications and Standards lists those industry documents which have been adopted.

The Department of Defense has the largest and most comprehensive standardization program in the world-governmental or nongovernmental. The specifications and standards developed by the program are widely used in both domestic and international standards. In fact, many of its specifications and standards constitute the standard to which industry builds for commercial purposes. The procedures of the program have been widely copied by individual industrial firms and industry standardizing organizations as the basis for their own standardization programs.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY,

401 M Street SW., Washington, D.C. 20460

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created to permit coordinated and effective governmental action to assure protection of the environment by the systematic abatement and control of pollution through proper integration of a variety of research, monitoring, standards-setting, and enforcement activi. ties. Legislative authority for establishing standards is found in the Clean Air Act, as amended; the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended; the Refuse Act; the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended; and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended. Title 40 CFR provides the procedures for implementing this legislative authority.

EPA's Offices of Air and Water Programs and Hazardous Materials Control exercise primary responsibility for developing air and water quality standards, criteria of solid waste standards, noise emission, and radiation protection standards. Before an environmental standard is finalized, however, the heads of state and local governments are consulted through the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations and public comment is solicited. In most cases, once a standard is set, states and other jurisdictions are required to submit by a certain date implementation plans for meeting these standards or face the alternative of having EPA write and impose its own plan. Both the standards and resulting implementation plans are published by EPA in the Federal Register.

transmission of energy by radio which originates and/or is received within the United States. (47 US C 152(a)). “Transmission of energy by radio” or "radio transmission of energy” includes both such transmission and all instrumentalities, facilities and services incidental to such transmission. 47 US C 153 (d)).

Under the authority of the Communications Act, the Commission has enacted mandatory rules and regulations in the public interest. Among those rules and regulations are technical performance standards for certain radio equipment and operations. In addition to these mandatory technical standards, the radio communications industry also works diligently to adopt voluntary technical standards.

The industry group, known as the Electronic Industries Association (EIA), sponsors the work of many technical committees. The standards adopted by EIA are generally recognized by consensus; and manufacturers of radio transmitting equipment generally comply with the standards. Often these voluntary standards, after appropriate procedures, form the basis for mandatory rules adopted by the Federal Communications Commission.

The technical committees of EIA maintain close liaison with the Office of the Chief Engineer of the Federal Communications Commission. Technical personnel of the Commission are often invited to serve on various groups within the industry organization. The Federal Communications Commission has encouraged this kind of industry-government coopera. tion so that voluntary standards adopted by the industry will harmonize with Commission rules and policies.

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a domestic association comprised of EIA and similar associations for other industries. ANSI represents United States industries in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). ANSI and its foreign industry counterparts meet and negotiate within the IEC on international voluntary standards. The standards proposed by ANSI in these negotia. tions are those recommended by one or more of its member organizations. Any agreements reached within the IEC are private and do not have treaty status, even though some of ANSI's foreign counterparts may be government controlled. From the international standpoint, thus, these industry standards are still voluntary even though a nation may make them mandatory within its own jurisdiction.

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION,

Office of Chief Engineer,

1919 M Street, Washington, D.C. 20554

GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION,

Federal Supply Service, Office of Standards and Quality Control,

18th and F Streets, Washington, D.C. 20406

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The General Services Administration which was created by the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (63 Stat. 377) as amended, provides for the Government an economical and efficient

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