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Director, Bureau of Purchases and Services, Department of Administration,

1 West Wilson Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53702

The division started a standardization program in the fall of 1971. Items standardized at this date are: office furniture, typewriters, duplicating paper, janitorial supplies, letterheads, envelopes, and miscellaneous forms. Standardized items are kept on inventory at the Central Services warehouse. The agencies within the State of Wyoming requisition the standardized merchandise from the office of Purchasing and Property Control. PPC assigns a stock room number to the requisition and fills the order. The order is delivered to the agency by our delivery service.

PPC is forming a standardized guide on adding machines and electronic calculators. The program is in cooperation with administrators of the various agencies.

PPC also has a policy and procedures manual to assist in promoting the items listed as standard.

4. Federal Government


Fourteenth Street and
Independence Avenue SW.,
Washington, D.C. 20250

The State Bureau of Purchases and Services, Wisconsin Department of Administration, is responsible for standardization in public purchasing and public printing for the State. The principal activity is vested in the Standards and Value Analysis Unit, State Purchasing Section, a unit which has been formally in existence since 1962, but traces its genesis to the passage of the State central purchasing law in 1929. The supervisor and staff chair standing and ad hoc standards committees comprised of using agency representatives. Nearly half (48 percent) of the State's approximate $120 million purchases for fiscal 1972-73 were made under the standards program. The basic listing of standardization is the Index of Scheduled Procurement Operational Bulletins. Promotion of the use of standards is found in s. 16.72 (2), Wis. Stats. The State Printing Section also has a standards program following the purchasing format but somewhat limited by the inherent variables of printing.

The Wisconsin State Purchasing Standards and Value Analysis Unit, under the State Bureau of Purchases and Services, has the responsibility of reducing the variety of materials, equipment, supplies and con. tractual services purchased and for the selection of the quality level most consistent with State agency needs on a statewide basis. Expressing these requirements in written specifications and standards which are acceptable to the agencies and to the market in which they must be procured, provides basic combinations for centralized large volume contracting. Standards committees are formed and convened to assist in this process. The separate committees are composed of State purchasing and agency personnel who are knowledgeable in the commodity or service being standardized. The committees are advisory to State purchasing and meet as often as is necessary to keep standardized specifications and policies current. In the selection and development of standard specifications consideration is given for the maximum availability and competition of that commodity or service in the market place. Whenever possible, specifications recog. nized by industry and national standards are adopted for State use.

Office of Automated Data Systems, Departmental Information Processing Standards,

Rural Electrification Administration,

Agricultural Marketing Service,
Packers and Stockyards Administration,

Scales and Weighing Branch,
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

Departmental Information Processing Standards,

Office of Automated Data Systems,
U.S. Department of Agriculture

The Office of Automated Data Systems (OADS) is responsible for establishing and managing a departmental computer network. The office also manages the total ADP resources of the Department. Standards relating to the management and operation of all departmental ADP activities are administered by OADS through the Departmental Information Process. ing Standards (DIPS) Program. This standardization activity, formally initiated in September, 1972, will coordinate development, implementation and maintenance of ADP, data and data communications related standards.

The DIPS will be promulgated in a DIPS Manual. The manual will include standards and informational material to support operations of the computer network and other ADP activities. Standards relating to computer center management, project management, hardware, software, applications development, data and security of computer resources are contained in the DIPS Manual. Applicable Federal and external standards are also incorporated in the departmental standards. Procedures, guidelines and other informational material which implement the standards will be assembled in a second manual.

ADP Systems Division of OADS has primary responsibility for the DIPS Program. In the develop


Purchasing Administrator, Purchasing and Property Control Division, Department of Administration and

Fiscal Control,
Cheyenne, Wyoming 82002

The Purchasing and Property Control (PPC) Division of the State of Wyoming is the procurement office for the necessary purchase of merchandise. This divi. sion also sets standards for equipment and supplies.

ment of standards, USDA agency participation is sought to ensure that the standards satisfy all agency requirements to the maximum extent possible. Task groups and committees representing Department agencies are available to assist in the development and review of proposed standards.

The objectives of the DIPS Program are to create, implement and maintain ADP, data and data communications standards, guidelines and procedures needed by agencies of the Department and departmental computer network as a basis for managerial control; improve hardware and software systems, enhance the effectiveness of application development and provide a basis for measurement of information processing performance with the Department.

Rural Electrification Administration,

U.S. Department of Agriculture

ent legislative authority for standardization work is provided by the U.S. Cotton Standards Act, 1923; The Tobacco Inspection Act, 1935; The Naval Stores Act, 1923; United States Grain Standards Act, 1916, revised 1968; and the Agricultural Marketing Act, 1946. The standards are contained in Code of Federal Regula. tions 7, parts 0 to 209. The first USDA grade standards

0 were those established for cotton in 1909, under a provision of the USDA appropriation act for 1908-9.

The purpose of the standards is to identify the degrees of quality in food and farm products, and thereby aid in marketing by establishing the usability or value of these products.

In general, the standards cover the fresh or raw agricultural products, such as wheat, and not products such as flour into which the raw product may be processed. Exceptions are the grade standards established for canned, frozen, and dried fruits and vegetables, butter, certain types of cheese, and a few other processed products such as jams and peanut butter. Grade standards are developed or revised on request or as needed, in accordance with changes in production, processing, or marketing practices and the public is invited to comment on proposed standards or revi. sions. Use of the grade standards, for the most part, is voluntary.

Grading, inspection, or classing services, to certify the quality of products according to the U.S. grade standards, are provided by USDA to producers, packers, wholesalers or others, on request, and usually for a fee to cover the cost of the service. Under the SmithDoxey Act, classing of cotton by grade is provided free to producers who request it. Under the U.S. Grain Standards Act, grain exported by grade must be officially inspected and a fee is charged for this inspection. The Tobacco Inspection Act provides for free and mandatory inspection of tobacco based on official grades, after a referendum in which two-thirds of the growers supplying an auction market vote approval. Tobacco may also be inspected on a voluntary, fee-forservice basis.

There are current U.S. grade standards for 389 food and farm products, listed in Agriculture Handbook No. 341, USDA Standards for Food and Farm Products, April 1973. A standardization committee, made up of standardization specialists from each of the commodity divisions meets quarterly to discuss common prob. lems and methods of handling new projects. One current project involves incorporating more accurate statistical sampling methods into the standards.

Use of the standards is promoted through individual and group meetings with members of the various agricultural industries, marketing and food procurement agencies, consumer and educational groups, and through publications and other news media.

The Rural Electrification Administration (REA) is active in the preparation of engineering standards and specifications for materials and equipment and for the design and construction of electric and telephone facilities to serve rural areas. The electric standards include overhead and underground distribution lines, overhead transmission lines, substations and generating plants. The telephone standards include overhead and underground telephone lines, station equipment and central office equipment.

Standards and specifications of national standardizing groups are utilized to the maximum practicable extent. Where they are not adequate or where they do not exist, REA prepares standards and specifications to be used by its borrowers which construct and operate rural electric and telephone systems. Standards and specifications are also prepared where it appears that such specifications and standards will result in reduced costs, improved materials and equipment, or the more effective use of engineering services. Standards and guides are also prepared which relate to the management and operation of rural electric and tele. phone systems.

REA standards are utilized by approximately 1,000 rural electric systems and 800 rural telephone systems in 47 states to which loan funds have been made avail. able. The standards are also utilized by other organizations in this country and abroad.

Information on REA standards and copies of most standards are available upon request to the Rural Electrification Administration, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 20250. Several REA publications which include specifications, standard construction drawings and contract forms are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govern. ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402.


Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

U.S. grade standards for food and farm products are developed by standardization staffs within the seven commodity divisions of the Agricultural Marketing Service, with the assistance of the statistical staff. Pres.

Packers and Stockyards Administration,

Scales and Weighing Branch,

U.S. Department of Agriculture The Packers and Stockyards Administration has jurisdiction over livestock scales, monorail scales, and live poultry scales in commerce. Such scales are generally located at public stockyards, meat packing plants, or poultry processing plants subject to the provisions of the Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921, as amended and are required by regulation to be tested at least semiannually according to prescribed procedures. Codes of specifications, tolerances, other tech. nical requirements, and testing procedures for such scales have been formally adopted through publication in the Federal Register (9 CFR 201.71), et seq. These codes correspond with minor exceptions to National Bureau of Standards Handbook 41, Fourth Edition, Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Commercial Weighing and Measur. ing Devices, as adopted by the National Conference on Weights and Measures. When necessary, due to action by the National Conference, these codes are amended or new codes promulgated to formity of interpretation and enforcement.

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for pretesting animals for export and provides inspection of the animals at specific ocean, air, and border ports. Standards are established for resting export animals in proper facilities before loading and for proper accommodations on transport vessels. Import standards are set for inspection and quarantine of animals and poultry to be brought into the U.S. and for permits to accompany animals and animal semen imported from specified countries. The staff provides inspection of aircraft and other conveyances for import animals. They establish standards for unloading, cleaning, and disinfecting conveyances and containers for import animals; and they maintain sanitary control of animal by-products, hay and straw.

Enforcement of standards: Export standards are enforced at specified ports of export. Import standards are enforced at U.S. Import Centers at Clifton, New Jersey, Miami, Florida, and Honolulu, Hawaii.

Specific standards requirements for the export and import of animals and animal products are available upon request from the Import-Export Staff.

Certification activities: Animals intended for export to a foreign country must be accompanied by a certifi. cate of health issued by an accredited veterinarian certifying that the animals have been inspected and tested according to established standards. Animals offered for importation must be accompanied by a certificate, issued by a veterinary officer of the country of origin, specifying that the animals meet established standards. Special certification requirements apply to dogs for handling livestock, animals and animal semen from Canada, Mexico, Central America and the West Indies.

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS),

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service was established to implement several Acts that include the following areas of standards: Import-Export of Animals and Animal Products, Animal Welfare, Veterinary Biologics, and Meat and Poultry Inspection. Each of the following is the responsible regulatory group for the aforementioned.

Import-Export Staff, Veterinary Services, APHIS-USDA,

820-A, Federal Center Building,

Hyattsville, Maryland 20782

Legislative authority: (1) 21 USC 113, May 21, 1884, an act to prevent the exportation of diseased cattle. (2) 21 USC 101-07, August 30, 1890, an act to suspend importation of livestock for a limited time when necessary to protect animals in the U. S. from contagious diseases and to set up quarantine of imported animals when necessary; also to provide for inspection of animals imported and those intended for export. (3) 46 USC 466a, March 3, 1891, an act specifying that all vessels transporting animals to foreign countries provide humane accommodations with specific reference to space, ventilation, pens, food and water supplies. (4) 21 USC 112, 113, 120, 121 February 2, 1903, an act authorizing regulation of exportation and transportation of livestock from any place in the U.S. where communicable livestock diseases exist to any other part of the U.S. or to foreign countries; and to take proper measures to prevent the introduction into the U.S. of communicable diseases of animals.

Regulatory reference: 9 CFR, I-D, Parts 91-97, Exportation and Importation of Animals (Including Poultry) and Animal Products.

Effective date: Original authority for these standards was effective in 1884. Since that time, additional statutes, regulations, and standards have been developed as deemed necessary by the Congress and by the Department.

Scope of Program: The staff establishes standards

Animal Care Staff, Veterinary Services, APHIS-USDA,

701-A, Federal Center Building,

Hyattsville, Maryland 20782. Legislative Authority: Public Law 89-544 amended by P.L. 91-579, 7 USC 2131 et seq., the Animal Wel. fare Act of 1970.

Regulatory reference: 9 CFR, I-A Parts 1, 2, and 3, Animals and Animal Products; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA; Animal Welfare.

Effective dates: Under P.L. 89-514, regulations and standards became effective February 24, 1967. Under P.L. 91-579, additional regulations and standards became effective December 24, 1971.

Scope of program: Regulations and standards under the Animal Welfare Act regulate licensed animal dealers, licensed or registered animal exhibitors, and regis. tered research institutions. Animals covered by regulations and standards are: dogs, cats, nonhuman primates, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, and other warmblooded animals that have been designated by the Secretary of Agriculture. Currently excepted from regulations and standards are: birds, horses, ponies, farm animals, rats and mice, fish and aquatic animals, and all other coldblooded animals. Responsibility as established by the Act is “To regulate the transportation, purchase, sale, housing, care, handling and treat. ment of such animals by persons or organizations engaged in using them for research or experimental

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purposes or for exhibition purposes or holding them for sale as pets or in transporting, buying, or selling them for such

purpose Separate divisions or subparts of the standards have been established for the following groups of animals: (a) dogs and cats; (b) guinea pigs and hamsters; (c) rabbits; (d) nonhuman primates; and (e) other warmblooded animals designated by the Secretary of Agriculture. Each subpart of the standard covers facilities, general; facilities, indoor; facilities, outdoor; primary enclosures; feeding; watering; sanitation; employees; separation of specific types of animals; veterinary care; handling; vehicles and primary enclosures used to transport animals; food and water requirements in transit; care in transit.

Enforcement: The Act, regulations, and standards are enforced by a field force of veterinarians covering the entire United States, divided into 5 regions and 18 area offices, coordinated by the Animal Welfare Staff as listed in Item 2.

Certification activities: The Animal Welfare Act directs the Department of Agriculture to establish minimum standards for all regulated animals covering the specified aspects of humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation. The Act specifies that: “In promulgating and enforcing standards ... the Secretary is authorized and directed to consult experts, including outside consultants where indicated.” The Act also specifies that: “The Secretary shall consult and cooperate with other Federal ... instrumentalities concerned with the welfare of animals used for research, experimentation or exhibition when establishing standards ..."

These directives on establishing minimum standards are carried out by convening separate work conferences with representatives of the scientific community, animal welfare groups, animal dealers, animal exhibi. tors, and Government officials.

10 billion doses annually-mostly vaccines used by veterinarians and livestock and poultry producers to immunize against diseases.

Currently about 70 standard requirements are in effect for producing and testing 208 generic products licensed for production under the Act. A complete list of standards is available from the Biologics Staff. There are six new standard requirements under consideration at this time. Information about these proposals may also be obtained by writing to the Biologics Stafí.

Enforcement of standards: The Act, regulations, and standards are enforced by a field force of veteri. narians covering the entire United States, divided into 5 regions and 18 area officers. Enforcement is coordinated by Veterinary Services headquarters. Inspectors visit plants to see that production standards are fol. lowed and selective check tests are conducted on biologics at the APHIS laboratory, Ames, Iowa.

Certification activities: The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act directs the Department of Agriculture to license man. ufacturers and to set regulations affecting the manufacture of any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product intended for use in the treatment of domestic animals to ensure that the materials are not worthless, contami. nated, dangerous, or harmful. The Department maintains laboratories at Ames, Iowa, to evaluate current methods of testing the qualities of these materials and to develop new test methods. Since relatively few manufacturers are involved, they can be consulted individually to plan and review changes in standards.

Biologics Staff, Veterinary Services, APHIS-USDA,

828-A, Federal Center Building,

Hyattsville, Maryland 20782. Legislative authority: 37 Stat. 832-833, 21 USC 151. 158, the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act, passed by the Congress March 4, 1913.

Regulatory reference: 9 CFR, I-E, Parts 101-117, 122 and 123, Animals and Animal Products; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, and Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products; Organisms and Vectors.

Effective date: The Act was effective July 1, 1913; individual standards have been issued and revised continually since that time.

Scope of program: Regulations and standards under the Act regulate licensed manufacturers engaged in interstate sale of veterinary biologics and inspectors who bring such products into the United States under permit. The purpose of the activity is to make sure biological products used in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of animal diseases meet Department standards for purity, safety, potency, and efficacy. Currently, 41 licensees and 2 importers sell approximately

Meat and Poultry Inspection Staff, APHIS,

316-E, Administration Building, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250

Legislative authority: (1) 21 USC 71-96, March 4, 1907, The Meat Inspection Act, as amended in 1967, to authorize the examination of animals, meat, meat-food products, used in interstate or foreign commerce, and inspection of slaughter and packing establishments. (2) 21 USC 451-469, August 28, 1957, The Poultry Products Inspection Act, as amended in 1968, to provide for the compulsory inspection of poultry and poultry products for wholesomeness at processing plants.

Regulatory reference: 9 CFR, III-A and C, Parts 301-335, and 381, Mandatory Meat Inspection and Mandatory Poultry Products Inspection.

Effective date: The two statutes providing legislative authority were effective in 1907 and 1957, respectively. Individual standards and regulations have been issued continually since that time.

Scope of program: Standards have been developed to cover the ingredients, methods of processing, and labeling of meat and poultry food products; the mate. rials and design of plant facilities and equipment; sanitary practices; the disposition of diseased animals; and inspection methods.

Committees: Standards are developed by appropri. ate staffs within the program in consultation with the National Meat and Poultry Inspection Advisory Com. mittee, meeting quarterly in Washington, D.C.


Washington, D.C. 20230

Current standards are contained in the appropriate sections of the Code of Federal Regulations.

Enforcement: Standards are enforced by APHIS inspectors in some 6.000 plants in the U.S. and in 1,059 certified plants in foreign countries.

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology, Office of Product Standards,

Maritime Administration,

National Bureau of Standards, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,

Office of Telecommunications



Washington, D.C. 20545

Office of Product Standards,
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Science

and Technology,
U.S. Department of Commerce

Two organizations within the AEC have major responsibilities in the administration of standardization activities. These organizations are the Directorate of Regulatory Standards and the Division of Reactor Research and Development.

The Directorate of Regulatory Standards develops and issues guides, regulations, criteria and codes for: the design, siting, construction and operation of nuclear facilities; the production, transportation, protection and disposition of nuclear materials and by-products; and health and environmentally-related aspects of the above activities.

The Directorate coordinates its activity with its sister organizations under the Director of Regulation to develop standards which will ensure timely licensing of nuclear facilities as well as their safe operation. In promulgating its standards, the Directorate also works closely with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and other standards groups.

At its present rate of production, the Directorate issues almost 150 standards per year. These may be found in: 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 20, 21, 30, 31, 32, 40, 50, 55, 70, 71, 73 and 100; 14 CFR Part 103; 46 CFR Part 146; and 49 CFR Parts 170-179 and 397.

The Division of Reactor Research and Development formerly Reactor Development and Technology (RDT), through its contractor organizations, develops and publishes RDT Standards for application to priority AEC reactor development programs. These standardy are made available to the nuclear industry and can be used as a basis for developing industry-wide standards for commercial nuclear applications.

The RDT standards office at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) publishes a bimonthly Index of RDT Standards. The index and copies of standards are available from ORNL.

Standards include requirements for material, process, component, instrumentation and quality assurance for application to liquid metal fast breeder reactors and light water reactors. Published standards number 279 and over 200 are in preparation.

The Office of Product Standards (OPS) was established by directive of the Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology on May 24, 1967, under the name of Office of Standards Review (subsequently, it became the Office of Standards Policy), as a constituent operating unit of the Department of Commerce.

OPS exists to strengthen the ability of the Department to contribute to the solution of national policy issues concerning the types of industrial or consumer product standards to be established; the responsibilities of the various agencies of the Federal Government in developing or aiding in the development of standards; the forms of participation in standards-setting activities by Government, industry, the scientific community, and the general public; the means of participation by the United States in international standards activities; the legal, economic, and other aspects of assuring adherence to or compliance with standards; and other problems relating to the development and use of standards.

OPS provides staff assistance to the Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology in the formulation of policies dealing with standards activities, and the coordination of Commerce standards programs and policies with those of other Federal departments and agencies, trade and professional associations, and individuals. This includes participation by the U.S. Government in the activities of international organizations or conferences concerned with the formulation or adoption of international standards and cooperation with the Executive Office of the President and with other Federal agencies to assure that their interests, and the interests of groups for which they are responsible, are given proper consideration.

Office of Ship Construction,

Division of Ship Design, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce,

Washington, D.C. 20235

The Standard Specifications for Merchant Ship Construction have been prepared by the technical staff, naval architects and marine engineers, of the Office of Ship Construction in the Maritime Administration for the purpose of providing guidance to the maritime industry in the preparation of detail ship specifications

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